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FOE 1864. 


"men consume too much food and too little pure air; 
they take too much medicine and too litlle exercise."-— ed. 

"I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except con- 
genital, or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or .animalism,, 
and will degrade the individual in the estimation of the good, as much as drunken- 
ness now does." — Ibid. 


W. W. HALL, M. D., 




Will contain all the " Health Tracts" published within the last 
five years, with others amounting in all to nearly three hundred. 
January will begin with number one ; twenty or more of the tracts 
will be published each month, with several pages of other reading 
pertaining to health and disease, notices, &c, &c, so that the volume 
for 1865 will contain more reading matter than any of its predeces- 
sors, and will be by far the most practically useful of any yet pub- 
lished. The regular spbscription price is one dollar and a half a 
year. Any person, up to December 1st, who will send five dollars 
at one time, will be entitled to four subscriptions ; ten dol- 
lars will entitle to nine subscriptions. For twenty dollars sent at 
one time, twenty numbers will be sent to one address for one year. 
" Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases :" " Consumption :" " Health 
and Disease :" " Sleep," or either of the bound vols, .of Hall's Journal 
of Health, will be sold, or sent post paid for $1,50. Any single 
number of any previous vol. will be sold or sent post paid for 12 cts. 
Any person desiring, an answer to any letter in reference to their 
health, must send five dollars, and a post paid envelope with their 
name, and post office address superscribed. Office hours from 10 to 
2 daily with great certainty, and often #t other times, at No 12 Union 
Square, east side, opposite the monument, New York city. 

The entire edition, in all its forms, of " Soldier Health," hav- 
ing been bought up by the Christian Commission, it will be repub- 
lished in the November number, with a view to supplying the new 
army going to the war through our subscribers, whose friends oi 
kindred are leaving for the front; To subscribers who- renew their 
subscriptions, this Soldier's number of the Journal, will be furnished 
at seven cents each ; if ordered at the time of subscribing for 1865; 
or ten dollars a hundred at other times : and to all others, twelve 
cents each, post paid ; or twenty cents for two copies post paid. 

Subscriptions to Hall's Journal of Health begin with January and 
end with Dt^mber of each year, hence the Journal will cease to be 
sent after December to present subscribers who do not expressly 
order it to be continued. Those who do not want it any longer 
need not write at all. W. W. HALL, 

October 1st, 1864: No. 12 Union Square, New- York City: 




VOL. XI, 1864. 


Apoplexy, 67 

Admonishing, 76 

Agricultural colleges, 90 

Asthma, 139 

Biliousness, 231, 20 

Bread, 37, 45 

Bronchitis, 125 

Business success, 146 

" Betiring from, 156 

Consumption, 25 

" Climate for, 31 

" its beginnings, 192 

Corn Bread, 37 

Children corrected, 39 

- " Ingratitude of, 78 

" of the Rich, 171 

• " Dirty,....:.., 202 

Convenient knowledge, 40 

Charms, 42 

Cell development, 137 

Croup 139 

Christianity Joyous 160 

Checking Perspiration, 163 

Colds how taken, 163 

Cooking Meats, '. 164 

" Economical, 165 

Cough Hacking, 192 

Cattle Feeding, ; 198 

Central Park, 207 

Cholera, 229 

Deranged, 38 

Death, 58 

Drowning, 82 

Dress, 77, 118 

Drinks, Invalid 140 


Dodge's Tincture, 226 

Diarrhoea, 228 

Dysentery, 230 

Entering a Boom, 79 

Eating, 19, 43, 87, 179, 180 

Economy a Duty, 103 

Flies Destroyed, 18 

Frenzy, 56 

Fidelity, 60 

Flowers in Winter, 80 

Families Saved, .' .111 

Food and Health, 114 

" Value of, 181 

" Digestibility, : 185 

" Nutritiousness, 186 

" Elements, 200 

Feet, Fetid, 138 

Fortunes Made, 197 

Fuel Saved, 165 

" Selection of, 201 

Glue Liquid, 20 

Growing Old, 79 

Great Men's Sufferings, 233 

Health and Music, 1 

Head Ache, 19 

How to rise, 63 

Household Knowledge, 89 

Happiest Persons, 109 

Hunger, 184 

Hacking Cough, 192 

Horse Rations, 199 

Health and Gold, 237 

Husband, the Kind, 240 

Home, a Pleasant, 248 




In the Mind, 41 

Inheritances, 115 

Imprisonment, 134 

Ice, its uses, 165 

Investments, Permanent, 239 

Kindness Rewarded, 36 

Liquid Glue, 20 

Life Uncertain^ 81 

Liquid Measures, ' 140 

Living Beyond Means, 175 

Lice in Cattle and Hair, 226 

Loose Bowels, 228 

Music and Health, 1 

Mind and Body, , 44 

" In the, 41 

" Best of, 83 

Marriage, 249, 71 

Mother, 61, 73 

Melodies, 168 

Mitchell the Astronomer, 241 

Milton's Habits, 246 

Never, 69 

Nepevthe, 113 

Over Eatiner, 19 

Open Eire Places, 236, 141 

Old Man's Story, . . . 50 

Paste, .. 20 

Parental Corrections, . ." 47 

Philosophy, ' * 75 

Prejudice, 76 

Piano Forte, 143 

Potatoes, 181 

Perseverance, Indomitable, 241 

Recuperation, 32 

Resurrection Flower, 80 

Restless Nights, 116 

Sick Head Ache, 19 

Skating, 24 

School Girls, 35 


Stomach, 88 

Sunshine, 4 98 

Safety of Families, Ill 

Sleeplessness .195, 116 

Starvation, 133 

Summer Recreations, 149 

'' Excursions, 162 

Strange People, 153 

Salt^ Rheum, 203 

Soldier Health, . ... 211 

Sabbath Observance, 225 

Soldiers, All, . . . .' 227 

School of Misses Bucknall, 226 

Teachers, Harsh, 49 

Tables, Valuable, 72 

Time, its Value, 81 

Tonsil Cutting, 137 

Travelling Hints, 166 

Tomatoes, .192 

Thirsting to Death, 194 

White Wash, 19 

Weather and Wealth, 70 

Wedding, First, 71 

War, Philosophy of 93 

Wakefulness, 116, 195 

Worth Knowing 201 

Warmth and Strength, 202 

Washington 247 


Poets and Music,\ 1 

Anvil Strike, 14 

Birds in May, 9 

Boy that Died,- 117 

Darkness and Light, It 

Going Alone, 16 

Heaven, 11 

Milton's Blindness, 15 

Neighbor, •. 14 

Over the River, 10 

Skeleton, 12 

School Boy Days, 13 

The Rest, 117 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XI.] JANUARY, 1864. [No. 1. 


■ Many persons, when hungry, are so " ugly " and irritable, 
that they remind us of a parcel of starving pigs called up to 
the slop-trough of a farmer's kitchen ; they will grunt and push 
and squeal and bite one another with surprising vigor, until 
they get to eating fairly, when there is a sudden and all-per- 
vading silence, with scarcely any evidence of life, except the 
wagging of their tails, in token of profound satisfaction with 
themselves and all the world ; when perfectly rilled, they retire 
in dignified silence, and take their siesta on the sunny side of 
some fence or wall, in the most benignant humor imaginable. 
Children who are hungry, often come to the table in the 
same mood ; and discreditable as the announcement may seem, 
many parents, not unpossessed of some excellent traits of 
character, exhibit, on their entrance into the dining-room, such 
a fretful and complaining nature, that any inquiry, however 
kind, courteous, or conciliating, is almost sure to be met with 
an insulting silence, an impatient reply, or a downright boorish 
rejoinder, showing very conclusively, that in temper, in dispo- 
sition, and nature, they are not much above " the brutes which 
perish." Many a notable affectionate and loving-hearted wife, 
after exercising all her ingenuity in preparing an inviting meal 
for her husband, often waits patiently, and yet vainly, for some 
expression which recognizes her fidelity to household duties ; 
others more unfortunate still, have no reward but querulous- 

2 hall's jouenal of health. 

ness and ungracious fault-finding. When the meal is over, 
these "monster" husbands return to their "right mind," and 
are every whit as gracious and good-natured as anyother pigs. 

There are some who are subject at periods to an ugliness of 
disposition, which excites a conjecture that possibly they may 
be "possessed of a devil/' sometimes two or three or more — 
transiently, at least ; others there are, beyond all question, who 
have always had that companionship ; and forty thousand woes 
be to the unfortunate individual who has such a yoke-fellow — 
the devil of habitual ill-nature, beginning with the early morning, 
ceasing only with the exhaustion which gives sleep. 

There was known to be a cure for the acute form of this 
malady, three thousand years ago, for it was said of a certain 
king, that he was subject to these "spells" of devilishness ; 
and that on one occasion, the evil spirit left him, and he " was* 
well," as soon as the skillful and handsome son of Jesse took 
down his harp and swept its strings with the fingers of an 
amateur. "Whether there was an accompaniment of " thoughts 
that breathe and words that burn," is not certainly known, but 
as David has written some of the sweetest, and some of the 
sublimest poetry which has fallen from the pen of mortals, it 
is not impossible that he sang when he played ; and the result 
certainly was, that whether it was music or recitation, or both, 
the evil spirit was put to flight, and the royal patient was pro- 
nounced "well," without the necessity of a strait-jacket, pills, 
castor-oil, or chloroform. 

It is the fashion of the times, however, to take it for granted, 
that this evil spirit, whose origin is from below, the spirit of 
fretfulness, of dissatisfaction, of incessant fault-finding, and 
chronic ill-nature, as exhibited in domestic life, can by no pos- 
sibility exist on the diviner side of the house ; but, as a matter 
of course, can only be found in the lords of creation ; hence, or 
for other reasons, every mother in the land is at more pains, 
and has more solicitude for her daughters' musical training, 
than for any thing else, as if it were to be expected, as a matter 
of course, that all husbands had to be exorcised. And it is a 
fact, that if any man had forty thousand Beelzebubs tearing 
round within him, making a very Pandemonium in the house- 


hold, every individual one would scamper off with the rapidity 
attributed in olden time to a shot placed in particular circum- 
stances on a shovel, the very instant that Beauty's voice swelled 
the notes, and tapered fingers swept the octaves. 

"While, therefore, it is philosophical to have our daughters 
learn music, it might be well to remember that "spirits differ." 
Some men have no ear for music ; have no music in their souls, 
while all have more or less of human nature ; more or less of 
the leaven of ill-temper, of impatience and wrathfulness, which 
is not amenable to the symphony of sweet sounds, but which is 
softened down to the lovingness of a baby's cooing at the ex- 
hibition of a little common-sense; of tidiness of person; of 
worldly prudence; of domestic management and household 
handiness on the part of the wife. No man possessed of any 
force of character can bear with equanimity the daily observa- 
tion of the fact, that what he brings into the house for the com- 
fort and sustenance of his family is not taken care of, is de- 
stroyed by unprincipled servants, or used with a criminal lav- 
ishness which benefits nobody, and yet is an hourly injury to 
him, inasmuch as the fruit of his labor and his care is ruinously 

The demon of deep dissatisfaction will take possession of the 
man who has any respect for himself, his family, and his social 
position, when he begins to find out that his wife "has no taste 
for housekeeping ;" that this branch of domestic duty is left en- 
tirely to the servants, and, as a consequence, the carpets are 
moth-eaten the first summer ; the costly furniture in six months 
looks as if it had been in use a dozen years ; the rosewood is 
"nicked;" the sienite marble is stained with all the colors not 
belonging to it; the costliest velvets and tapestries are irreme- 
diably greased ; while the walls are scratched and match-marked, 
in every possible direction. . 

It can not be a just matter of surprise, that a man should 
become possessed of an evil spirit, when he finds that as often 
as he presents his wife with a charming " hat," with a splendid 
"silk," with a magnificent set of furs, he is doomed in less 
than a week to find the "love of a bonnet" lying about, first 
on a bed, next on a center-table, next hitched on to the hat- 

rack in the hall, as if it were a mere " hack," to be put on only 
when it was like to rain, or when going out to make " next 
door " a neighborly visit after nightfall ; or if the costly silk, 
after the first wearing, has been hastily dumped down on the 
floor, or hurriedly crammed into a drawer, to be taken out with 
a hundred thousand unsightly creases; or if the diamond 
breastpin is broken, or the bracelet-guard lost, or a diamond is 
missing from the finger-ring after the first wearing. Not a less 
powerful means of u bringing up " an evil spirit into a man, is the 
finding his house all topsy-turvy when he comes home after the 
business of the day ; the children crying, the servants " in a 
stew," while the wife is in a humor so ungracious, that the 
moment her husband enters the door, she begins with the volu- 
bility of a dozen ordinary women, to pour out one complaint 
after another, about every servant and every child ; about the 
butcher and the baker and the milkman, ending with an intima- 
tion of a very unmistakable character : " It's your fault." And 
if, after all this, the five- o'clock dinner is placed on the table at 
six, the potatoes hard, the roast beef black, the bread half 
dough, the milk sour, and the soup dishwatery, it can not be 
surprising, if evil spirits do " catch him " up and " whisk " him 
off to the village-tavern, the grogshop, the billiard- saloon, or 
the gaming-table, returning home later and later, until, after a 
while, he habitually enters his house in the small hours of the 
morning, beastly drunk, and with oaths and curses and savage 
blows, sometimes enforces those attentions to his more beastly 
wishes which the self-punished wife had not wit enough be- 
fore to see the wisdom of giving voluntarily. It is too late 
then for any human music to charm such a man, or to tame 
and " lay " the evil spirit within. 

These things being so, it might be well for city mothers es- 
pecially to have their daughters take fewer lessons in music, 
fewer in French, fewer in crochet- work, and more in " common- 
sense;" more in domestic duties, such as sewing, knitting, 
patching, darning, dusting rooms, making beds, taking care of 
their own clothing, and that of the smaller children ; helping 
the mother in all possible ways; thinking for her ; planning for 
her ; anticipating her wants and desires and directions ; doing 


all these things, not merely as a duty, but as a pleasure ; doing 
them promptly, cheerfully, and lovingly, at all times and under 
all circumstances ; feeling the while that the child should be 
the servant, and the mother the served. No one can doubt, 
tbat a daughter thus brought up, with frequent opportunities 
of trying her hand at making cake, baking a loaf, roasting a 
joint, boiling a potato, drawing a cup of tea, spreading a table, 
getting up a party, fitting her own dress, trimming her own 
bonnet, and being her own seamstress, would have a power 
over a man, all-controlling, in subduing his passions, in chasten- 
ing his extravagances, and moulding his nature into a form, the" 
very embodiment of all that is noble, manly, generous, and 

The "music," then, which the wife should "practice," in 
order to have a healthful influence over the physical, moral, 
and mental nature of a man, restraining him from vice, and 
crime, and gluttony, and late hours, and drunkenness, and the 
poetry which she should recite to him every day, are the music 
and poetry of a tidy home, of cleanly and well-behaved child- 
ren, of quiet and respectful servants, of a table spread so in. 
vitingly that if only bread and milk and butter were there, 
they would taste like nectar and honey just from the hive; 
while the all-pervading and happy influence of a quiet, loving 
and lady-like wife, sanctifies the whole household, and makes 
it a community of love, of enjoyment, of domestic beatitude. 

There must be music and poetry too in the husband; he 
must strive daily to deport himself toward the woman who 
has borne him children, with a like respect and deference and 
consideration and gentleness, to that which he was accustomed 
to exhibit shortly before the marriage ceremony had made 
them one. We say " strive," for many a time it will require an 
effort, a moral power akin to the heroic, for there is much in the 
life of almost every man of business, so wearying, depressing, 
and often harrowing to the whole nature, that he would be 
more than mortal, if under their influences, when the physical 
nature is tired with labor, he could exhibit the beautiful ameni- 
ties of an elevated domesticity, without some summoning up to 
his aid, all the latent power within him, to recall tHe feelings 

6 hall's journal of health. 


and affections and deportment of the happy days of courtship. 
He may sometimes have to contend with woman's wayward- 
ness, only exhibited, it may be, when under the influence of 
sickness, or inward grief, or deep disappointment, or bitter mor- 
tification, or of a hard lot in life ; but surely it will be the more 
manly part, under such circumstances, to shut his eye and ear 
and sense to many things, covering them with that mantle of 
charity which he should always have at hand, for her sake, who 
left father and mother and all the dear associations of home and 
kindred, and threw herself so trustingly on his protection, his 
love, his honor, and his care. Let the daughter also "practice" 
for her who bore her, that sweetest of all music to an aged 
mother's heart, to wit, a prompt, a cheerful, an unhesitating 
obedience to all her known wishes ; let her feel abidingly, that 
nothing she can do for the mother who loved her and watched 
over her with so much tenderness and solicitude and anxious 
care through the running years of infancy and childhood and 
mature age, can ever half repay her ; let that mother's peace and 
comfort and repose and quiet happiness be the constant study 
and the steady aim of every dutiful daughter; for however 
much she may do, it would not be considered half enough when 
that mother has passed into the grave. Yes, however much 
she may have done, it will then be felt the strangest thing in 
the world that she had not done more ; she will constantly re- 
proach herself for want of consideration in a thousand little 
things, each one of which might have been a rill of pleasure to 
the aged heart as it was nearing its final resting-place. 

Let the dutiful and loving daughter "practice" that other 
" music-lesson " for her mother's sake, the willingness to learn; 
to practice it so diligently, that there need never be a repetition 
of a mother's counsel, or direction or advice. Said a mother to 
me once : " I never recollect the time when I found it necessary 
to repeat a wish to any child of mine; I have only to half tell 
it when it is done." Happy mother! dear loving children! 
How I wish there were more such ! I know there are too many 
daughters who are directly the reverse ; who seem to think that 
a mother's advice is out of date ; her counsel old fogyish, and 
all her pains to show her how to do things, are not only disre- 


garded, but are listened to or witnessed with the utmost impa- 
tience, as evidenced by the surly look, the unsightly frown, or 
some disrespectful exclamation. Poor child! every one of these 
will be a dagger to your heart ; the more painful as you grow 
older; striking deeper and deeper as years roll on, causing 
many an hour of sadness by day, and of remorses, oh! how 
grinding ! in the sleepless hours of midnight, so many of which 
are the lot of old age. 

The things of which we have been speaking are moral music 
and moral poetry ; these promote the health of the heart ; but 
there are pieces of real, tangible poetry, the repetition or the 
reading of which aloud, at times, when the mind is in the mel- 
low mood, or when sorrows weigh it down, or when grief press- 
es upon it like a crushing millstone, will many a time lighten 
the load which burdens poor humanity's heart, and at other 
times will lift it up, and elevate, and waken it to nobler pur- 
poses and to higher resolves, instead of letting life go out in 
blank despair, or in the dread fal night of suicide. 

Poetry and song have not in three thousand years lost any of 
their efficiency in medicating the maladies of the mind, which, 
by the way, are sometimes more terrible in their ill-effects, than 
are physical diseases. . . 

Song soothes the troubled soul ; it calms the perturbed spirit, 
and sweetly lessens the weight of those mournfully pleasing 
recollections of the far-distant past of childhood and home ; of 
the friends long since departed, but still, oh! how deeply, truly, 
sweetly loved ! 

Simple silent reflection has a power to 

" Calm the surges of the mind," 

especially at eventide, when the day's work is done ; and clear 
it of the gross incumbrances which corrupting business transac- 
tions have left behind them, that it may be emptj^, swept and 
garnished, fit for the Master's use ; yea, fit for the dwelling-place 
of God! 

If music and meditation have such a power separately, that 
power must be intensified, when living sentiments are expressed 
in searching words, and glorious thoughts are embodied in 

8 hall's journal of health. 

words and music too. Then, sweet as the mother's lullaby will 
the heavenly influences come over the heart in repeating to it- 
self, as the day gradually dies into the night : 

" I love to steal awhile away 
From every cumbering care ; 
And spend the hours of setting day 
In humble, grateful prayer. 

" I love to think on mercies past, 
And future good implore ; 
And all my cares and sorrows cast 
On Him whom I adore." 

Ko one we should think could " hum " those lines in a minor 
key without improving both the mental and bodily condition: 
And perhaps the reader may find a "healing power" at times 
in the recitation of some of the following selections. There is 
physical and moral health in all of them, with not only no loss 
of virtue by their repetition, as is the case with all material 
drugs, but absolutely an intensifying effect, the oftener the 
mind runs over them, softening many a heart, lightening many 
a load, calming many a perturbed spirit, and soothing many a 
ruffled temper. 

How sweetly comforting and love-sustaining, what a moral 
" tonic," acting physically, waking up the whole man to greater 
activities and with greater courage to meet life's labors and 
duties and toils is there found in a single verse of the immortal 


"The God we worship now 
"Will guide us till we die ; 
Will be our God while here below, 
And ours above the sky." 

And what a waking up of our manhood comes over us in recit- 
ing the grand production of Bishop Doane, " Stand like an An- 
vil." And then how is the mind calmed in an instant down by 
the repetition of "My Schoolboy Days," or of the "Lines to a 
Skeleton," or of the beautiful words of the "Factory Girl," 
"Over the River," and that charming piece, "The Bird that 
Sang in May," all of which follow ! 


A bird last spring came to my window-shutter, 

One lovely morning at the break of day ; 
And from his little throat did sweetly utter 
A most melodious lay. 

He had no language for his joyous passion, 

No solemn measure, no artistic rhyme ; 
Yet no devoted minstrel e'er did fashion 

Such perfect tune and time. 

It seemed of thousand joys a thousand stories, 

All gushing forth in one tumultuous tide ; 
A hallelujah for the morning-glories 

That bloomed on every side. 

And with each canticle's voluptuous ending, 

He sipped a dew-drop from the dripping pane ; 
Then heavenward his little bill extending, 

Broke forth in song again. 

I thought to emulate his wild emotion, 

And learn thanksgiving from his tuneful tongue ; 
But human heart ne'er uttered such devotion, 
Nor human lips such song. 

At length he flew, and left me in my sorrow, 

Lest I should hear those tender notes no more ; 
And though I early waked for him each morrow, 
He came not nigh my door. 

But once again, one silent summer even, 

I met him hopping in the new-mown hay ; 
But he was mute, and looked not up to heaven— ^ 
The bird that sung in May. 

Though now I hear from dawn to twilight hour 

The hoarse woodpecker and the noisy jay, 
In vain I seek through leafless grove and bower 
The bird that sung in May. 

And such, methinks, are childhood's dawning pleasures, 

They charm a moment and then fly away ; 
Through life we sigh and seek those missing treasures, 
The birds that sung in May. 

This little lesson, then, my friend, remember, 

To seize each bright-winged blessing in its day ; 
And never hope to catch in cold December, 

The bird that sung in May. 




Over the river they beckon to me, 

Loved ones who've crossed to the further side, 
The gleam of their snowy robes I see, 

But their voices are lost in the dashing tide. 
There's one with ringlets of sunny gold, 

And eyes the reflection of heaven's own blue, 
He crossed in the twilight gray and cold, 

And the pale mist hid him from mortal view ; 
We saw net the angels who met him there, 

The gates of the city we could not see, 
Over the river, over the river, 

My brother stands waiting to welcome me. 

Over the river the boatman pale 

Carried another, the household pet ; 
Her brown curls waved in the gentle gale, 

Darling Minnie 1 I see her yet. 
She crossed on her bosom her dimpled hands, 

And fearlessly entered the phantom bark, 
We felt it glide from the silver sands, 

And all our sunshine grew strangely dark ; 
We know she is safe on the further side, 

Where all the ransomed and angels be ; 
Over the river, the mystic river, 

My childhood's idol is waiting for me. 

For none return from those quiet shores, 

Who cross with the boatman cold and pale ; 
•* We hear the dip of the golden oars, 

And catch a gleam of the snowy sail ; 
And lo I they have passed from our yearning hearts, 

They cross the stream and are gone for aye. 
We may not sunder the vail apart 

That hides from our vision the gates of day. 
We only know that their barks no more 

May sail with us o'er life's stormy sea ; 
Yet somewhere I know on the unseen shore, 

They watch, and beckon, and wait for me. 

And I sit and'think, when the sunset's gold 
Is flushing river and hill and shore, 

I shall one day stand by the water cold 
And list for the sound of the boatman's oar : 


I shall watch for a gleam of the flapping sail, 

I shall hear the boat as it gains the strand ; 
I shall pass from sight with the boatman pale, 

To the better shore of the spirit-land. 
I shall know the loved who have gone before, 

And joyfully sweet will the meeting be, 
When over the river, the peaceful river, 

The Angel of Death shall carry me. 



Beyond these chilling winds and gloomy skie$ 

Beyond death's cloudy portal. 
There is a land where beauty never dies 

And love becomes immortal : 

A land whose light is never dimmed by shade, 

Whose fields are ever vernal ; 
Where nothing beautiful can ever fade, 

But blooms for aye, eternal. 

We may not know how sweet its balmy air, 

How bright and fair its flowers ; 
We may not hear the songs that echo there 

Through those enchanted bowers. 

The city's shining towers we may not see 

With our dim earthly vision : 
For Death, the silent warder, keeps the key 

That opes those gates elysian. 

But sometimes, when adown the western sky 

The fiery sunset lingers, 
Its golden gates swing inward noiselessly, 

Unlocked by unseen fingers. 

And while they stand a moment half-ajar, 

Gleams from the inner glory 
Stream brightly through the azure vault afar, 

And half reveal the story. 

land unknown ! land of love divine I 

Father, all- wise, eternal, 
Guide, guide these wandering way-worn feet of mine 

Into those pastures vernal. 



Some few years ago, the London Morning Chronicle published a poem, entitled 
" Lines on a Skeleton," which excited much attention. Every effort, even to the 
offering a reward of fifty guineas, was vainly made to discover the author. All 
that ever transpired was, that the poem, in a fair, clerkly hand, was found near a 
skeleton of remarkable symmetry of form in the Museum of the Royal College^ of 
Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn, London, and that the Curator of the Museum had sent 
them to the Morning Chronicle. 


Behold this ruin ! 'Twas a skull, 
Once of ethereal spirit full, 
This narrow cell was Life's retreat, 
This space was Thought's mysterious seat. 
What beauteous visions filled this spot 1 
What dreams of pleasure long forgot ! 
Nor Hope, nor Love, nor Joy, nor Fear, 
Has left one trace of record here. 

Beneath this moldering canopy 

Once shone the bright and busy eye : 

But stare not at the dismal void. 

If social Love that eye employed ; 

If with no lawless fire it gleamed, 

But through the dews of kindness beamed, 

That eye shall be forever bright 

When stars and suns are sunk in night. 

Within this hollow cavern hung 

The ready, swift, and tuneful tongue. 

If falsehood's honey it disdained, 

And where it could not praise, was chained \ 

If bold in Virtue's cause it spoke, 

Yet gentle Concord never broke — 

This silent tongue shall plead for thee 

When Time un vails Eternity. 

Say, did these fingers delve the mine ? 
Or with its envied rubies shine ? 
To hew the rock, or wear the gem, 
Can liCtle now avail to them. 
But if the page of Truth they sought, 
Or comfort to the mourner brought, 
These hands a richer meed shall claim 
Than all that waits on Wealth or Fame. 

Avails it, whether bare or shod, 
These feet the path of Duty trod ? 
If from the bowers of Ease they fled, 
To seek Affliction's humble shed. 
If grandeur's guilty bribe they spurned, 
And home to Virtue's cot returned 
These feet with ADgel's wings shall vie, 
And tread the palace of the sky. 


My school-boy days, my school-boy days, 
How sweet the light they cast ; 

How, as on wings of joy, their rays, 
Come glimmering o'er the past 1 

They come as came the joyous gleams 

Of sweet but half- forgotten dreams. 

My school-boy days, my school-boy days. 

They come but once in life ; 
Like angel-glances on the sea 

Of tempest and of strife. 
Like some lone minstrel's dying lay, 
They echo still, though passed away. 

My school-boy days, my school-boy days, 

There's magic in the sound ; 
It calls my young companions up 

And sets them smiling round : 
With school-boy hopes and school-boy fears, 
Its little joys and little tears. 

My school-boy days, my school-boy days, 

Life looked all sunshine then ; 
How longed pur young ambitious eyes 

Impatient to be men! 
But have we found in life's dull ways 
The joys we lost in school-boy days ? 

My school-boy days, my school-boy days, 
Adieu — in your bright bowers, 

Fond memory oft shall while itself 
Through life's long, leaden hours, 

And echo back, in lonely lays, 

The song of school-boy's happy days. 





" Stand like an anvil 1" when the strokes 
Of stalwart strength fall thick and fast; 
Storms but more deeply root the oaks, 
Whose brawny arms embrace the blast. 

" Stand like an anvill" when the sparks 
Ply far and wide, a fiery shower ; 
Virtue and truth must still be marks 
Where malice proves its want of power, 

" Stand like an anvil !" when the bar 
Lies red and glowing on its breast ; 
Duty shall be life's leading star, 
And conscious innocence its rest. 

u Stand like an anvil 1" when the sound 
Of ponderous hammers pains the ear ; 
Thine but the still and stern rebound 
Of the great heart that can not fear. 

41 Stand like an anvil !" noise and heat 
Are born of earth, and die with time ; 
The soul, like God, its source and seat 
Is solemn, still, serene, sublime. 


Thy neighbor ? It is he whom .thou 
Hast power to aid and bless — 

Whose aching heart, or burning brow 
Thy soothing hand may press. 

Thy neighbor ? 'tis the fainting poor; 

Whose eye with want is dim, 
Whom hunger sends from door to door — 

Go thou, and succor him. 

Thy neighbor? 'tis that weary man 
Whose years are at their brim, 

Bent low with sickness, cares, and pain- 
Go thou and comfort him. 

Thy neighbor ? 'tis the heart bereft 

Of every earthly gem — 
Widow and orphan, helpless left — 

Go thou, and shelter them. 


Thy neighbor? yonder toiling slave, 
Fettered in thought and limb, 

"Whose hopes are all beyond the grave- 
Go thou, and ransom him. 

Whene'er thou meet'st a human form 
Less favored than thine own, 

Remember 'tis thy neighbor-worm, 
Thy brother or thy son. 

Oh 1 pass not, pass not heedless by — 

Perhaps thou can?t redeem 
This breaking heart from misery — 

Go, share thy lot with him." 


The following is published in the recent Oxford edition of Milton's works, as 
from his pen ; it is certainly the production of Mrs. Howell, of Philadelphia' 

I am old and blind ! 
Men point at me as smitten by God's frown ; 
Afflicted and deserted of my kind ; 

Yet I am not cast down. 

I am weak, yet strong ; 
I murmur not that I no longer see ; 
Poor, old, and htlples?, I the more belong, 

Father supreme 1 to thee. 

merciful One! 
"When men are farther t then thou art most near; 
When friends pass by me, and my weakness shun, 

Thy chariot I hear. 

Thy glorious face 
Is leaning toward me ; and its holy light 
Shines in upon my lonely dwelling-place, 

And there is no more night. 

On my bended knee 
I recognize thy purpose clearly shown : 
My vision thou hast dimmed, that I may 899 

Thyself— thyself alone. 

I have naught to fear ; 
This darkness is the shadow of thy wing ; 
Beneath it I am almost sacred — here 

Can come no evil thing. 


Oh ! I seem to stand 
Trembling, where foot of mortal ne'er hath been, 
Wrapped in the radiance of thy sinless land, 

Which eye hath never seen. 

Yisions come and go : 
Shapes of resplendent beauty round me throng ; 
From angel-lips I seem to hear the flow 

Of soft and holy song. 

Is it nothing now, 
When heaven is opening on my sightless eyes ? 
When airs fiom paradise refresh my brow 

The earth in darkness lies. 

In a purer clime 
My being fills with rapture — waves of thought 
Roll in upon my spirit — strains sublime 

Break over me unsought. 

Give me now my lyre I 
I feel the stirrings of a gift divine 
Within my bosom glows unearthly fire 

Lit by no skill of mine. 


With curls in the sunny air tossing, 

With light in the merry blue eyes, 
With laughter so clearly outringing, 

A laugh of delight and surprise ; 
All friendly assistance disdaining, 

And trusting no strength but its own — 
The past fears and trials forgotten, 

The baby is " going alone." 

What woeful mishaps have preceded 

This day of rejoicing and pride ! 
How often the help that he needed 

Has carelessly gone from his side ! 
He hag fallen while reaching for sunbeams, 

Which, just as he grasped them, have flown, 
And the tears' of vexation have followed, 

But now he is " going alone." 

And all through his life ho will study 

This lesson again and again ; 
He will carelessly lean upon shadows, 

He will fall, and weep over the pain. 


The hand whose fond cla?p was the surest 
"Will coldly withdraw from his own, 

The sunniest eyes will be clouded, 
And he will be walking alone. 

He will learn what a stern world we live in, 

And he may grow cold like the rest, 
Just keeping a warm sunny welcome 

For those who seem truest and best ; 
Yet, chastened and taught by past sorrow, 

And stronger and manlier grown, ^ 
Not trusting his all in their keeping, 

He learns to walk bravely alone. 

And yet not alone, for our Father 

The faltering footsteps will guide 
Through all the dark mazes of earth-life, 

And " over the river's " deep tide. 
Oh ! here is a Helper unfailing, 

A strength we can perfectly trust, 
When, all human aid unavailing, 

" The dust shall return unto dust." 


There is no heart but hath its inner anguish, 
There is no eye but hath with tears been wet ; 

There is no voice but hath been heard to languish 
O'er hours of darkness it can ne'er forget. 

There is no cheek, however bright its roses, 
Bat perished buds beneath its hues are hid; 

No eye that in its dewy light reposes, 

But broken star-beams tremble 'neath its lid. 

There is no lip, howe'er with laughter ringing, 
However bright and gay its words may be, 

But it hath trembled at some dark upspringing 
Of stem affliction and deep misery. 

We all are brothers in this land of dreaming, 
Yet hand meets hand, and eye to eye replies ; 

Nor dream we that beneath an eye all beaming 
The flower of life in broken beauty lies. 

blessed light, that gilds our night of sorrow I 
balm of Gilead, for our healing found ! 

We know that peace will come with thee to-morrow, 
And that afflictions spring not from the ground. 


Graham Bread. — Take the unbolted flour of wheat, wet it 
with lukewarm water, add salt and yeast, knead in enough 
more of this flour to make it stiff, add a little molasses, and, 
when risen, bake in medium-sized loaves. 

Erysipelas is said to be cured by applying to the part 
affected, a paste made of raw cranberries beaten. 

Kettles are cleansed of onion and other odors, by dissolving 
a teaspoonful of pearlash or saleratus in water, and washing 

Hair, removed by fevers and other sickness, is made to grow 
by washing the scalp with a strong decoction of sage leaves 
once or twice a day. 

Stings and bites are often instantaneously cured by washing 
them in hartshorn or turpentine. 

Flies destroyed.' — A pint of sweet milk, a quarter of a 
pound of sugar, two ounces of ground pepper, simmer together 
for ten minutes, and place it about in shallow dishes. If this 
is true, there is no necessity for using poisonous articles about 
a house. 

Boiling Potatoes. — It is said that in Ireland they always 
nick off a piece of the skin, put them in a pot of cold water, 
which is gradually heated, but never allowed to boil ; cold wa- 
ter should be added as soon as the water begins to boil ; when 
done, pour all the water off, cover the vessel with a cloth, and 
in a few minutes they are cool enough for use. 

Buy the best articles for family use ; for, although they cost 
more, good articles spend best. 

Sugar from Havana is always dirty, that from Brazil is 
clean, as also from Porto Rico and Santa Cruz. Refined sugars, 
whether loaf, crushed, or granulated, are the cheapest in the end. 

Lard from a hog not over a year old, is the best, and should 
be hard and white. 

Butter made in September and October is the best for win- 
ter use. 

Rich cheese feels softer under the pressure of the finger. 
That which is very strong is neither very good nor healthy. 
To keep one that is cut, tie it up in a bag that will not admit , 
flies, and hang it in a dry cool place. If mold appears on it, 
wipe it off with a dry cloth. 


Flouk and meal of all kinds should be kept in a cool dry 

The best rice is large, and has a clear fresh look. Old rice 
sometimes has little black insects inside the kernels. 

The small white sago, called the pearl sago, is the best. The 
large brown kind has an earthy taste. This article and tapioca, 
ground rice, etc., should be kept covered. 

To select nutmegs, pick them with a pin. If they are good, 
the oil will instantly spread around the puncture. 

Keep coffee by itself, as the odor affects other articles. Keep 
tea in a close chest or canister. 

Oranges and lemons keep best wrapped close in soft paper, 
and laid in a drawer of linen. 

The cracked cocoa is best ; but that w T hich is put up in 
pound papers is often very good. 

Soft soap should be kept in a dry place in the cellar, and 
not be used until three months old. 

To thaw frozen potatoes, put them, in hot water. Frozen ap- 
ples in cold water, but use them at once. 

Over-eating. — As soon as you are sensible that you have 
eaten too much, take a walk, gradually increasing its rapidity 
until there is a free perspiration, and continue at this gait until 
every feeling of discomfort about the stomach or lungs has 
disappeared, then cool off very slowly in a closed room, and 
eat not an atom until the second meal thereafter, thus omitting 

Sick headache is almost always attended with cold feet, and 
the failure of a daily action of the bowels ; and there is no per- 
manent cure without the rectification of these. 

Whitewash. — White fences and outbuildings indicate the 
thrifty farmer and a tidy household. Put half a bushel of 
unslacked lime in a clean, tight barrel, pour over it boiling wa- 
ter until it is covered five inches, stir briskly until the lime is 
thoroughly slacked, then add more water until it is as thin as 
desired, next add two pounds of sulphate of zinc and one of 
* common salt ; then apply with a common whitewash brush, 
giving a good coat in April and October, or at least once a year. 


If you get jour feet or body wet, keep moving with sufficient 
briskness to keep off a feeling of chilliness until you get to the 
house ; undress instantly by a warm fire, drinking, as soon as 
possible, a cup or two of hot tea of any sort, and remain by the 
fire until thoroughly rested. 

When from any cause the bowels fail to act at the usual 
time, do not eat an atom more until they do act, at least for 
thirty-six hours ; the first meal after a fast should be very light, 
of bread and butter, and a cup of weak tea or coffee. 

Biliousness is indicated by a bad taste in the mouth of 
mornings, a poor appetite, and a feeling of general discomfort, 
often accompanied with a headache and cold feet. The best 
cure is to work moderately, take but two meals a day, and these 
of bread and butter, with a cup of tea or coffee. 

Poison of almost any kind swallowed will be instantly 
thrown from the stomach by drinking half a glass of water, 
(warm is best,) in which has been stirred a tablespoon of ground 
mustard ; as soon as vomiting ceases, drink a cup of strong 
coffee, into which has been stirred the white of an egg ; this nul- 
lifies any remnant which the mustard might have left. 

Paste may be made with flour in the usual way, but rather 
thicker, with a proportion of brown sugar, and a small quan- 
tity of corrosive sublimate. A drop or two of the essential oil 
of lavender, peppermint, anise, or bergamot, is a complete se- 
curity against molding. . Paste made in this manner, if kept 
in a close covered pot, may be preserved in a state fit for use 
at any time. 

Liquid glue is made by dissolving a pound of common glue 
with heat in a pound of strong vinegar, and one quarter of a 
pound of alcohol ; this is whitened by adding sulphate of lead. • 

Moths are kept from carpets by sprinkling salt and pepper^ 
mixed in equal quantities, about and under the edges. 

Bed-bugs are kept away by washing the crevices with strong 
salt water, put on with a brush. 

Picture-frames and glasses are preserved from flies by 
painting them with a brush dipped in a mixture made by boil- 
ing three or four onions in a pint of water. + 

An ink-stand was turned over on a white table-cloth, a ser- 
vant threw over it a mixture of salt and pepper plentifully, 
and all traces of it disappeared. 


Ants are kept out of drawers and other places by spirits of 

Butter kept fresh. — Take it as it comes from the churn, 
and wash the butter-milk thoroughly out of it, then dry the 
surface of the butter with a clean clotb, break into small pieces, 
and pack it solid into a crock. The air must be entirely ex- 
pelled. Set the crock in a kettle half-filled with water, then 
place the kettle over the fire until the water boils. While boil- 
ing remove from the fire, and let the crock remain in the water 
until cold. 

A Medicine. — Abernethy's prescription to a wealthy patient 
was : " Let your servant bring you three or four pails of water, 
and put it into a wash-tub ; take off your clothes, get into it, 
and from head to foot rub yourself well with it, and you'll re- 

11 This advice of yours seems very much like telling me to 
wash myself," said the patient. 

" Well," said Abernethy, " it is open to that objection." 

A Prescription. — If you wake up thirsty, diet, that is, 
eat nothing ; if you have diarrhea, be quiet, that is, do noth- 
ing, drink nothing ; and if not better in twelve hours, send for 
a physician. 

Lightning-Eods, in cities, says Prof. Henry, of the Smith- 
sonian Institute, should be connected with the water or gas- 
pipes underground, outside the building. 

A bit of glue dissolved in skim-milk and water, will re- 
store old crape. Half a cranberry bound on a corn will soon 
kill it. 

Eed Ants. — Wash your shelves down clean, and while damp 
rub fine salt on them quite thick, and let it remain on for a 
time, and they will disappear. 

Eyes. — If you must sew on black cloth at night, pin a piece 
of soft white paper along the seam, and sew through it ; after- 
wards tear the paper away. 

Camomile. — The decoction of its leaves is said to destroy 
various insects ; the living plant imparts health to other plants, 
often reviving drooping ones. 

Potatoes contain nearly all their nutriment (the starch) very 
near the surface ; the heart has but little ; hence, let the peel- 
ing- be the thinnest possible. 


Lac stick dissolved in alcohol is the best varnish for tree 
or vine wounds, and to prevent bleeding from trimming or 

Greenwood Cemetery, up to June, 1860, had received se- 
venty-six thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven dead 
bodies (76,797) since first opened, September 5th, 1840. 

The New Eeservoir, in the north-eastern portion of the Cen- 
tral Park, is a well whose mouth equals a surface of one hun- 
dred and six acres, a well whose depth is twenty feet, and will 
contain water enough to supply the city of New-York for one 
month, in case of an accident cutting off the supply from Croton 

Music for our Daughters. — Strangers who are now 
nocking to the city, will find it to their interest to call at Wor- 
cester's piano establishment, corner of Fourteenth street and 
Third avenue. This is one of the very oldest houses of New- 
York ; in all the financial " crises" of the country, it has never 
known a "suspension" or a " removal ;" thus indicating a thrift, 
which is only known to men who always make the best instru- 
ments, and thus secure the steady patronage of wealthy fami- 
lies, whi<§h, from its extent, enables the proprietor to sell a better 
piano at a lower price than can elsewhere be had, being more 
especially adapted to withstand the effects of a warm and moist 

How to Enjoy Life. By Dr. W. M. Cornell. Published 
by James Challen & Son, Philadelphia, and by Sheldon & Co., 
New-York. This book contains a large amount of useful 
truth, and we trust its industrious author will find for it a large 

Movement Cure or Motor-Paihy, by Dr. George H. Taylor, 
published by Fowler & Wells, contains a large amount of 
curious and useful information as to the preservation of health 
and the removal of disease by muscular and mechanical means. 

Eyes, Cataract. — Mark Stephenson, M.D., Surgeon of the 
New-York Ophthalmic Hospital, etc., read a paper before the 
American Medical Association convened at Washington City, 
whose publication was considered of such importance as to be 
called for by the Society. It reflects great credit on the learned 
author, for its professional ability, and extensive research. 



Air and Sunshine, 51 

Apples, 59 

Antidotes of Poisons, 134 

Baldness, 124 

Bathing, 30 

Beards, 74 

Bites, 23, 27 

Bilious Diarrhea, 153 

Burns, 23, 27, 80, 129 

Colds, Cured, 3, 27 

" Neglected, 27, 29, 36 

" Prevented, 31 

" Catching, 144 

Checking Perspiration 58 

Catarrh, .' 52 

Corns and Shoes, 14 

Coffee, 46, 72, 128 

Costiveness, 22 

'Cute Things, 120 

Children at School, 132 

Cures, 135 

Changing Clothing, 141 

Cholera, 151 

Clergymen, Saving, 158 

Cancer, 177 

Drunkenness, 8 

Dyspepsia, 8, 33 

Disease, Its Causes, 4 

Disease Avoided, 28 

Disease not Causeless, 164 

Drinking, 35 

Diet for Invalids, 54 

Deafness, 70 

Dying Easily, 143 

Drowning, 146 

Dieting, 147 

Diphtheria, 149 

Diarrhea, 150 

Dysentery, 152 

Disinfectants, 1 54 

Death Rate, 159 

Erect Position, 11 

Eating, 26, 171 

Eating Wisely, 32 


Eat, How to 34 

Eating Habits, 142 

Eyes, Care of, 5, 15 

Eyesight Failing, 61 

Erysipelas, 56 

Escaping from Eire, 15*7 

Emanations, 145 

Exercise, 174 

Fruits in Summer, 2 

Flannel Wearing, 19, 130 

Feet of Children, , ... 14, 21, 180 

Fifteen Follies, 53 

Fire Escape, 157 

Fifth Avenue Sights, 153 

Growing Beautiful, 15 

Great Eaters, : 171 

Genius, its Vices, 161 

Hair, , ', IS 

Headache, 41, 62 

Health without Medicine, 20 

Healthful Observances, 38 

Health Essentials, 42 

Hydrophobia, 49 

Housekeeping, 75, 94, 122, 144 

Health Theories, 77 

Inconsiderations, 4 

Ice, its Uses, 9 

Inverted Toe-Nail, 64 

Insanity, 473 

Life Wasted, 138 

Loose Bowels, 150 

Leaving Home, 162 

Logic Run Mad, 172 

Music Healthful, 7, 81 

Medicine, Taking, 60 

Memories, 71 

Milk, its Uses, 82 

Medical Items, 1 69, 182 

Month Malign, 170 

Nothing but a Cold, 36 

Neuralgia, , 44 




One Acre, 139 

One by One, 160 

Obscure Diseases, 165 

Precautions, '. . . . 37 

Presence of Mind, '. . . 39 

Premonitions, 43 

Private Things, • 45 

Poisons, 23, 27, 55, 134 

Physiological Aphorisms, 65 

Pain, 6*7 

Potatoes, 123 

Philosophy, 137 

Physiological Items, 155 

Posture in Worship, 176 

Rheumatism, 50 

Read and Heed, 69 

lation, 145 

Sitting Erect, 13 

Sabbath, 17, 156 

Scalds, 80 

School-Children,. . 132, 183 

Sour Stomach, 24 

Sleeping, 25 

Skating, 63 

Suppers, Light, 73 

Summering, 78 


Spot, The One, 126 

Specifics, 138 

Spring-Time, 140 

Summer Drinks, 148 

Saving Ministers, 158 

Stammering, 179 

Soups and Gruels, 181 

Traveling Hints, 6 

The Three P's, 47 

Teeth; : 68 

Urination, 66 

Valuable Knowledge, 27 

Vaccination, 79 

Ventilation, 125 

Vermin, Household, 136 

Vices of Genius, 161 

Winter Rules, 11 

Walking, 18 

Warnings, 48 

Worship, Religious, 168 

Woolen Clothing, 19, 134 

White Washes, 134 

Worth Remembering, 167 

Weather Signs, 172 

All the above Health Tracts, with a great variety of other practical reading in 
reference to Health, will be found in the two volumes for 1862 and 1863, $1.25 
each, both for $2, at the office, 831 Broadway, New-York. 



Is one of the most exhilarating of all pastimes, whether on the ice, or 
over our parlor or hall floors, with roller-skates. In the days of " Queen 
Bess," some three hundred years ago, it was a favorite amusement with 
the Londoners, whose facilities for the same were limited to pieces of bone 
attached to the shoes. As lives have been lost in connection with skating, 
the following suggestions are made : 

1. Avoid skates which are strapped on the feet, as they prevent the 
circulation, and the foot becomes frozen before the skater is aware of it, 
because the tight strapping benumbs the foot and deprives it of feeling. 
A young lady at Boston lost a foot in this way ; another in New-York^ 
her life, by endeavoring to thaw her feet in warm water, after taking off 
her skates. The safest kind are those which receive the fore-part of the 
foot in a kind of toe, and stout leather around the heel, buckling in front 
of the ankle only, thus keeping the heel in place without spikes or screws, 
and aiding greatly in supporting the ankle. . 

2. It is not the object so much to skate fast, as to skate gracefully ; and 
this is sooner and more easily learned by skating with deliberation ; while 
it prevents overheating, and diminishes the chances of taking cold by cool- 
ing off too soon afterward. 

3. If the wind is blowing, a vail should be worn over the face, at least 
of ladies and children ; otherwise, fatal inflammation of the lungs, " pneu- 
monia," may take place./ 

4. Do not sit down to rest a single half-minute ; nor stand still, if there 
is any wind ; nor stop a moment after the skates are taken off ; but walk 
about, so as to restore the circulation about the feet and toes, and to pre- 
vent being chilled. 

5. It is safer to walk home than to ride ; the latter is almost certain to 
give a cold. 

6. Never carry any thing in the mouth while skating, nor any hard 
substance in the hand ; nor throw any thing on the ice ; none but a care- 
less, reckless ignoramus, would thus endanger a fellow-skater a fall. 

7. If the thermometer is below thirty, and the wind is blowing, no lady 
or child should be skating. 

8. Always keep your eyes about you, looking ahead and upward, not on 
the ice, that you may not run against some lady, child, or learner. 

9. Arrange to have an extra garment, thick and heavy, to throw over 
your shoulders, the moment you cease skating, and then walk home, or at 
least half a mile, with your mouth closed, so that the lungs may not be 
quickly chilled, by the cold air dashing upon them, through the open 
mouth ; if it passes through the nose and head, it is warmed before it gets to 
the lungs. 

10. It would be a safe rule for no child or lady to be on skates longer 
than an hour at a time. 

11. The grace, exercise, and healthfulness of skating on the ice, can 
be had, without any of its dangers, by the use of skates with rollers at- 
tached, on common floors ; better if covered with oil-cloth. Lessons are 
given in this pleasant and exhilarating exercise at Mr. Disbrow's on Fifth 
Avenue, whose spacious and well-conducted establishment ought to be well 
patronized. His ice pond is now in exellent order. 


Atlantic Monthly, published by Ticknor & Fields, No. 135 Washington street, Boston, Mass. ; 
three dollars a year; Volume 13 began with January. Among its contributors are some of the best 
intellects and the most cultivated minds in the nation. It is the great literary monthly of the 
country, and by the acknowledged ability with which it has been conducted, it has been placed on 
a permanent basis, and is highly appreciated abroad as well as at home. 

'Tun Horticulturist, founded by the lamented A. J. Downing, in 1S46, is in its eighteenth vol. 
ume : twj dollars a year ; No. 37 Park Row, New-York. Its patronage is commended to country 
gentlemen and intelligent agriculturists throughout the country. 

Tub Presbyterian, Philadelphia, two dollars and fifty cents a year, has an industrious and able 
correspondent in this city ; his weekly letters well pay for the subscription-price to every New- 
Yorker who wishes to keep himself posted as to the "goings on" and chief doings of our mighty 

To Farmers. — There is no monthly published on this or any other continent on agriculture or on 
any other subject which gives one half as much valuable, practical, and reliable information for one 
dollar a year as the American Agriculturist, issued at No. 1 Park Row, New- York City. 

Blackwood's Magazine, two dollars a year, London, Quarterly, The Edinburgh, T7ie West- 
minster, and North British Reviews, each three dollars, are all furnished for ten dollars a year. 
Address Leonard Scott & Co., No. 54 Gold street, New-York. The contributors to these publications 
are among the very ablest writers in Great Britain. 

Music. — The hinged-plate piano improvement of Horatio Wooster, of New-York, is eliciting the 
admiration and hearty commendation of the most accomplished artists in the country. Among the 
names are those of Gottschalk, Muzio, Mason, Berge, Fredel, Thomas, Harrison, Wernike, Mor- 
gan, Gosche, and the distinguished amateur Dr. Thomas Ward, all substantiating the sentiment of 
Gottschalk, when he said, "I estimate the volume of tone to be increased one hundred per cent 
by this invention," which is certainly very high praise, coming as it doe3 from the very highest 
musical authority. 

Godey's Lady's Book, three dollars a year, Philadelphia, continues as heretofore to be the Queen 
of pictorial monthlies, delighting multitudes of families with its beautiful steel engravings and its 
valuable practical embellishments, etc. 

Arthur's Home Magazine, two dollars a year, Philadelphia. Who that has ever subscribed for 
it, ever willingly failed to " renew" when Christmas came ? 

Pilks, Fistula, Ruptures, etc.— The last published work of Dr. Bodenhemer on these and 
kindred subjects has been translated into French. Dr. B. spends the winter at the Monongahela 
House, Pittsburgh, and for knowledge, ability, skill, and success has no superior living. 

Teeth.— Dr. John Allen, 22 Bond street, New-York, in whose office Dr. Evans, now the first 
Dentist in Europe, took lessons is believed to be the ablest member of his profession for furnishing 
single and sets of teeth. We know cases where twenty years of youthfulness have been imparted 
to the features. 

The Farm-House Milk, pure and sweet, is brought to town daily by the New-Jersey and Rock- 
land County Milk Association, under the management of C. W. Canfield, Esq., No. 146 Tenth 
street, New- York, near Broadway, adjoining Stewart's New Retail Palace. 

Barnum's Museum continues to be the general place of resort for novelty-seekers. Formerly a 
41 Museum " was considered to be a collection of all the queer, outlandish things of creation, but 
Mr. Barnum, with characteristic energy and forecast, has made his establishment a place not only 
of amusement but of solid instruction. Scarcely a week passes in which some new object of inter- 
est is not introduced. Natural treasures are gathered from the poles to the tropics ; yesterday he 
had a polar bear ; to-day a family of Esquimaux ; to-morrow it will be a whale, or a multitude of 
fishes of all sizes and hues, from the Pole to the Line; and frequently all are seen at once, exciting 
the mind of the beholder alternately with feelings of awe, of wonder, of admiration and delight. 

Iron Fences, railings, plain and ornamental, statues, figures of animals, bedsteads, gate-posts, 
tree-guards, with every conceivable variety of article for families, farms, cemeteries, parks and 
pleasure-gardens and grounds, are found at the very extensive establishment of Hutchinson & 
Wickersham, 259 Canal street, New-York, one of the oldest and best known houses of the kind in 
the city. 

We heartily commend "The Home Monthly," two dollars a j-ear, Boston, to every household 
wishing a whole year of delightful and instructive reading for wives, husbands, daughters, and 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XL] FEBRUARY, 1864. [No. 2. 


As one person out of six dies of consumptive disease, every 
man, woman, and child is more or less directly interested in 
every thing having a practical bearing in reference to a mal- 
ady which has already carried millions to the grave, and is 
destined to destroy millions more. In reading the public pa- 
pers, the impression might be made on the unthinking that 
consumption was more easily cured than any other human ail- 
ment. The confident manner in which it is announced that 
this, tha't, and the other remedy is uniformly successful, and 
that all that is necessary to procure the same, is to forward a 
three-cent postage-stamp, and the way is open to a prompt, per- 
manent, and radical restoration, does mislead thousands every 
year. Cod liver oil, naphtha, medicated inhalation, Bourbon 
whisky; the injection of solutions of nitrate of silver, the 
ruthless excision of the tonsils, and pectorals and syrups and 
troches and a multitude of other remedies, safe, sure, and infalli- 
ble, have been proposed from time to time, have had their 
fashion and their butterfly hour ; but the people still continue to 
die of the dreaded disease ; not as before, but more numerously 
than ever, proving beyond contradiction, that there is no cura- 
tive power in any of them. And the very avidity with which 
any new remedy is seized upon and published to the world, is 
evidence enough, that the great want is still unsupplied. When 
it is remembered that consumption is a general destruction of 
the substance of the lungs, it ought to be felt, even by the un- 

26 hall's journal of health. 

reflecting, that in reality, there can be no absolute cure ^be- 
cause, when a portion of the lung is once destroyed, its repro- 
duction is as impossible as that of a lost limb or finger. In a 
literal ser^se, then, consumption is absolutely incurable. At 
the same time a man may, from various causes, lose a part of 
his lungs, and yet have that decay arrested, and live in reason- 
able health for many years afterward. Anatomists say that 
in examining the lungs of those who have died after the age of 
forty -five, it is a very common thing to notice evidences of a 
partial destruction of the lungs, and their subsequent healing 
up, without the subjects of this process ever having had a sus- 
picion in life, that any thing was the matter with the lungs. It 
follows then, that being cured of consumption, in this restricted 
sense, is an event -of every day occurrence. But such a conclu- 
sion brings with it very little comfort when connected with that 
other observation, that such "cures" are always spontaneous, 
and are never clearly traceable to any drug swallowed, to any 
gas or atmosphere inhaled, or to any surgical operation. The 
reputation which successive vaunted remedies have obtained 
has been owing to several causes, each of which is particularly 
calculated to foster a deception ; and 

First. Consumption is a disease which, in its nature, is of a very 
flattering character, in that it generally, except in its very last 
stages, is not attended with any pain; the appetite is good, and 
the intellect clear; the malady itself is in the lungs, which, 
being scantily supplied with nerves, have very little feeling. 

Second. The seeds of consumption, as previously explained, 
are little, hard, roundish substances, called " tubercles," scat- 
tered through the lungs in little patches, more or less extensive, 
which patches ripen, as it were, at different times, as apples on a 
tree or berries on a bush ; this ripening, however, is rather a rot- 
tening process; it is the softening of the tubercles, whereby the 
lungs become disorganized and destnjyed, and are in this state, spit 
out of the mouth, in the shape of a thick, yellowish matter. While 
this softening process is going on, and until the matter is wholly 
expectorated, the patient does not "feel so well ;" there is fever, 
and there is cough, with a variety of other discomforts. But 
when the matter of that "patch" is all expectorated, and the 
lungs are relieved of the discomfort of its presence ; the elas- 


ticity of tlie system returns ; the cough greatly abates, and in 
some cases disappears almost entirely, and the patient expresses 
himself as feeling " almost as well as I ever did in my life." 
This better feeling continues until another patch ripens, rots, 
and is spit away ; the process . going on, in repetitions, from 
time to time, until such a large portion of the lungs has been 
destroyed, that enough is not left to live upon, and death closes 
the scene. Hence it is, that the history of almost every con- 
sumptive, is that of being better or worse, through the whole 
course of its progress ; which averages about two years. These 
" spells " of being " worse " are uniformly attributed to having 
" taken a little cold." The patient, too willing to be deceived, 
takes comfort in the reflection, that if he had not taken that 
last cold, he would still have gotten better ; and summoning up 
a new resolution and energy, determines that he will be more 
careful against taking cold another time ; and as a means of so 
doing, "bundles up " more ; is more guarded as to " exposures;" 
that is, goes out less, hugs the stove more, leaves less frequent- 
ly his cozy corner at the fire ; not taking note of the fact, for a 
long time that he "takes cold," as he calls it, in spite of all his 
efforts, and finally settles down in the declaration that the 
" least thing in the world gives me a cold ;" or there is a posi- 
tive inability to determine how he got his last cold ; and then 
begins to think that it came on of itself; the true state of the 
case being that it is simply the natural progress of the disease ; 
that " taking cold " had nothing to do with these repeated back 
sets. And there is a failure also to observe, that during this 
"bundling up," this fearfulness of "exposures," involving 
closer and closer confinement to the house, the " colds " come 
more frequently, last longer and longer, "until one runs into 
another, and there is a continued cold ; which means in reality, 
that the destructive process is now going on steadily, and with 
it there is a more and more harassing cough, a greater and 
greater thinning of flesh, a more and more distressing short- 
ness of breath, more drenching night-sweats, more consuming 
fevers, with a weakness, approaching the utter helplessness of a 
new-born child. 

But suppose in the earlier stages of the malady, when per- 
haps the first or second or third "patch" had pretty much soft- 
ened and the patient was beginning to spit it away, a particular 

28 hall's journal of health. 

remedy was administered ; the improvement which always fol- 
lows the riddance of the yellow matter, which is really rotted 
kings, is attributed to the last thing taken or done ; it may be 
a week, a month, or a year before another " patch" of tubercles 
begins to soften; meanwhile, considerable health is enjoyed, 
and the patient, quite willing to believe that he has been cured 
of consumption, speaks of the remedy used, in the most extrav- 
agant terms; and with a kind of gratitude gives his "certifi- 
cate " of its value in his own case ; and in a month it has been 
read by millions. Hence the multitude of fallacious "cures," 
so called, which flood the country. 

But suppose there had been but a single "patch of tuber- 
cles," and nothing had been done; but there was the usual 
cough, expectoration, night-sweats, etc., and then an ultimate 
restoration to health, the whole thing is dismissed with the 
remark, that it was only a very bad cold. 

There is, perhaps, not a man living who is troubled with " a 
very bad cough," who has not been advised to try a multitude 
of remedies, with two stereotype statements, "It can do you 
no harm, if it does you no good;" and "It cured a much worse 
case than yours." 

But there are literally millions who, after hopefully trying 
the remedy, have been doomed to the sad experience and ad- 
mission, that " however much others may have been benefited, 
no benefit has resulted in my case." 

But as there are persons who have labored under the more 
common and unequivocal symptoms of consumption, such as 
cough, spitting blood, expectoration of yellow matter, night 
sweats and swollen ankles, and yet have recovered and lived in 
good health a quarter of a century afterward, it will be in- 
structive to note, what are the circumstances in common, in all 
these well-authenticated cases ; then we may conclude, that if 
in any given case these circumstances can be brought about, 
similar favorable and triumphant results may be reasonably 
anticipated. Let the reader turn to the cases of apparent 
cure already noted, to wit : Dr. Norcom's case, (page 102 ;) an- 
other reported in a British medical periodical, in 1854, and 
reproduced in this volume, (page 113,) and others following. 
To these may be added the case of General Andrew Jackson. 
It was stated in the public prints at the time of his death, that 


there was every indication that one fourth of the lungs had 
been destroyed by disease twenty-five years before. To these 
may be added a case which came under the author's notice five 
years ago. 

Volume 17, case 2222, was an Englishman ; tall, slim, nerv- 
ous temperament, a traveling clock-mender and tinker. The 
yellow matter in the air-passages was so abundant that he could 
bring up a mouthful at any time, with a kind of gulp, or hem. 
This seemed to be a case so utterly hopeless in all its aspects, 
and one wherein no medicine whatever seemed to be appropri- 
ate, the only advice which was at the same time applicable and 
possible to him, (as he was extremely poor,) was that he should 
eat regularly and as much as possible, and spend his waking 
existence in some very active exercise out of doors. He was 
advised to cough as little as possible, to make every effort to 
repress it, to endeavor to get rid of the "phlegm" by hem- 
ming; but that whenever it was not possible to restrain a 
cough, to throw the head back and cough out at an angle of 
about forty-five degrees, so as to jar and strain the lungs as lit- 
tle as possible, and thus bring away the phlegm more easily, as 
would be the case when it came up much nearer in a straight 
line, than at a right angle, as in ordinary coughing, or at a more 
acute angle still, when the chin is bent down as it usually is, in 
the act of coughing. This man was so very poor, (and the win- 
ter was approaching,) that it was considered necessary to furnish 
him with some clothing. But he was well informed ; had seen 
and thought for himself as to the nature and philosophy of his 
malady ; so that there was a sufficient inducement to explain 
to him the reasons for the particular courses advised ; these he 
seemed to comprehend and appropriate. Still, there was no 
expectation of ever seeing him again in life. A year later he 
was heard from through a third person, who spoke of him as 
the •■ crazy carrier."' Adopting the suggestions made to him, he 
at once procured the situation of meeting the express rail- 
road train at a certain point, receiving the daily newspapers, 
which had to be carried on foot to a post-office two or three 
miles distant. At first he was too weak to walk fast ; but by 
great patience he had increased his gait, until at the time of 
his reporting, he was literally running five miles every twenty- 
four hours ; never missing a day. On one occasion, when the 

30 hall's jouknal of health. 

thermometer was hovering about zero, he was seen without 
gloves, or overcoat, his hat thrown back, so as to expose the 
whole forehead, papers under arm, and at a long, loping gait, 
"making time" for the post-office; this furnished the occasion 
for giving the sobriquet of " the crazy carrier." Later on he 
came to pay a fee for the first consultation, and five years 
from the first interview, he called to say that he was well; 
that he had supported his old father and mother during the 
interval; that he was drafted, and wanted to know what 
could be done for him in the way of securing an exemp- 
tion. On a careful examination, there was found no physical 
ground for excusing him from serving as a soldier ; and all that 
could be conscientiously done for him, was to give a certificate 
that he had been under treatment within a few years for con- 
sumptive disease. 

In all the cases of apparent restoration from consumptive 
symptoms above referred to, there is one element, always pres- 
ent, never absent ; it is no pill or potion, no drug or " simple " 
remedy; no syrup nor "pectoral;" no lozenge, no surgeon's 
operation, nothing physical; but something as impalpable as 
thin air ; it is simply force of will ; an unconquerable deter- 
mination to live above disease ; to conquer it or to die in the 
attempt. Moral courage, then, is at the very foundation of all 
effective treatment for consumption of the lungs ; and is worth 
a thousand times more than any " dose " ever compounded by 
the apothecary; or than any "operation," which the most skill- 
ful surgeon in existence can boast of. Without this quality of 
the mind, invincible determination, all artificial means for the 
cure of consumption in its ordinary course, have seemed to be 
utterly unavailing. It must not be that fitful bravery which 
leads a man, in the excitement of the moment, to march up to 
the cannon's mouth, at the instant of its belching forth flame 
and fire and death ; but it must be a persistent resolution, a 
" chronic " courage, which remains at the highest point all the 
time ; day in and day out ; reaching through days and weeks 
and months, and even years if need be. A courage which can 
at a moment's warning leave the cozy fireside and brave the 
fiercest winds of winter, which can any day abandon the com- 
forts and happiness of home, and undertake long journeys on 
horseback or foot, through snow and frost and freezing rains i 


sleeping in comfortless cabins, or by the wayside ; living on the 
coarsest fare of "squatter" poverty, or depending on the pre- 
carious "bringing down" of the hunter's rifle; the men who 
can do these things, and do them with such a will as to make 
them as mere pastimes, these are the men who can, and who 
often do, survive for long years, the fierce attacks of consump- 
tive disease, and all honor be to them, for such high types of 
heroism ! 

But in this connection let it be borne in mind that such 
moral courage, such force of character, is not found oftener than 
once in a thousand, and that this being so, the man who has 
actual consumption may consider himself inevitably doomed, 
except in the very rarest number of cases ; and that they are 
wisest who make a systematic effort to live in such a way, as 
not to fall into the grasp of so remorseless a disease themselves ; 
and to do all that is possible, by judicious counsel and unceas- 
ing watchfulness, to preserve their children, and others who 
may be under them, from those habits of life which invite so 
fell a malady. 

Climate for Consumptives. — It has been a fashion of many 
years' standing, to go to the South, when the lungs seemed to 
be affected ; or to take long journeys by sea. Of late years, 
another " notion " seems to have taken hold of the public mind, 
to wit, that Minnesota, the great North- West, is best adapted 
toward recovering a man from consumption ; and ' now, the 
stream of consumptive travelers is in that direction, instead of 
toward the sunny South, to Cuba, Madeira, and other localities. 
This change of sentiment originated in loose newspaper state- 
ments, that very few persons were noticed to have died of con- 
sumption in Minnesota. Similar statements have been made as 
to California, and for the very same reasons ; both countries are 
comparatively new; few, other than the hardy, "settled" in 
them, and for obvious reasons the statistics on the subject must 
have been very imperfectly gathered. California is in a measure 
inaccessible, by reason of its distance. Havana and other 
warmer latitudes require more means than the multitude can 
command; hence, the great army moves toward the "North- 
West," with most discouraging results. The ablest resident 
physician at St. Paul, the chief town of Minnesota, says, 
that two thirds of the consumptives who reach that point, die 


there ; and it is his frank and honorable habit to advise visitors 
to leave there as soon as possible. The air is indeed pure, and 
still and dry, having a uniform temperature in mid-winter ; but 
whether from its great severity, or its rarefied character, or from 
its possessing some stranger ingredient, not yet detected, or 
whether from other causes, the fact remains the same, that two 
thirds of all who go to Minnesota for the removal of consump- 
tive symptoms, perish there ; and how many, soon after their 
return to their own homes, there are no means for ascertaining. 
But it is suggestive to note in the cases given in the preceding 
pages, that they were from all latitudes, from Canada to Cuba, 
leaving us to fall back on the great comprehensive fact, that 
the essential, the fundamental, the all-controlling agency in 
the arrest of any case of consumptive disease, and a return to 
reasonable health for any considerable time, is an active, cour- 
ageous, and hopeful out-door life, in all weathers and in any lati- 
tude, with some rousing motive, other than regaining the health, 
beckoning them on, to do and to dare. 


This is the f • vis medicatrix naturae," the power of nature 
to cure herself, and is implanted by Divinity in all that lives, 
vegetable -or animal. Were there no such power, every injury 
done to blade of grass, or shrub, or tree, to insect, animal, or 
man, would result in sickness, decay, and death ; and soon there 
would not be a living thing the globe over. 

The extent to which injuries to the human frame may be re- 
covered from are sometimes amazing,; nature only asking one 
thing, and that is, to be let alone ; to be allowed quietude, rest. 
Soon after breakfast, March sixteenth, 1860, Mrs. L. A. Page, 
two months married, was captured in the Kocky Mountains by 
a band of Apache Indians. Although she had suffered much 
from recent attacks of fever and ague, she traveled all day on 
foot, over a rough, mountainous road ; to increase her pace, 
they frequently pointed their six-shooters at her head. At the 
end of sixteen miles, she lagged so much behind that her cap- 
tors resolved to kill her, and for that purpose removed every 
part of her clothing except a single garment ; they next threw 
their lances at her, inflicting eleven wounds in her body, and 


threw her over a rocky precipice, and then threw stones at her, 
several of which struck her on the head ; this was about sun- 
set. Having alighted on a bank of snow, the fall was broken ; 
still she was insensible, and must have remained there, in that 
condition, for two nights and a day. That she should have sur- 
vived an hour, is extraordinary. "When she recovered her 
senses, she put snow on her wounds, and started in the supposed 
direction of her home. Her feet gave out the first day, and she 
was compelled to crawl. Sometimes, after crawling up a steep 
ledge of the mountain, laboring hard for half a day to accom- 
plish it, she would lose her footing and slide down to a lower 
part than that from which she started. At night she scratched 
holes in the sand in which to sleep, in order to protect herself 
from the cold winds of March on the mountain, five thousand 
feet above the level of the sea ; but before she could start on 
her daily travels, she had to remain until the sun warmed her 
up ; having no fire, and not a particle of clothing beyond 
the inner garment. She lived on grass — nothing else. On the 
fourteenth day she reached an untenanted camp of workmen in 
the Pineries, where she found a little food, and some flour which 
had been spilled on the ground. The fire being not quite 
out, she kindled it up, and made a little cake of the flour which 
she had scraped up, being the first food she had tasted since the 
morning she left home. She could hear the men at work, and 
sometimes see them, but could not attract their attention. She, 
however, made out to crawl to a path which she knew they 
would have to pass at night, whence they carried her to her 
home, two miles distant ; after an absence of sixteen days, 
she was well again. 

This narration is given to impress on the mind of the reader 
that nature is the best physician, as a general rule ; that her re- 
quirements are few and simple, and that with pure air, pure 
water, and quietude, ailments may be recovered from which, 
had they been removed by any .human remedy, would have 
given the discoverer a world-wide name, and have poured into 
his treasury untold millions. The first remedies in this case 
were perfect quietude for two days; thus, every particle of 
strength preserved by the system was applied toward repairing 
the injury done. All this while, however, the purest air was 
breathed, every breath of which, while it imparted life to the 

34 HALL'S JOUKNAL of health. 

blood, left the body loaded with its impurities of waste and de< 
cay, and particles dead either by disease or the physical violences 
offered. Next to this rest and pure air, was either snow-water, 
or that from mountain-springs, according as it could be obtained 

Another important element in nature's cure of violence and 
sickness is in dieting. In almost all cases of ordinary disease, 
nature, in self-defense, takes away the appetite, so that what 
power the system has should be employed in throwing out dis- 
eased matters and those which oppress it, instead of expending 
that power in the digestion of food, which would only serve to 
clog the almost-stopped machinery. 

For two weeks she ate nothing but grass. A most curious and 
valuable practical truth is taught here, one worth millions in the 
cure of disease, and of a world-wide application ; a truth which 
daily forces itself on every intelligent physician and every ob- 
servant nurse, that the diet of the sick should be simple, single 
unconcentrated ; that is, one thing at a time, and that should be 
an article whfch contains but a little nutriment in a large amount 
of gross. Hence, in all ordinary sickness, acute diseases, such 
as fevers, fruits and vegetables are better than meat ; for while 
the latter is nearly all nutriment, nine tenths of the former are 
waste. In the common apple or turnip there are, perhaps, five 
atoms of nourishment in a hundred atoms of gross. There is 
still a less proportion of nutriment in grass, but there is some, 
and there is power in the human stomach to extract it. There 
is one item in connection with the sick which is of untold value ; 
more and better and purer nutriment is obtained by a sick man's 
stomach from a smaller amount of food than from a larger • 
from one ounce, than a dozen. The single ounce may be thor- 
oughly digested, hence all the blood it makes is perfectly pure, 
is full of strength and life ; while the pound, being more than 
the stomach can take care of, is imperfectly digested, and must 
make an imperfect blood material ; hence can impart no radi. 
cal, enduring strength. But this is not all ; this imperfect blood 
is mixed as soon as made with the whole blood of the body, 
and to that extent renders the entire mass impure. The lesson 
of this article is this : In all ordinary ailments and accidents, 
secure quiet of body, composure of mind, pure air, pure water, 
and simple food at regular intervals, being a little hungry all 
the time. 



I know an only daughter of fourteen, sole heiress to a fortune of hundreds of 
thousands of dollars, the petted child of fond but foolish and misguided parents, in 
a distant city, and yet she is miserable in mind and body for three fourths of her 
waking existence. She rides to school, less than a mile away, in a splendid equip- 
age every fair morning ; if it is threatening weather, she stays at home. She sel- 
dom goes to bed sooner than eleven or twelve o'clock. She is barely ready to start 
to school any morning sooner than nine. On the mornings of Saturday, Sunday, 
holidays, and bad days, eleven o'clock still finds her in bed. Her nights are spent 
at parties, balls, operas, theaters, or in frivolous company. If none of these are avail- 
able, she reads novels in bed by gas-light for hours and hours together ; but an al- 
most invariable custom, before retiring, especially after returning from the ball or 
the theater, is to take a hearty supper. The result of this last practice is, that she 
never has any appetite for breakfast, not much more for dinner, so that the only full 
meal of the day is just before retiring. The legitimate results of such a training on 
body, mind, and heart are sadly suggestive. This spoiled child is never well any 
three days in succession, and has alarming attacks of a dangerous malady a dozen 
times a year, besides almost daily complaints of headache, tiredness, cold feet, weight 
or burning at the stomach ; and more or less of a " little cold," all the time. To 
suppose that this child will ever reach the maturity of womanhood is absurdity itself. 

The effects which such a mode of life has on the mind are not less baleful. Such 
a girl can not be "educated" in any single branch of knowledge, in any single ac- 
complishment. The excitement of the nightly novel and theatre will wear out the 
mental energy before its time, and must as certainly unfit her for the realities and 
the labors of life as the excitement arising from spirits incapacitates the body for 
steady, effective labor. - • ■ 

The effects of such a defective training on the heart, the temper, the soul are the 
highest types of injustice, selfishness, and a sad destitution of human sympathies. 
These bear hardest and first on the servants. The coachman must remain on his 
box in the street until midnight, however inclement the weather ; her maid must 
sit up to open the door when she comes home, and the cook the same, in order to 
prepare her a lunch before retiring. Yet if the cook is not up at daylight to pre- 
pare the regular family breakfast, and the maid to open the house and sweep the 
halls and stoop and pavement in time for the earliest visitor, and the coachman 
to take his master to 'Change, or his mistress to her early shopping, they are all 
subject to the severest reprimands, with the apparently unanswerable question : 
11 Are you not paid to wait on me ?" The laundress also suffers, for miss takes not 
the slightest pains to " save her clothing," either from being soiled, or torn, or dis- 
ordered, on the plea that " she is hired to wash, and we pay her for it." The in- 
telligent and generous mind sees at once the absurdity of such views, their injustice 
and their stony-heartedness. No one has a right to make one hand's turn of un- 
necessary labor for the meanest scullion of the kitchen, nor to demand unseasonable 
labor or service ; every servant in every humane family has a right to all the sleep 
that can be taken, and an equal right to demand regularity in all the movements oi 
the household, or an extra compensation for the lack of it. We should demand 
nothing which costs another unnecessary trouble Gr pain. 



It is a dreadful thing to be old and poor, and have no home ; but there is a 
deeper depth of human calamity than this — it is to have, in addition, an old age of 
wasting, wearing sickness, which is often superinduced by that constant depression 
of mind which attends the consciousness of being alone and friendless and in want. 
One of the very best means of avoiding an old age of destitution and bodily suffer- 
ing is to cultivate while young all the benevolent and generous feelings of our na- 
ture, never by any possibility allowing any opportunity pass of befriending a 
fellow-traveler, as we are passing along life's journey, for sooner or later the re- 
ward will come, the reward of a happy heart and oftentimes a comfortable provision 
for declining years. 

In 1812, a wounded soldier was lying helpless on the plains of Chalmette, a few 
miles below New-Orleans. A youth passing that way kneeled at his side, inquired 
as to his wants, conveyed him to a shelter, and remained with him until he was 
able to leave for his home in the city. Nearly have a century later, the wounded 
soldier died, but old Judah Touro never forgot the youth who helped him on the 
battle-field, and left him fifty thousand dollars in money, besides some duties to 
perform which eventually yielded Mr. Shepherd $100,000 more. 

While living in New-Orleans, about the year 1850, a poor young doctor, with a 
large family and a small practice, often came into my office. He was always court- 
eous, always kind, and always sad ; and who could be otherwise when anxiety for 
to-morrow's bread for wife and children, was always pressing on the heart ? But 
there came a letter one day, with the English post-mark, making inquiries for a 
young American doctor who had greatly befriended an English gentleman during a 
long and dangerous attack of sickness in New-Orleans a number of years before. 
This grateful gentleman had died, and left our poor young doctor a large estate. 

Ten years ago and less, there lived in the city of New-York a clergyman whose 
name and memory are sacred to thousands of grateful, loving, revering hearts. 
He has not been dead long, he will never die out of the holy affections of the peo- 
ple before whom he came in and went out so many years. Among his people there 
was one man, and he was of large wealth, who seemed to make it his special busi- 
ness, as it was his highest happiness, to see that his revered pastor wanted nothing. 
It was not a fitful care. It did not spring up in May, and die long before December 
came, but through weeks and months and long years it was always the same ; in- 
cessant, perennial, gushing up alway like a never-failing spring. The pastor died ; 
his loving watcher, by no fault of his own, failed for almost millions ; any recovery 
was absolutely hopeless. The grief that pressed him most was the loss of ability 
to help the helpless. Men looked on and wondered, and began to question if 
Providence would let such a man come to want in his gray hairs. But there was 
an eye upon him. A man of very great wealth said: "He must not suffer who 
cared so well and faithfully and long for my old minister. He is just the man I 
want to attend to my estates, and he shall have all he asks for as compensation for 
bis services." 


T£>^r a sntflr 


A bushel of corn contains as much nutriment as a bushel 
of wheat, and is five or six times less costly. But it is almost 
always spoiled in the Eastern States by being ground too fine. 
The most ignorant "contraband" in the South- West can make 
a most delicious bread in a few minutes out of corn-meal, pure 
water, and a little salt, baked on a hot hearthstone, or a heated 
hoe ; this is the celebrated " hoe-cake" of the olden time. 
Very few persons in the East can make any kind of corn-bread 
without putting in soda, saleratus, or cream of tartar enough to 
physic an elephant; the necessity for these ingredients arises 
from the useless fineness of the meal, which makes it bake 
heavily. Chemical research has demonstrated that the most 
healthful and nutritious and strengthening particles of ground 
corn or wheat are found attached to the outer covering, which 
forms the "bran," and which, by some perversity, is segregated 
from both flour and meal. The same principle applies to the 
Irish potato, for there is more nutriment in the quarter of an 
inch attached to the skin than in the whole remainder. There 
is more of the element which forms our bones in the refuse 
bran of corn or wheat than in all the other parts together. 
From experiments recently made with cattle, it appears that 
there is a large amount of nutriment in the cobs of Indian 
corn ; that if cobs and grain are ground together, cattle fare as 
well, thrive as well as if they were fed on the ground corn 
alone ; and from the fact that those fed on the former gave about 
half as much more manure, it may be safely inferred that if the 
cob and corn were properly ground together, and eaten moder- 
ately coarse, but baked well and thoroughly, it would not only 
be a wholesome article of diet, but would have a good effect in 
remedying that " costive habit " which is almost inseparably 
connected with nearly every human ailment, which aggravates 
all of them, and the removal of which greatly ameliorates, if 
it does not promptly and permanently cure three fourths of our 
ordinary maladies, if combined with cleanliness, rest, and pure air. 

Mush and Milk is a famous and much loved article of food, 
especially if the mush is slowly boiled for several hours ; if it is 
then cooled, sliced, and fried, it makes a dish which a healthy 
and industrious man can eat with a relish every day in the year. 

Indian corn coarsely broken, (called hominy,) soaked all night 
over or near the fire, and slowly boiled six or eight hours next 
day, makes a dish which may be eaten with salt, syrup, naolas* 
ses, or milk, of which one scarcely ever tires. 



Insanity means literally without health as to the brain ; its most com- 
mon cause is the mind dwelling too much on one idea, or having a too 
great sameness of occupation, especially of an all-absorbing or unpleasur- 
able character, as witness inventors, great geniuses, etc. The Superintend- 
ent of a State Lunatic Asylum states that the most furious maniac he had 
ever known was a woman who had raised a large family of children, each 
of whom was sent out to work as soon as able to do so, while she nursed 
the younger ones and did nearly all the work of the family herself ; here 
was not only sameness of occupation, but an unpleasant sense of being 
driven all the time ; anxiety, wearing care and solicitude pervading the 
whole of her existence. The insane are generally those who have had some 
great trouble; disappointed affection; loss of a dear relative or bosom 
friend ; pecuniary reverses, or eating remorse. Had any one of these been 
called to encounter half a dozen troubles, each equal to the first, there 
would have been no derangement at all, because the nervous stream 
would have expended its force, or have been diverted to half a dozen 
different points instead of one, and thus would not have caused disorgani- 
zation or an uncontrollable action as of the one over-stimulated portion. 
A man who thinks and talks incessantly of one thing, is soon set down by 
his neighbors as " crazy on that subject," although sensible enough on 
others. The fear of poverty has made many a rich man go mad. But the 
hardest worked slave is seldom deranged, because he has no abiding sor- 
row ; no concern about to-morrow's bread ; his labor is mechanical, 
and the moment it is over he dismisses all thought of toil, the mind runs 
home to his little hut, to his supper, and the other animal gratifications of 
his position, and his sleep is infinitely sweeter than his master's. In edu- 
cated and elevated New-England there are nearly ten times as many crazy 
persons as among an equal number of field hands in the South. Taking 
planters and their slaves together, there are three times fewer insane than 
in as many New-Englanders. More crazy people come from the farm than 
from the city and the town, in spite of the coveted quiet of a farmer's life, 
its envied independence, and its wrongly estimated abundance of the 
good things of this life. There are not half as many deranged people in 
the Western States as in New-England, in proportion to the population. 
One general principle explains these varying conditions. New-England is 
thickly settled ; its soil is sterile ; its winters long and dreary, and the 
competition for bread is ceaseless and terrific ; the mind frets at the long 
winter's inaction ; it is like a caged lion ; it beats unavailingly against its 
prison bars, and wastes itself in castle building and "vain thoughts." To 
be without money is to be without bread in New-England ; in the sunny 
South and in the broad fields of the blooming West the people "take trust 
for pay," and can live for years on confidence and credit, and a fear for to- 
morrow's bread never enters the imagination. Ohio is a fertile State, but 
thickly settled ; the two antagonize each other to some extent, so that 
the number of her lunatics is half-way between those of New-England and 
the West. Therefore, divert the mind in time of trouble ; don't brood 
over misfortunes, nor indulge in melancholy meditations ; gloat not over 
gold ; never allow your reflections to become inseparable from any one 
subject. When you find that you " can't sleep " from the mind running on 
a particular subject, remember that you are rapidly preparing for the mad- 
house, and in proportion as any one idea absorbs the brain, in such propor- 
tion are you courting insanity. Cultivate a cheerful, an uncomplaining, a 
genial frame of mind. Look on the bright side of things ; take hold of the 
smooth handle ; and above all be moderately busy to the last day of life in 
something agreeable and useful to yourself and others. 



Not long ago an editor in the northern part of the State of New-York, 
told his son, about eleven years old, that he would whip him in the course 
of a few hours, and locked him in an upper room until he had leisure to do 
so. When the boy heard the father coming, he became so alarmed that 
he jumped out of the window and broke his neck. 

About a year ago a mother punished her little daughter, of eight years, 
by shutting her up in a dark closet ; the child became so frightened that 
convulsions were induced, which resulted in death. In another case of a 
similar character, the result was still more calamitous, for the child became 
epileptic, and so remained for a long life afterward-. 

The object of parental correction should be the ultimate good of the 
child ; and to make it effective, 

1. The character of the punishment should be according to the disposi- 
tion and temperament of the child. 

2. The punishment should be in proportion to the nature of the offense. 

3. The punishment should be inflicted with the utmost self-possession ; 
for if done in a towering passion it takes the character of revenge ; the child 
sees it and resists it with defiance, stubbornness, or with a feeling of being 
the injured or oppressed party. 

4. Punishment should never be threatened, for one of two results, both 
unfortunate, are certain : the promise will not be kept and the child loses 
confidence in parental assertions ; or the child's mind, dwelling upon what 
is expected, suffers a lengthened torture, imagination always aggravating 
the severity of the chastisement, and the child gradually learns to startle 
at every event which is at all likely to usher in the correction, and the 
foundation is laid for that fearfulness of the future which is the bane of all 
human happiness ; and in some cases the severity of the expected suffering 
looms up so largely under the influence of a distempered imagination, that, 
as in the case of the editor's child, suicide is considered the lesser evil. It 
is nothing less than a savage barbarity for any parent to hold the mind of 
a child in a state of terrorism for a single hour, let alone for days and weeks. 

5. Never correct a child by scolding, admonition, or castigation in the 
presence of any other person whatever. It is an attack on its self-esteem 
which provokes resistance and passion. Let grown persons recollect how 
ill they bear even deserved reproof in the presence of others. 

6. Never punish a child twice for any one offense ; it is a great injustice, a 
relic of barbarism, and always either discourages or hardens. Make each 
settlement final in itself, and don't be forever harping on what is past. 

■ 7. Punishment should not be inflicted in any case without placing clearly 
before the child's mind the nature of the aggravation, and that the sole 
design of the chastisement or reproof is his present and future welfare. 

8. In all cases where punishment is decided upon, it should be prompt, 
or deferred, according to the degree of aggravation or palpable wrong. It 
is almost always better to defer ; but in such cases threaten nothing, say 
nothing, do nothing which indicates in the slightest degree that any thing 
is to come. And when the time does come, do not alarm the child with 
any show of preparation, but gradually and affectionately bring up the 
whole matter ; place it in its true, just, and clear light, and act accord- 
ingly ; and always, as much as possible, appeal to the child's conscience, to 
its sense of right, to its magnaminity, to its benevolence toward men, and 
its gratitude toward God. 



Mutton can be produced more cheaply than any other meat, 
and yet it is quite as nutritious as beef, while it has not so much 
waste. Pugilists as often " train " on mutton as on beef. 

A Cellar which opens inside a dwelling should be kept as 
faultlessly clean all the year round as any other part of the 
house, because its atmosphere is constantly ascending, and im- 
pregnates every room in the house with its own odors. In 
reality, there ought not to be any cellar under any dwelling. 
i Squeaking boots or shoes are a great annoyance, especially 
in entering a sick-room, or a church after the services have 
commenced ; the remedy is, to boil linseed oil and saturate the 
soles with the same. 

Neuralgia of the severest character is sometimes removed 
by painting the parts two or three times a day with a mixture 
composed of half an ounce of the Tincture of Iodine, and half 
a drachm of the Sulphate of Morphine. 

Liniment. One of the most powerful liniments for the re- 
lief of severe pain, is made of equal quantities of spirits of 
hartshorn, sweet oil, and chloroform; dip into this a piece of 
cotton cloth doubled, about the size of a silver dollar, lay it on 
the spot, hold a handkerchief over the spot, so as to confine the 
fumes, and the pain immediately disappears. Do not let it re- 
main on over a minute. Shake it well just before using, and 
keep the bottle very closely stopped. 

Chemical Agencies. If a single drop of sweet oil comes in 
contact with half an ounce of the chloride of nitrogen, it would 
explode with such power as to shiver a house to atoms. 

The highest wave does not exceed twenty feet, and a man 
may easily " ride them" — and thus prevent himself from drown- 
ing — by throwing himself on his back, just keeping his nose 
above water, and joining his hands nnder the water. 

Dentistry. It is becoming fashionable to have teeth ex- 
tracted while the person is in a state of insensibility, caused by 
inhaling nitrous oxide gas, commonly known as "laughing 
gas." When first discovered it was used freely, but in some 
cases dangerous results followed, as testified to by Sir Hum- 
phry Davy, Professor Silliman, Pereira, Berzelius, Ayston, and 
others. But from the fact that no such ill results have been ob- 
served for many years past, although it has been taken by scores 
of thousands, it may be reasonably concluded that a purer 
quality is now prepared, and that its administration is safe. 

Food. The most easily digested articles of food as yet 
known, are sweet apples baked, cold raw cabbage sliced in 
vinegar, and boiled rice ; the most indigestible are suet, boiled 
cabbage, and pork ; the former requires an hour, the latter five. 



An old man was shaving himself one day before the fire, 
but suddenly exclaimed in a great rage to the maid-servant : 
" I can't shave without a glass ! why is it not here ?" " Oh !" said 
the girl, "I have not placed it there for many weeks, as you 
seemed to get along quite as well without it." The crusty old 
bachelor (of coarse he was an old bachelor, or he would not 
have been so crotchety and crusty) had, for the first time, ob- 
served that there was no glass there, and his inability to shave 
without one, was "in the mind" only, it was imaginary. 

A Dutch farmer, who measured a yard through, was one 
day working in the harvest-field with his little sod, and was 
bitten by a snake. He was horror-struck. When he re- 
covered himself a little, he snatched up his outer clothing, and 
made tracks for home, at the same time busying himself in 
putting on his vest ; but it wouldn't go on. He looked at his 
arm, and it seemed to be double its natural size ; but tugging 
at it with greater desperation, he finally got both arms in. 
But his blood fairly froze in his veins, when he discovered it 
wouldn't meet by about a foot. By this time he had reached 
his house, and' throwing himself on the bed, exclaimed in an 
agony of terror: M mine frow ! I'm snake bite ! I'm killed ! 
mine Cot I" But his little bit of a wife, standing a-kimbo in 
the middle of the floor, burst out into a fit of laughter so uncon- 
trollable, that she was likely to suffocate, and thus beat her 
husband in dying. The poor man, in his alarm, had endeavored 
to put on his little boy's vest, and was not swollen at all, except 
"in the mind." 

Many a mother feels fretted and jaded and worn out with 
the cares of housekeeping, and is almost sick. But at the mo- 
ment a welcome visitor comes in, full of life and cordiality and 
cheeriness, in less than five minutes that mother is a different 
woman ; the sky has cleared ; the face is lighted up with smiles ; 
and she feels as well as she ever did in her life. Her discour- 
agement, her almost sickness was not "in the mind," it was a 
reality, but the excitement of conversation drove out the weary- 
ing blood, which was oppressing the heart, and made it fairly 
tingle to the finger-points. Mem. Ladies! when you go a vis- 
iting, carry smiles and gladness and a joyous nature and a kind 
heart with you, and you will do more good than a dozen doc- 
tors. Most persons have a variety of uncomfortable feelings at 
times, but they disappear on some exciting occurrence, not be- 
cause they are merely "in the mind," only imaginary, but be- 
cause the excited heart wakes up to a new propulsive power, 
and drives forward the stagnating blood from points where its 
sluggishness was producing oppression, or actual pain. Mem. 
2d. For all, when you are grumpy, bounce up, go ahead, and 
do something. 



Even in these late ages the horse-shoe is not ^infrequently 
seen nailed over the door of the cabin or cottage, to "charm " 
away misfortune, or to "keep off" disease. There are intelli- 
gent men who have carried a buckeye in their "unmention- 
able " pockets for years, to "keep off" piles! Children can be 
found at school, any day, with- little bags of brimstone attached 
to their necks by a string, to "keep off" some particular mala- 
dy. There are many young gentlemen and ladies who have 
half a dozen " charms " attached to their watch-chains, it being 
a remnant of the ancient superstition. We give a pitying smile 
at the mention of these absurdities, for we know them to be un- 
availing. But there are " charms " against human ills which are 
powerful to save from physical, mental, and moral calamity ! 

Bearing about in one's heart the sweet memories of a mother's 
care, and affection, and fidelity, often has a resistless power, for 
many a year after that dear mother has found her resting-place 
in heaven, to restrain the wayward and the unsettled from rush- 
ing into the ways of wicked and abandoned men. John Ean- 
dolph, of Eoanoke, used to repeat in his later years, and always 
with quivering lips, that while he was quite a young man, in 
Paris, he was repeatedly on the point of plunging recklessly 
into the French infidelity which was so prevalent during the 
terrible "Ee volution" of the time; but was as often re- 
strained by the remembrance of that far-distant time, when yet 
in his infancy, his mother used to have him bend his knees be- 
fore her, and, with ' his little hands in hers, taught him in sweet 
but tremulous tones to say nightly, "Oar Father, who art," etc. 

A Scotch mother, when her son, a lad of sixteen, was just 
about leaving for America, and she had no hope that she should 
ever meet him again, said to him : " Promise me, my son, that 
you will always respect the Sabbath day." "I will," said he. 
His first employer in New- York dismissed him because he re- 
fused to work on Sunday. But he soon found other employ- 
ment, and is now a very rich man, an exemplary Christian, and 
an influential citizen. 

Tens of thousands are there in this wide land who, by the 
" charm " of the temperance pledge, have gone out into the 
world, singly and alone, to battle with its snares, and tempta- 
tions, and sin ; they have been surrounded at every step by the 
great tempter, with the allurements of passion and pride ; of 
sensual gratifications and of corrupting associations ; but keep- 
ing their eye steadily fixed on the beautiful "pledge," to 
"touch not, taste not" the accursed thing, they have bravely 
come off conquerors, and to day stand in their might the pillars 
of society. Young gentlemen, and young ladies, too, make it 
your ambition to bear about with you "alway" the "charm" 
of the "pledge" of reverence for the Sabbath-day and the holy ^ 
memories of a sainted mother's religious teachings, and you will 
pass safely to a ripe old age of happiness and health. 



An old beau, formerly well known in Washington City, was 
accustomed to eat but one meal in twenty -four hours ; if, after 
this, he had to go to a party and take a second dinner, he ate 
nothing at all next day. He died at the age of seventy years. 

A lady of culture, refinement, and unusual powers of observ- 
ation and comparison, became a widow. Keduced from afflu- 
ence to poverty, with a large family of small children depend- 
ent on her manual labor for daily food, she made a variety of 
experiments to ascertain what articles could be purchased for 
the least money, and would, at the same time, " go the farthest," 
by keeping her children longest from crying for something to 
eat. She soon discovered that when they ate buckwheat cakes 
and molasses, they were quiet for a longer time than after eat- 
ing any other kind of food. 

A distinguished Judge of the United States District Court 
observed that, when he took buckwheat cakes for breakfast, he 
could sit on the bench the whole day without being uncomfort- 
ably hungry; if the cakes were omitted, he felt obliged to take 
a lunch about noon. Buckwheat cakes are a universal favorite 
at the winter breakfast-table, and scientific investigation and 
analysis has shown that they abound in the heat-forming prin- 
ciple, hence Nature takes away our appetite for them in summer. 

During the Irish famine, when many died of hunger, the poor 
were often found spending their last shilling for tea and tobac- 
co and spirits. It has also been often observed in ISTew-York, 
by those connected with charitable institutions, that when money 
was paid to the poor, they often laid out every cent in tea or 
coffee, instead of procuring the more substantial food, such as 
meal, and flour, and potatoes. On being reproved for this ap- 
parent extravagance and improvidence, the reply, in both cases, 
was identical ; their own observation had shown them that a 
penny's worth of tea, or tobacco, or liquor, would keep off the 
sense of hunger longer than a penny's worth of any thing else. 
Scientific men express the idea by saying, "Tea, iike alcohol, 
retards the metamorphosis of the tissues ;" in other words, it 
gives fuel to the flame of life, and thus prevents it from con- 
suming the fat and flesh of the body. 

If a person gets into the habit of taking a lunch between 
breakfast and dinner, he' will very soon find himself getting 
faint about the regular lunch eon- time ; but let him be so pressed 
with important engagements for several days in succession as 
to take nothing between meals, it will not be long before he 
can dispense with his lunch altogether. These things seem to 
show that, to a certain extent, eating often, is a mere matter of 
habit. Whole tribes of Indian hunters and trappers have been 
known to eat but once in twenty-four hours, and that at night. 



The influence which the mind has in causing, aggravating, 
and protracting disease, is too constantly lost sight of, by all 
classes of physicians. Every body recommends exercise as a 
means of preserving and regaining health. But to ride a cer- 
tain length of time, or to walk a specified distance "for the 
health," merely for the sake of the health, is almost useless, and 
is a penance ; but if there is the accompaniment of an agreeable 
associate or an exhilarating motive, one which lifts up the 
mind and absorbs it for the time being, so as to make it wholly 
forgetful of the bodily condition, as the radical object of the 
exercise, this is health giving ; its effects are always magical, on 
mind and body and blood. 

Dwelling on trouble ; remorse for lost opportunities ; the hug- 
ging of sharp-pointed memories; moping over the slights of 
friends; feeding on exaggerations of the hardness of our lot, 
and grieving vainly for unrequited love, all these are known 
the world over, as being capable of bringing on slow and pain- 
ful and fatal diseases. But it is not so well understood that 
great mental emotion sometimes causes maladies which prove 
fatal in a few days ; such maladies as are induced by great 
physical exposures. It was recently announced that a distin- 
guished French advocate was so excited and exhausted by one 
of his professional efforts, as to superinduce an attack of pneu- 
monia, (lung fever or inflammation of the lungs,) of which he 
died in a few days. Three young ladies were riding in a carriage 
in St. Louis ; the horses ran away ; two of the riders escaped 
from the vehicle, while the third sat still, as composedly as if 
nothing unusual had taken place ; all were astonished at her 
" presence of mind." After she reached her home, she informed 
her friends that she remained still because the shock, the feeling 
of horror was such, that she was per force, as immovable as 
marble ; the reaction was such as to cause an inflammation of 
the bowels, which nothing could remove, and of which she died 
in a few days. These facts, with thousands of others like them, 
prove beyond all cavil, that the mind may be a cause of dis- 
ease ; and the inference is clear, that the states of the mind 
should be watched. We should guard against cherishing de- 
pressing feelings ; and with as much care, should habituate our- 
selves to self-control ; to the habit of looking at every thing of a 
stirring or harrowing character with a calm courage ; we should 
strive at all times for that valuable characteristic, " presence of 
mind," under all circumstances ; for we are every day in great 
need of it ; it is in many cases, a literal " life-preserver." 



Considering that not one hired cook in a thousand makes good bread, it is more 
healthful to use baker's bread, and is also more economical for small families. 
Baker's bread is always good, fresh, and light, hence there is no waste. To pre- 
vent waste where home-made bread is used, it being so often heavy, hard, burnt, 
or sour, it is made into toast, or bread pudding, whch requires so much sweetening 
and butter and spices that the "saving" is all lost. An intelligent and observant 
writer states in that excellent monthly, the American Agriculturist, that his family 
of five persons paid out in one year for 

Another year. 

Meats, $9$ 68 Meats, $84 76 

Flour, 5 barrels, . 46 25 Bread, 451 loaves, 5c, 61 30 

Butter, 22£c., 65 81 Butter, . 56 81 

i ■ 

Total, $207 74 Total, $202 87 

Flour and butter, $112 06 Bread and butter, $118 11 

The bread cost more, but the butter less, and less meat was eaten, to say noth- 
ing of the fuel, time, milk, salt, rising, etc. saved by using baker's bread ; then, 
there is the comfort of having good bread always on the table, and the absence 
of that annoyance which an intelligent mind always experiences when compelled 
to eat unwholesome food. The amount of injury done to the tender stomachs of 
young children, invalids, and sedentary persons, by eating bad bread day after day, 
from one year's end to another, must be enormous. A cook who can not make 
good bread of every description, ought not to be allowed house-room for an hour ; 
and that mother is criminally negligent, whatever may be her position, who does not 
teach her daughter to know what good bread is ; and also how to make it. Alum 
is used to give whiteness, softness, and capacity for retaining moisture. Lime 
could be employed with equal effect, having the advantage of correcting any sour- 
ness in the bread or stomach ; besides affording an important ingredient for making 
the bones strong. Every housekeeper ought to know how to make two or three 
kinds of bread. The best yeast in the world is made of hops and cold water, 
nothing else. If lime-water is used, it should be water saturated with lime, that is, 
holding as much lime as it can ; if it has for a moment more, it goes to the bottom, 
as sugar in a tea-cup, when the tea can be made no sweeter. Use nineteen pounds 
of flour and five pounds of saturated lime-water made thus : Put stones of quick 
lime in water, stir until slack, let it settle and then pour off. Soda (an alkali made 
of sea-salt) and saleratus (an alkali made of wood ashes) are used for the self- 
same purpose, to neutralize any sourness in the bread ; one is in no respect better 
than the other ; but as cooking soda is the cheapest, it is an economy to prefer it. 

Johnny Cake. — To two quarts of Indian (corn meal) add a tea-spoonful of salt 
and as much cold water as will make a soft dough ; bake one hour, eat hot, with 
milk. Stir cold water into unsifted wheat meal until a not very soft batter is 
made, put into small patty-pans, bake in a hot oven half an hour or more. 

Raised Biscuit. — A pint of light dough, a fresh egg and its bulk of fresh but- 
ter. Knead most thoroughly for ten minutes ; roll out and let them rise on a shal- 
low pan, in a moderately warm place for half an hour ; bake for twelve or fifteen 
minutes in a hot oven ; to be eaten while fresh. The two most important requi- 
sites for making good bread are a most patient and thorough kneading and a hot 
oven, kept steadily hot, until the baking is completed. 

Patent Flour is made of the following drugs : With six pounds of wheat flour 
mix five tea-spoonfuls of cooking-soda, then seven of cream of tartar and six of 
common salt. Shorten or not with a quarter of a pound of butter. 


" Golden Stories," published by Mr. "Wood, 61 Walker street, embrace fire 
delightful little books, in uniform binding, for young children : " The White Kit- 
ten," " The Tent in the Garden," " Loving Words or Loving Deeds," " The Water- 
Melon," and " Willie Wilson, the Newsboy." This House, it will be remembered, 
has had for many years the most extensive assortment of medical publications of 
any other establishment in the country, besides a large collection of miscellaneous 
books, all of sterling value. 

Almanac for 1864. Being the Tenth Illustrated Kegister of Rural Affairs. By 
Luther Tucker & Co., Albany, N. Y. Sent free by mail for twenty-five cents, giv- 
ing a vast amount of useful, reliable, and practical information to farmers upon 
every variety of subject connected with the cultivation of land. 

The Mother's Journal, monthly, $1 a year, New-York, by Mrs.,Cai*oline 0. Hiscox, 
is filled with articles of sterling value ; the selections are made with a wise dis- 
crimination, nothing frivolous ever appears in its fair pages. It merits a very 
general circulation. 

" It Beats the World," said our good-natured old colored laundress the other 
day, in admiration of the " Universal Clothes- Wringer," and her reasons were terse 
and laconic : " It saves work and clothes too." 

Weather Indicator. Charles Wilder, of Peterboro, N. H., manufactures Wood- 
ruff's Barometer, which combines in a remarkable degree cheapness, accuracy, sim- 
plicity, durability, and portability. Prices from $5 to $20. 

Photographic Magnifier, a most charming accompaniment to photographic 
albums. $1, $1.50 and $3. 

The Photographic Magnifier affords the sweetest of all pleasures, as often as 
used for inspecting the portraits of those dear to us. Sold by P. C. Godfrey, 831 
Broadway, New-York. 

To Youth. — A warning against advertisements headed Physical Debility. Con- 
fessions of an Invalid. Marriage Guide. Warning to Young Men. Manhood Re- 
stored. Essence of Life. Advice to the Married. Early Indiscretions. Loss of 
Memory. Nervous Debility. See Hall's Journal of Health for December, 1863. 
Sent post-paid for twelve cents. 

Personal. — Our office for medical consultation temporarily, is at 831 Broadway, 
New- York, from eleven to one o'clock, daily. Ladies who desire a consultation 
are requested to notify us, when we will appoint a specific hour. Gentlemen who 
can not be in the city during the above hours can arrange a special appointment. 
We do not desire interruption at present, except from eleven to one, unless 

The last editions of "Health and Disease" and "Sleep" are exhausted ; new 
editions will be printed about first of February. 

Any one of our books will be sent post-paid to any person sending us four new 

John G. Broughton, Esq., No. 13 Bible House, New-York, has sent us four pub- 
lications of the American Tract Society, No. 28 Cornhill, Boston. " Temperance 
Tales," by Lucius M. Sargent, is an invaluable book for all classes, but especially 
for the young. " Pleasant Tales," in prose and verse, with twenty-six engravings. 
Contents : Mark's Temptation ; Bill and his Bible ; A Lesson from the Birds ; True 
Courage,*and fifty-four ! other useful and most interesting stories, sent for forty 
cents ; also, u Black and White," by Mrs. Jane D. Chaplin, which will find thou- 
sands of admiring and sympathizing readers. Christ the Children's Guide, by 
Rev. J. S. Sewall, a sweetly instructive little book of thirty-six pages. 


To such of our readers as require scientific, skillful, and able treatment of a 
surgical character, we commend Prof. H. A. Daniels as fully competent, the more 
so as he has had an extensive and varied experience in every department of surgery. 
We will take pleasure in introducing any of our readers to him, either personally 
or by letter. 

Dr. D., 221 Sixth Avenue, New- York City, confines his practice more particularly 
to those classes of disease where the efforts of an expert are generally successful ; 
such as diseases and deformities of the eyes, nose, and face, removal of tumors, 
polypi, dead bone, strictures, stone in the bladder, piles, fistula, fissure, cancer, and 
every variety of ulcer. 

Harper's Pictorial Weekly, $3. Harper's Monthly, $3. Both, $5 a year. 

Skating Carnival. — Oscar F. Outman, Esq., has prepared, at great expense, a 
lake of about eleven acres, on Fifth Avenue and Fifty-seventh street, for purposes 
of skating. On Tuesday, December 22d, 1863, it was first opened for the season. 
We found the ice in beautiful order, strong, clear, and smooth. Season tickets for 
gentlemen, $5 ; Ladies, $2 ; youth under fifteen, $3. There will be every accommo- 
dation of retiring-rooms, refreshments, skates, cloak-rooms, etc. Under the im- 
mediate superintendence of Mr. John L. Brown, the public have a guarantee that 
every thing connected with this famous resort of fashion and fun will be hand- 
somely conducted. 


The Harper Brothers', among a multitude of other useful and instructive new 
issues from their prolific press, have just published, for the exclusive benefit of 
juvenility, " Mr. Wind and Madam Eain," by Paul De Musset, translated by Emily 
Makepeace, with twenty-seven illustrations by Charles Bennett. Among the con- 
tents are, How the Mill Turns and Cabbages Grow ; Mr. Wind Pays a Visit ; Mad- 
am Rain Drops in ; Mr. Wind Laughs ; Poor Madam Rain ; Mr. Wind and Madam 
Rain Sporting with the Sun and Moon, etc. 

The Boyhood of Martin Luther ; or the sufferings of the heroic beggar-boy 
who afterward became the great German Reformer. By Henry Mayhew. The 
bare title of this most instructive volume will commend it to the attention of a 
multitude of our readers, both young and old. 

Young Benjamin Franklin, (by the same author ;) or the right road through 
life. A story to show how young Benjamin learned the principles which raised 
him from a printer's boy to the first ambassador of the American Republic. These 
biographies ought to be read in every family in the nation ; they could not fail to 
have an immense influence for good on every child and youth. We thank the 
Harper Brothers for their publication. 

"Rambles after the Land of Shells" is another of those publications of the 
American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and J. G. Broughton, 13 Bible House, 
New-York, which combine solid, useful knowledge with religious instruction and 
sentiment, infinitely preferable for children to the multitude of trashy and un- 
natural story-books which have too long been flooded over the community by well- 
meaning but injudicious " Societies." Also, the " Orient." Is there a reality in 
Conversion ? In Regeneration ? are the questions discussed in this useful and in- 
structive volume of 93 pp. 16mo. * 

" Snow-Flakes," by the same Society, is most handsomely got up as a present, 
not only for the holidays, but for all seasons. It is full of intensely interesting 
scientific knowledge, while it strikingly inculcates some of the most important 
doctrines concerning the character of the great Creator — his wisdom, his power, 
hi3 beneficence, and his love. Also, Temperance Tales, by Lucius M. Sargent ; 
very interesting. " Ministering Children," (four books,) The Pilgrim Path; The 
Wicket-Gate ; Down in a Mine, or Buried Alive ; Elton Wheatley, the Stam- 
merer, a beautiful little story. 



A Family Religious Newspaper, 

Is the product of a large number of the best and ablest pens in 
the denomination, and it meets every reasonable demand, as our rap- 
idly increasing subscription list fully demonstrates. The following 
disfcgujshed names are on our list of 



Chaplains QUINT and. JAMES, 

"SPECTATOR," (Washington Correspondent.) 

In addition to the above, we have miscellaneous articles weekly 
from a large number of writers of experience and acknowledged 
excellence, and we intend to meet the wants of every family circle. 
The best writers of juvenile literature are secured, and no pains 
or expense are spared to make this department what it should be. 
Our weekly 


Is made up to the latest hour, before going to press, with great 
care, and is acknowledged to be of great value. Our contributors 
being paid for their labors, we are enabled to act independently, 
and secure for our columns such, and only such, material as we 
think best adapted to our purpose. 

j^g°» It is the constant aim of the publishers to make the Con- 
gregationalist the best family religious newspaper in the land, and 
many pronounce it such already. 


», .» m „ t< 




— AND 

Eurnace Heat Dispensed With. 

" A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor warming the feet delightfully, with an oval fireplace nearly 
three feet across, with no visible blower, very little dust, and abso- 
lutely no gas ; the ashes need removing but once a year, while by 
the extra heat, pure air direct from out doors, is conveyed t© an up- 
per room, without the possibility of meeting with any red hot metallic 
surface, or with any corrupting source whatever — it is simply pure 
air warmed. A Philadelphia correspondent who has used one of 
these low-down grates in a room eighteen feet square, for six years, 
says : " I have never known a day that the fire made in the morning 
was not equal to the day, no matter what the temperature was outside.' 1 

To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least 
one room in the house where there are absolutely all the advantages 
of a wood fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from 
the cellar, and not from the room itself — this open, low down, air- 
tight, easily regulated grate, or rather, fireplace, with its large broad 
bed of burning coals, or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, 
will be a great desideratum. No one who has a wise regard for the 
comfort, cheerfulness and health of a family of children, should be 
without one for a single day. One can be put in at any season of the 
year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty to fifty dollars accord- 
ing to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes about the same 
amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out however, as is 
supposed, near one-third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of an old 
fashioned wood fire — (the oxygen being supplied from without,) as any 
gentleman or lady is invited to see, any cold day, at our office, 42 
Irving Place, New York." — HalVs Journal of Health, for Dec, 1859. 

— MADE by — 

J±JN15¥LErW& dks DIXOKT, 




For Public and Private Buildings, with Registers <£ Ventilators. 


Address,— ANDREWS & DIXON, 

No. 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(Opposite the United States Mini.) 

Hall's Journal of Health, 

One Dollar a Year. 831 Broadway, New- York. 

This publication never advises a dose of medicine, being mainly intended to show how health 
may be maintained ; how the most common diseases may be avoided, what their first symptoms 
are, and how easily they may be warded off by prompt attention and the use of means which are 
almost always at hand in any household. Any one of the nine part volumes, bound uniformly in 
muslin, is sold for $1.25, sent, post paid, for $1.40. These nine volumes, with that for 1863, 
will be furnished for $10. 

Volume IX., for 1862, among many other articles, contains One Hundred and Twenty-five 
Health Tracts, of one page each, on the following subjects : 

Bad Colds, Debilities, Bheumafcism, Preserves, 

Eyesight, Nervousness, Catarrh, Small-Pox, 

Walking, Pain, Dieting, Serenity, 

Position, Vaccination, Teeth, Miasm, 

Flannel, Shoes, Deafness, Soldiers, 

Cold Feet, Hair, Beard, Marriage, 

Sleeping, Constipation, Burns, Drunkards, 

Dyspepsia, Sour Stomach, Toe-Nails, Whitlow, 

Headache, Eating, Backbone, Precaution, 

Premonitions, Bathing, Longevity, Exercise, 

Private Things, Neuralgia, " Diarrhea, Poisons, 

Sunshine, Coffee, Habit, How to Eat, 

Nursing, "Warnings, Sores, Etc. Etc. 

" Dr. W. W. Hall, of New- York, editor of the well-known Journal op Health, has published new editions of 
nis four valuable works upon Bronchus and Kindred Diseases; Consumption ; Health and Disease ; and Sleep. 
They are filled with sensible, practical advice, given in a comprehensible, fluent style, and naturally treat upon a 
large variety of topics, among which are consumption, apoplexy, ventilation of rooms, food, lungs, sea-voyages, de- 
bilitations, cold feet, flannels, and every thing, in fact, conducing to health and disease, protection, prevention, ex- 
ercise, attire, etc. A vast deal of research, experience, and care are exhibited in the books, and their tendency is 
to instruct and benefit in the most direct manner. The laws of nature are explained, the necessity of observing 
them inculcated, and the evils of irregularity, excess, and abuse vividly presented. There is so much valuable in- 
foimation in these works, and evidently such patient, discriminating labor in their preparation, that a newspaper 
paragraph fails to render the author justice. But we commend them as useful to every man and woman. Dr. Hall 
throws light upon certain subjects which are unfortunately too little comprehended — matters obviously not to be 
dwelt upon here, and what he says is delicatelv and sagaciously told. He warns the public against a certain class 
of publications on physiology as pernicious, giving conclusive reasons for his opinion.* The four books are well 
printed and neatly bound, and may be obtained of the Doctor at a price which, considering their intrinsic value, is 
indeed moderate." — Boston Post. 

* In Sleep, sent, prepaid, for $1.40, and the others for $1.15 each. 

9 Vols, of HALL'S JOURNAL OF" HEALTH, bound in muslin, each, $1.35 
2 Vols. FIRESIDE MONTHLY, " " 1.35 

1 "Vol. " SLEEP," 1.35 




Either of the above will be sent, post paid, for 15 cents additional. These fifteen volumes will be sold at the 
office for $12. They will be furnished to any one who will send forty new subscribers. Either volume will be sent, 
post paid, for four new subscribers. 

Subscriptions will come safely thus : Pin a dollar to a sheet of paper, then write the subscriber'* name, town, 
and county, in Roman letters ; inclose in an envelope, seal it with a wafer ; write on the back, in plain Roman 
letters, " Hall's Journal of Health, New- York ;" put on a stamp, and then put the letter in the post- 
office yourself, without saying any thing about it to any body. Doing this, not one letter in a million will fail to 
reach its destination safely. 

" SOLDIER HEALTH," full edition, bound in muslin, sent for 81 cents ; in paper, 25 cents ; abridged 
edition, $20 per thousand ; $2.50 per hundred, 40 cents per dozen, at the office. One dozen sent, post paid, for 50 
cents ; five cents for single copies, embodying about one hundred directions for preserving the health, and how to 
act in various emergencies, in marching, in camp, or battle-field. It is a humanity to furnish a soldier with this 
little volume, which can be easily carried in a watch-fob, and room to spare. It is believed to be the only volume 
relating to the health of soldiers for which a second edition has been legitimately called for, while the fourth edition , 
of this has been already issued. 

The books on " BRONCHITIS " and ** CONSUMPTION " embody the author's experience and 
observations in the special and almost exclusive treatment of these maladies for twenty years. The first named de- 
scribes minutely, and in the plainest language, the nature, causes, symptoms, and distinguishing features of 


DR. W. W. HALL, New-York. 







|k«|r flatissjj Jtpjjaoto, 

Patented Jtrna 17th., 1863. IRe-issued Dec. 33d, 1863. 
Patented February 34tlx, 1863. 





WM. L>. RUSSELL, Agent, 

Oke Door North of Maiden Lane, New-York. 

Circulars sent without charge, post paid. 

Already has the invention found its place in the nursery, in the sick-room, in hospitals 
and hospital railway-ambulances, in barber-shops, in restaurants, in the student's room 
at colleges, in chemical laboratories; and for family purposes, where summer fires have 
heretofore roasted the occupants, they now prepare their meals by means of the Lamp 
Attachment, at a less cost than they before incurred for kindling-wood, saying nothing 
about cost of regular fuel. 

Prices are from Two to Six Dollars, according to size. 

" The smallest holds a Quart of water, the largest a Gallon. The apparatus is literally 
all that it claims to be." — Ed. Hall's Jour. Health. 


TO f 


VOL. X. 1863. 


Apprentices, 31 

Anecdotes, Ill, 112 

Agreeableness, 262 

Autocrat's Death, 269 

Baldness, 22 

Bible Confirmations, 50, 79 

Burns, 85 

Bilious Diarrhea, 163 

Blind Boy, 237 

Catching Cold, 13 

Corns, 19 

Cherished Flower, 51 

'Cute Things, 66 

Clay, Henry, 83 

Cures, 84 

Coffee, 91,122 

Changing Clothing, 86, 115 

Constipation, 138 

Cholera, 161 

Central Park, 167 

Croup, 177 

Children, 205 

Children's Feet, 282 

Clerical Support, 229 

Curious Epitaph, 231 

Cottage, Sea, 238 

Consumption Detected, 245 

Cancer, 267 

Dress, 17 

Daughters, 30 

Dirt, 47 

Dying, 58, 126 

Drowning, 156 

Dieting, 156 

Diphtheria, 159 

Dysentery, 162 

Disinfectants, 164 


Eatinsr, 9, 116, 216 

Eyesight, 101 

Emanations, 155 

Exercise, 219 

Evermore, 243 

Eloquence, 265 

Farmer Health, 5 

Farmers' Wives Overtaxed, 35 

Facts, Interesting, 72 

Great Eaters, 216 

Gruels and Soups, 283 

Housewifery, 20 

Household Vermin, 92 

Haunted Houses, 95 

Household Economy, 142 

Head Vermin, ". 182 

Insanity, 218 

Ill-Nature, 257 

Life Wasted, 89 

Loose Bowels, 160 

Logic Run Mad, 217 

Lung-Measurement, 221 

Loss of Children, 205, 265 

Mothers' Influence, 28 

Making Money, 176 

Medical Items, 214, 284 

Month Malign, 215 

Manners, 261 

Music Lessons, 263 

Natives and Foreigners, „ * . 60 

Nicholas of Russia, « . . . 269 

Notices, 285 




One Acre, 113 

Paine, Thomas, 52 

Poverty and Disease, 93 

Parental Corrections, 191, 232, 253 

Potatoes, 21 

Premature Deaths, 25 

Pulpit Power, 48 

Public Schools, 61 

Poisons, 90 

Philosophy, Ill 

Piles, 119 

Purgative Medicines, 127 

Physicians, . . . . 143 

Pew System, 149 

Physiological Items, 165 

Physiology of Worship, 213, 266 

Poetry, its Hygiene, 

Responsibility of Writers, 27 

Recreation, 71 

Reformers, 74 

Randolph, John, 76 

Rosetta Stone, 79 

Religious Papers, Age of, 81 

Resignation, 125 

Raising Children, 205 

Revenges, 256 

Shoes for Winter, 19 

Success in Life, 25 

Sabbath Observance, 57, 166 

Spot, The One, 67 

Schools, .61, 88 

Sad Reflection, 82 

Soldiers,. 93 


Surgery, 102 

Specifics, 112 

Spring-Time, 114 

Sibley, Major, 130 

Summer Drinks, 158 

Summer Recreations, 204 

September,. . . , 215 

Summer Mortality, 220 

Spirometry, 221 

Sill, Door, 239 

Style, 263 

Stammering, 281 

Soups, ..283 

Temper Controlled, 29 

Thorburn, Grant, 55 

Tumors, 105 

Temper and Health, 264 

The Young Suicide, 276 

Unskilled Labor 31 

Ventilation, '. 65 

Vital Capacity, 245 

Wise Workers, 57 

Woolen Clothing, 86 

White Washes, 87 

Worth Remembering, 212 

Wife Dying, 241 

Wedding-Ring, 242 

Wealth, 259 

Weather, 268 

Youth and Age,.. 240 


Bronchitis & Kin- 
dred Diseases. 


Asthma, Common 
44 Perpetual 
' Causes & Nature 
" Symptoms & Treat. 

Bronchitis, what is 
" Nature & Cause 
" Symp. & Treat. 

Brandy & Throat disease 

Clerical Health 



" Cause of 


" How diseased 
" Many cases of 

Dangerous Delays 

" Exposures 

Disease Prevented 
Debilitating Indulgences 


Frail and Feeble 
Food, Tables of 

Heart, Contents 
" Disease of 
How remain Cured 
High Livers 

Inhalation, Medicated 
Inflammation described 

Lawyers, Cases of 
Lungs described 
" Contents 
Lake Shore, situation 
Life, average duration 

Mistaken Patients 
Merchants' Cases 

Nitrate of Silver 

Over FeediDg 
Oxygen Breathing 
Overtasking Brain 


Prairie Situation 


fatent Medicines 



Smoking, Bainful elects 
Shortness ot Breath 
Sea Shore 
Sea Voyages 
Spitting Blood 

Throat Ail 

" What is it 
« Symp* — - 

' Cause* 
" Philosopsv. 
« History 

Tobacco, effects of 

Ttt«isil Cutting 

" Unwell » 

Voice Organs described 



App, % Natures 
Arkansas Hunter 
Air and Exercise 
Alcoholic Effects 

Bad Colds 
Brandy Drinking 

Consumption Described 
" Delusive 
«* Not painless 
«« Causes of 
«* Symptoms 
" Localities 
" Liabilities . 
*« Nature of 
" Curable 
" Commencing 
" Seeds deposited 
" Is it catching ? 

Cough, Nature of 
" ' Causes of 
« Effects of 

Cluster Doctrine 

Cheesy Particles 


Earliest Symptoms 

Exercise essential 

" Various forms of 

" Sinking in water 

Great Mistake 



Horseback Exercise 

Impure Air 

" Effects of 
Lacing Tight 

Night Sweats 
Nitrate of Silver 

Occupation in 
Out Door Activities 
Over Exercise 


Porter Drinking 

Respirator, Best 

Spitting Blood 
Short Breath 
Sea Voyages 
Sea Shore 
Safe Treatment 
Southern Climate 

Throat Ail, distinguished 
from Consump. 
" From Bronchitis 

Tickling Cough 

Health & Disease 




Anal Itching 



Apples Curative 

Bowels Regulated 

Bad Breath 

Baths and Bathing 




Binding Food 

Constitutions Restored 



Children, Health of 


Chills at Meals 


Clothing Changes 




Cooling off Slowly 

Chest Developed 

Clerical Rules 

Choosing Physicians 

Cracked Wheat 

Corn Bread 

Drinking at Meals 





Feet Cold 
First Things 


Horseback Exercise 

Inverted Toe Nails 

Late Dinners 

Morbid Appetite 



Pleurisy and Pneumonia 

Public Speakers 



Summer Complaint 
Spring Diseases 




Air, Deadly 

" Breathing Bad 

" State of 

" Of Crowded 

»« Taints 

" Noxious 

« Bath 

" Country 

•* Hills 

" Sea Shore 

" Close Rooms 

« Ot Chambers 

" And Thought 

Black Hole of Calcutta 
Bodily Emanations 
Bad Habits 
Breath of Life 

Crowding, effects of 
Convulsions, Children'o 
Capacity of Lungs 
Charcoal Fumes 
Chambers, Vitiated 
Chemical Affinities 

Deadly Emanations 


Electrical Influences 
Excessive Child-bearing 
as depriving of sleep,&o 

Griecom's Ventilation 
Gas Burning 

Human Effluvia 
Houses and Cottages 
House Plans 
" Warming 
" " by steam 

« « by open fire plac. 

Indulgence, over 

" Measure of 

Invisible Impurities 
Marriage a safeguard 
Nocturnal Ems 
Nursing at Night 

Pure Chambers 
Physiology Books 

" " Their bad effects 
Papered Rooms 
Pernicious Instruments 
Population Control 
Ruined Youth 

Second Naps 
Sleep of Children 
Sleeping with others 
" Old with young 
" Strong with feeble 
" with Consumptives 
« with Children 
« Well 
** How learned 

Youth's Habits 
" " How remedied 
&c. Ac. 

The above books are sold at the prices annexed, at 831 Broadway, New York. If oaf* 
dered by mail, send 15 cts. for postage. Address simply " Dr. W. W. Hall, New York." 
Hall's Journal of Health, SI a year ; bound vols. $1.25 each ; postage 15 cts. additional. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XI.] MARCH, 1864. [No. 8. 


History records that one of the pyramids was built at the 
cost of a kiss of the king's daughter, for every man who fur- 
nished a stone for its construction. Walking down-town the 
other da}*, with a retired merchant of great social and private 
worth, the remark was made as we passed a splendid hotel, its 
white marble front glistening in the morning sun, "Every 
stone in that building cost the ruin of a young girl, if newspa- 
per report be true ;" as the builder .owned a large property in 
Mercer and Church streets, the locality of assignation-houses. 

" What, Doctor, do you think is the chief source of supply 
for the victims of the great social evil of large cities?" 

" Unhappy homes," was the instinctive reply. 

A distinguished judge once said, at the close of a long life, 
that most of ail the male criminals brought be fore him were 
found on investigation to have made the first steps toward ruin 
between the ages of eight and sixteen. 

Putting all these things together, the inference may be safely 
drawn, that a large share of all the unhappiness and crime in 
the world arises from the character of parental management, its 
failure to be of a kind to make home the happiest place for 
the child. If children are indulged too much, they soon be 
gin to feel the least restraint, the slightest opposition to< their 
wishes, an intolerable burden, and their spirits chafe like a 
caged tiger. Too much restraint, on the other hand, an in- 
cessant fault-finding, an everlasting laying down of rules and 
regulations, intemperate chidings, altogether disproportioned to - 

48 hall's journal of health. 

the offense ; a habitual rehearsal of the faults of children to all 
visitors indiscriminately, and ruthless reprovals in the presence 
of others, their friends and playmates — each and all of these 
barbarities, as they may be very properly termed, have the very 
natural effect to sour the young heart, to make it feel as if the 
parent, who ought to be the best friend, is really the greatest 
tormentor ; then a feeling of defiance and desperation succeeds, 
and by degrees the settled purpose is formed, of seeking means 
to escape from a control which has now grown up to be consid- 
ered arbitrary and tyrannical to a degree not to be borne anoth- 
er hour; and often, in a fit of passion, a step is taken which can 
never be recalled. When a daughter begins to feel, with or 
without cause, that she has not her mother's sympathies, that 
her mother does not enter into her years, and is deficient in that 
tenderness which is naturally looked for, she turns all the more 
eagerly to the attentions, the deference, and the consideration 
which the young man shows her, and before she is aware of it, 
she is ruined forever ! 

The undutiful step-mother has driven countless thousands 
from once happy and virtuous homes to crime and infamy 
Harsh, unfeeling, inconsiderate teachers have many times driven 
the young to desperation or hopelessness. In the last year's 
Journal three articles, with most impressive illustrations, were 
published, and now three more are given, in the hope of com- 
pelling a very general attention to this most important subject. 
The first incident occurred within a few miles of our birth- 

" Some three years ago a household in the city of Covington 
was thrown into commotion by the sudden disappearance of a 
daughter twelve years of age. She was tracked to the ferry- 
boat, but whether she passed safely over or had been drowned 
was not discovered. Patient and anxious waiting brought no 
tidings of her. The frenzied and unhappy father, although in 
moderate circumstances, sought the newspaper-offices, and adver- 
tised a reward of one thousand dollars to whoever should restore 
his missing child. All proved unavailing. Some time after- 
ward the corpse of a young lady was found in the river near 
Vevay, Indiana, and hearing of it he went there, but it was not 
his daughter. 


a Time went on, and no tidings came of the lost child. She 
was dead to them, but they could not visit her grave. About 
twelve months since, the stricken family removed to Mexico and 
took up their abode in a country foreign in language and cus- 
toms, in features and in habits, from that in which they had met 
with their great loss. It might wear away their thoughts 
from sadly ruminating on the past, and enable them, in a region 
more devoted to religious duties, to look more hopefully toward 
the great future. There they still are. 

" About a week since a steamer arriving from Memphis was 
crowded with passengers, who were upon the guards straining 
their eyes to gather into one look the multitudinous objects 
which throng the public landing. One, however, a young girl 
budding into womanhood, sought the outer rail and looked 
wistfully over the naked shore of Covington to where, hid away 
under a clump of trees, was the cottage of her childhood, hop- 
ing in vain to see the curling smoke announce to her a warm 
welcome within. Quickly she passed over the ferry where long 
since she had disappeared. ISTo one noted or knew her, and she 
went without interruption to the door of her father's house. 
It answered not her knock; weeds had grown up rank and 
rough where she had left flowers, and no signs of human life 
were to be found there. 

" It was the turn now of the wayward child to weep, and 
when by inquiry she found how far and almost hopelessly she 
was separated from her parents, she began to feel desolate. 
Piqued at some chiding or some punishment of her mother, she 
had gone upon a steamboat, where a female passenger hired 
her as a nurse. After a little while the war broke out, stopping 
all intercourse with the South by the river, and, though she 
soon found that untried friends but seldom prove steadfast in 
trouble, and that the harshness of a parent is melting kindness 
besides that of a stranger, yet she was unable until lately to 
return. A kind lady of Covington has given shelter to the 
wanderer until her return is made known to her parents." 


Says an exchange : " We listened, the other day, to an emi- 
nent divine, one of America's most gifted and honored sons, as 
he gave some account of the ' wrongs of his boyhood.' 


" £ I went away to school,' said he, ' when I was seven years 
old. My teachers never understood me ; my first teacher as- 
sumed that nothing was easier than to understand children. 
Hence he never took pains to study the character of a child.' 

" ' You have blotted your book, sir — how is that? Do you 
mean to disobey me ? Have I not told you that I would have 
clean writing-books V said my master. 

" ' I have not blotted my book,' said I stoutly. 

" ' Who has blotted it, then? No one has had it but your- 
self. Do you accuse any one else ?' 

" ' I do not accuse any one, and I have not blotted my book.' 

" I spoke in good faith, though impudently. I had no knowl- 
edge of having blotted my book. 

" ' Hold out your hand, and be punished for disobedience and 

"I held out the hand that my mother had so softly kissed. 
I was not eight years old. The master ferruled me till he was 
tired, and I never shed a tear. My ej^eballs seemed on fire. 
The teacher rested, and then whipped me again ; I did not weep 
or cry out. 

" ' You shall beg to be let off, sir,' said he. I did not beg. 
I endured all he chose to inflict, and he was obliged to leave 
me at last, worn out by my obstinacy. 

" 'The worst boy I ever saw,' said he. { You will come to 
the gallows yet. You have not human feelings.' 

" I looked at my swollen and discolored hand. Oh ! if any 
one had kissed that little hand instead of beating it, I could 
have hid my face in his bosom, and wept for every insult I had 
committed or ever should commit. I believe I registered a vow 
in heaven, then, to be always kind to little children." 


"I am an old man ; yet it seems a very short time since I 
climbed the tall poplar-tree that grew before the vicarage, in 
search of the starling's nest. I can fancy I hear the shout that 
greeted my descent with the long-coveted prize, and feel again 
the crimson mounting to my cheeks as it did when, turning to 
the vicarage, I saw an expression of pain on the pale face of 
rrt father as he stood at the study- window. 


" It seems to me but yesterday since I stood in the center of 
that group of lads, and now 

1 They are all gone, the old familiar faces.' 

" Dick, the surgeon's son, died many years ago in India. 
Harvey Vernon, the bravest of them all, was slain on the field 
of Waterloo ; and when the village bells rang for the victory, 
the rudest fellow in the village was touched as he passed the 
Grange and saw the blinds down and knew of the breaking 
heart of old "Widow Yernon. 

V It was a sad day for us at the vicarage, especially for Emily. 
My father staid in his library all day, though I do not think he 
read a page in any of his books — even in his favorites, Sopho- 
cles and Horace. 

11 Emily and my mother were in my mother's chamber all the 
day. From that day Emily gradually drooped and faded. Her 
beautiful face grew more exquisitely beautiful — her dark deep 
eyes became more full and lustrous, but they wandered restless- 
ly, as though seeking some missing resting-place ; her golden 
hair (I have still a thick lock of it amongst an old man's memo- 
rials of other days, ' the days of auld lang syne ') hung more 
carelessly about her shoulders, and her pale cheeks were suffused 
with a rosy tint that gradually deepened into a burning crim- 
son, while her sweet voice sunk almost into a whisper. As I 
looked at her, her startling beauty reminded me of the language 
of the book my mother used to read to her as she lay on the 
couch in the drawing-room. Her ' face was as the face of an 

" Ah me ! how I am wandering from the circumstance I sat 
down to write about ; but you must" forgive an old man, for 
whenever I think of Emily, it is always so. Let me see — yes, 
I remember perfectly. 

" It was Christmas eve, in the year 1791, and the snow had 
been falling heavily all the day, blotting out the hedges and 
walls which surrounded the vicarage, and burying the sun-dial 
that Willie and I had carved with great pains during the long 
winter evenings. 

" I had come from my father's study, where I and Willie had 
been having our usual lesson in Latin. Willie was a high-spir- 


ited lad, of a very loving and affectionate disposition ; though, 
when excited or in a passion, his temper was fearful to behold, 
and his eyes flashed with a strange light that made us all trem- 
ble, except my father. 

" It was some time before my father came down ; but when 
he did, we heard him lock the study-door after him, and he 
came down alone. He looked very stern and angry ; he was in 
one of those moods which sometimes took possession of him 
when he was disturbed. Though my father was always silent 
when in these moods, yet I always thought there was a vivid 
resemblance between them and "Willie's outbreaks of passion. 

" ' Willie will not come down to-night,' said he ; ' I have left 
him in the study, with a lesson that will keep him all night.' 

I thought I saw a tear start from my mother's eye, as she 
turned her face to the window and looked out upon the snow, 
which still continued to fall heavily. 

"It was the anniversary of Emily's birthday, and we were 
expecting a party of her young friends, (children of the neigh- 
boring gentry,) to pass the evening at the vicarage. 

" It began to grow dark about four o'clock, and then our 
company began to arrive. There were, first, the children of 
'Squire Harcourt, who came wrapped in soft furs and shawls, 
in the old-fashioned cozy family carriage, with its couple of do- 
cile grays. Then came Harry Yernon, and his sisters, Emily 
and Agnes ; and, as the time wore on, about a score of young 
people were assembled at the vicarage. It was a merry party. 
My father, whom it would be an injustice to represent as an 
unkind man, threw himself into the spirit of our merriment as 
though he had been one of us. The furniture, excepting the 
old-fashioned piano, had been removed from the drawing-room, 
and it and the sitting-room had, by the removal of a partition, 
been thrown into one, making a large and commodious room, 
which had been plentifully hung with holly and other ever- 
greens. The red berries gleamed like tiny masses of fire be- 
neath the dark green glossy leaves, and here and there my 
sister's hands had gracefully arranged bunches of many -colored 

" Many inquiries were made for Willie, and for a moment or 
two a shadow seemed cast upon the pleasure of the children 


when they were told that Willie, the presiding spirit of fun in 
every juvenile party, would not be with them ; but all feeling 
of disappointment vanished as the time wore on — except from 
one gentle, loving spirit. 

"I knew that my mother was thinking of the dear boy in 
the room above us, for Willie was my mother's favorite. She 
was thinking of a handsome face pressed against the door, and 
of a tiny ear close to the key-hole, listening to the voices of the 
merry groups below. She knew these sounds would be exquis- 
ite torture to the prisoner. She knew how that quick, eager 
spirit would fret in the study above, like a wild bird in a cage. 

" Sometimes I saw her whisper to my father, and then his 
face grew hard and dark, and my mother's yet more sad and 

"My sister played, with exceeding grace, some simple airs 
upon the old piano ; and then, the boys choosing their partners 
from the little maidens who stood with eager, blushing faces and 
beseeching eyes, beneath the holly in a corner of the room, the 
dance began. 

" While this was going on I saw my father put something 
into my mother's hand ; it was the study-key. With a grateful 
smile — oh ! how sweet that smile was ! — she left the room. I 
stole after her to the foot of the wide, old-fashioned staircase ; I 
saw her glide swiftly up the stairs ; and I could hear when she 
unlocked the door ; and when she opened the door to pass in, 
the moonlight streamed brightly through the doorway on to 
the dark landing, and as its light fell on the face of the old 
clock which stood there, I saw it wanted but a few minutes of 
ten o'clock. 

" I had not stood more than a minute at the foot of the stairs, 
when I heard my mother cry : ' Willie !' Then I heard a pierc- 
ing scream, and she suddenly passed me, her face white as 
the snow that lay outside on the steps, and rushing into the 
room where my father was playing with the children, went 
straight up to him, and crying, ' Willie's gone ! Willie, Wil- 
lie darling !' fell fainting at his feet. 

" My sister immediately left the piano, and with the aid of 
some cold water my mother was restored very soon. Of course, 
this put an end to the festivities, and the children were soon on 

54 hall's jouenal of health. 

their way home, except Harry Vernon, who staid to assist in 
the search for the missing boy. Afterward my mother told us, 
that as she was endeavoring to amuse a group of the younger 
children, she heard Willie's voice distinctly calling, ' Mamma ! 
mamma !' She instantly got the key, as I have before related, 
and went up to the study. As soon as she opened the door, 
she felt the window was open, by the rushing of the cold frosty 
air past her. The instant she entered the room she felt a tre- 
mor seize her ! Why did not Willie spring to meet her ? She 
felt in a moment that Willie was not there ! The study-lamp 
was flickering out ; there stood my father's easy -chair opposite 
a table on which lay his books and manuscripts, and amongst 
them poor Willie's soiled and hated Latin Grammar. 

"He must have climbed clown the side of the old house, by 
the aid of the ivy -stems which grew up to the pinnacles of the 
gables on to the top of the antique portico, and from thence 
have leaped to the ground. Willie, agile as a squirrel, could 
easily have accomplished this. 

"In a few moments from the discovery of his absence, we — 
that is my mother and father, Harry and myself, and two serv- 
ants, one of them old Walter, who passionately loved Willie — 
were out in search of the missing one. 

" The snow was still falling heavily, but by the light of the 
moon, which was at full, we could see almost as distinctly as by 

"Strange to say, my mother went instinctively toward a deep 
pool of water, called by the villagers the Black Pool— so called 
because of its depth. Near it, and overshadowing it, grew an 
old gnarled thorn-bush, which, after many winters' frosts and 
snows, still preserved its vitality. It was a pleasant place in 
summer. He was found drowned! Every means were used 
for his restoration, while old Walter was sent off on the 
brown mare to the doctor's. We heard the dull, heavy sound 
of her hoofs upon the snow, as she went off at a swift pace 
down the carriage-drive. In a short time she came back, bring- 
ing the doctor. 

" My mother was bending over Willie, and nervously sway- 
ing herself backward and forward, when he came in ; but she 
arose immediately, and with wide, flashing eyes, cried : 


"'0 doctor! save my boy ! Willie! Willie darling! 
Speak to me, my child !' 

"I never read David's thrilling lament, '0 Absalom! my 
son, Absalom ! ' without thinking of my mother's great agony 
in Willie's chamber. The doctor was a remarkably skillful man ; 
but it seemed a hopeless case. How my mother's eager eye fol- 
lowed all his movements i 

* At last, when we were about despairing, Willie gently open- 
ed his eyes — those magnificent eyes of his ! There was an un- 
speakable ecstasy on my mother's face, the like of which I have 
never seen since and never expect to see again. It was coming 
light when the doctor left us, and Willie was in a refreshing 

" The many-colored rainbow of hope now hung over the 
vicarage — alas! soon to fade away, leaving us but the cold 
rain and dark clouds of a great sorrow. 

"After an hour or two of sleep, Willie awoke, and told my 
mother how he heard the shouts and laughter of the children in 
the drawing-room, and how the music seemed to taunt him ; 
and then how he became afraid, and dared not look where the 
shadows lay in the library ; and how, as he watched the moon 
rise through the poplars before the window, he was tempted to 
climb down the ivy-stems ; and how he had wandered to the 
Black Pool, and been tempted to spring across it to get a bunch 
of crimson berries that hung from a branch on the other side, 
thinking he would give them to her ; and how he had missed 
his footing and fallen backward into the pond. Then he told 
her how he arose to the surface — and how he was falling into a 
sweet and pleasant slumber at the bottom, with thoughts of her 
passing dream-like through his mind — and how he felt some 
hand touch him, and an exquisite sensation of pain as if he were 
dying — and that was all he knew. 

" How my mother wept and smiled, clasped him to her bo- 
som, and called him her darling Willie ! I need not tell you 
how my poor father kissed him and asked — ay, he, the stern 
disciplinarian, asked — pardon of his own child. Willie, fa- 
tigued with his long talk, fell asleep again; but it was a 
troubled, broken slumber. His cheeks grew crimson, and his 
breath quick and hot, and he trembled as though he were very 


V The doctor came again, but this time he shook his head, 
and said there was no chance for him. My mother and. rather 
watched him night and day ; but he grew worse and worse 
Now he would talk of the wild bees' nests he had found, a few 
days ago, in a bank in the wood ; then he would shout, as 
if at play ; and then, whilst my father covered his face with 
his hands, and the big tears trickled through his fingers in an 
agony of grief, he would try to repeat his Latin, and failing to do 
so correctly, he would begin again, saying in beseeching tones : 
' papa ! forgive me ! I can not !' 

"Willie died one morning, just as the old year was dying 
amidst frost and snow, repeating his Latin lesson, as my mother 
held his head with its splendid dark locks on her bosom, and 
his little hand lay in my father's trembling palm. 


" ' Abe you ready for me ! have you got the money?' and he 
went on heaping on me the most bitter taunts and opprobrious 
epithets ; while speaking, he drew a handful of papers from his 
pockets, saying : ' I got you into your office, and now I'll get 
you out.' I can not tell how long these threats and invectives 
lasted. At first, I kept interposing, trying to pacify him. But 
I could not stop him. Soon, my own temper was up. I forgot 
every thing but the sting of his words. I was excited to the 
highest degree of passion ; and in my fury I seized a small stick 
of wood and dealt him an instantaneous blow, with all the force 
that passion could give it. I did not know or think or care 
where nor how hard I should strike, nor what would be the 
effect. He fell instantly dead ! I then cut up his body, hid a 
portion of it, and burned the remainder in a furnace." This was 
the confession of a highly educated man, just before he suffered 
the ignominious penalty of murder ; the murder of the best 
friend he had on earth ! It was done in an ecstacy of passion, 
in a "phrenzy," from a Greek word phrene, which means the 
mind ; or a state of the brain in which the mind is excited to a 
pitch which places it beyond all human control ; it is a moment' 
ary madness. The lesson sought to be impressed by this nar- 


ration, is the danger of cherishing any mental excitement; and 
the consequent duty of studying how, in all possible ways, tc 
keep the mental faculties in a uniformly calm, quiet, and delib- 
erate condition. In the incident above, it was proven that half 
an hour before, the murderer had closed a philosophic lecture ; 
and as he stepped from the rostrum into his own room, was 
met as above detailed, by a rich, remorseless creditor. In a 
very few minutes the calm philosopher was transformed into 
an ungovernable fury, by the utterance of a dozen taunting 
words ; and had no more control over himself than an infant 
over an already sped thunderbolt. Cases are given in standard 
medical works, where the mental excitement has reached such 
an intensity, that the individual has fallen dead on the in- 
stant; even greater calamities are recorded; the loss of the 
mind forever, and the hapless victim has raved and raged in 
impotency behind the bars of a maniac's cell for the remainder 
of a long life ; a fate surely worse than death ! Sometimes the 
mind has gone out in eternal night with a fearful screech, com- 
bining the yell of the savage with the expressions of a demoniac. 
Lesser degrees of mental excitement have found vent in words 
and manner so expressive, as to excite an nricontrollable hor- 
ror in the minds of some of the hearers, and wilted the hearts 
of others, to bud and bloom no more. A single word uttered 
by a child to a parent, in a moment of excitement ; of a parent 
to a child ; of a husband to a wife, has many a time, before now, 
quenched every spark of human emotion and of human love, 
and a hate has sprung from the ashes, as virulent as the deadly 
upas, only to go out in the night of the grave. Human happi- 
ness, and life itself, then, often depends on a failure to control 
the mental emotion. An effort to practice such a control should 
be early made ; the earlier the better. And let it be particu- 
larly remembered, that the most effectual practical manner of 
doing this, is to cultivate a habit of speaking in a low, slow, 
deliberate tone of voice, under all circumstances ; but whenever 
the circumstances are exciting, speak not a syllable until the 
thought, embodied in words, stands out plainly before the mind, 
" My God and Father is here," and then speak accordingly. 
The reason of this lies in the curious fact, that the mind has a 
faculty of being persuaded to believe what the lips express, al- 

58 hall's journal of health. 

though every word is a falsehood ; for in the excited condition, 
that which is called imagination runs riot, and makes the 
merest presumption appear for a moment to be an actual fact. 
This is an every day occurrence in domestic life, where an ex- 
cited husband or wife begins to talk of a supposed insult, or 
deviation of a servant ; and the more they talk, the greater ap- 
pears the aggravation. Eeader, keep ever before you the fear 
of "frenzy," for in an unguarded hour, within any dozen 
minutes, it may lead you to utter a word against a heart that 
loves you, whose wound no tears can ever wash away ; may 
lead you to commit an act which will send you to the gallows 
or a mad-house ! 


Death is the cessation of life. When by a wound, concus- 
sion, or mental shock, the action of the heart is destroyed, the 
brain ceases to live at once, because life-giving blood ceases to 
be sent to the brain and it dies, as a fish dies without water. It 
is desirable to know in all cases that death has certainly taken 
place, to avoid the horrible fate of being buried alive, which 
perhaps has not occurred a dozen times since the world began; 
perhaps not once, unless by deliberate design, as a murder or 
execution. The credulous Fontenelle, who died a hundred 
years old in 1757, gathered from all history only a hundred 
cases, without any proof of their truthfulness. It is true that 
persons disinterred have been found turned over in their coffins, 
their grave-clothes disarranged and even torn. Sounds have come 
from coffins while being let down into the grave or soon after, 
but no authenticated account has ever come to the writer's no- 
tice of a person coming to life after the coffin has been screwed 
down ; and yet coffins have been found burst open, and appear- 
ances have been observed which would naturally be exhibited 
after some desperate struggle. But it is the nature of all dead 
bodies to swell ; this process commences on the instant of life's 
cessation, because decomposition begins preparatory to the cor- 
ruption which precedes our return to that dust from which we 
came. This decomposition generates gases, which keep on ex- 
panding until they compel an outlet. There is a well-authenti- 
cated case, (and various similar instances,) where a body, after 

DEATH. 59 

being laid on the dissecting-table, was suddenly heaved up and 
thrown on the floor in the presence of the young medical stu- 
dents ; it was by the force of the exploding gas which had been 
.generated within the body, which had been "found drowned." 
Persons may have been put in a coffin before they were per- 
fectly dead, but it is absurd to suppose that life is possible after 
an interval of perfect seclusion from fresh air from the time of 
fastening the lid until the coffin reaches its last resting-place. 
The action of the gases in the cadaver will naturally and suffi- 
ciently explain all the appearances observed on occasions of 
opening the coffin after burial. The description which Hippo- 
crates, the " Father of Medicine," gave of death over two 
thousand years ago, has never been improved upon. " The 
forehead wrinkled and dry ; the eye sunken ; the nose pointed, 
and bordered with a violet or black circle ; the temples sunken, 
hollow, and retired ; the lips hanging down ; the cheeks sunken ; 
the chin wrinkled and hard ; the color of the skin leaden or 
violet ; the hairs of the nose and eyelashes sprinkled with a 
yellowish, white dust." This is as to the face ; and when all 
observed, we may know that that face can never be lighted up to 
life again. But there are other proofs which do not leave the 
shadow of a doubt, as when the heart ceases to beat ; the skin 
is pale and cold ; a film is over the eye ; the joints, first rigid, 
have become flexible ; and a dark greenish color begins to form 
about the skin of the abdomen, the infallible sign of beginning 
corruption. But as we would have it done to us as the last re- 
quest, let us with the utmost willingness allow the poor help- 
less, unresisting frame remain at least forty-eight hours under 
the unfastened lid after the surest proof of all has been noticed, 
the cessation of all movement of the chest and abdomen, for then 
the breath of life has gone out forever. The moments immedi- 
ately preceding death from disease are probably those of utter 
insensibility to all pain, or of a delightful passivity, from that uni- 
versal relaxation of every thing which pertains to the physical 
condition. Hence Louis XIY. is reported to have died saying : 
" I thought dying had been more difficult." The greatest sur- 
geon of all ages, William Hunter, while dying said : " If this be 
dying, it is a pleasant thing to die." Dear reader, may you and 
I so live, that in the practice of bodily temperances and moral 
purities, death may be to us the gate of endless joy and sinless 

60 hall's journal of health. 


Some four years ago, a Baltimore gentleman had large inter- 
ests at stake in St. Petersburg!^ which required prompt and 
very close attention. Among all he knew, there was one man 
who seemed to him to possess the requisites for managing all 
matters faithfully, justly, and well; upon this individual he 
called, and explained to him at length the nature of the busi- 
ness, and the judgment and discretion requisite in bringing it 
to a satisfactory adjustment, concluding by saying: -'If you 
are willing to go, I will give you twenty -rive hundred dollars a 
month, but I wish you to take your time ; do not hurry away 
a day sooner than is requisite to fully arrange all details and 
close the business in such a way, that any trouble hereafter shall 
be in a measure impossible." "I will go," said Mr. L. He was 
absent many months ; and on his return, gave the fullest expla- 
nation to his employer, who, on gathering up his papers, express- 
ed his satisfaction as to the manner in which his agent had acted, 
and handed him a check, which Mr. L. put in his pocket, with- 
out looking at it, supposing it was the amount due him accord- 
ing to the original understanding. But when he returned to 
his family he found, on reading the paper, that it was a token 
(irrespective of the original agreement) of Mr. W.'s apprecia- 
tion of " fidelity " to an important trust, in the shape of a check 
for fifty thousand dollars. This morning's paper, of Thursday, 
August twenty-first, 1862, announces that a young man, the 
confidential clerk of a gentleman of wealth in New-York, had 
been intrusted by his employer with the duty of collecting sev- 
eral bank checks of several thousand dollars each. The young 
man did not return that day. But having acted with the strict- 
est fidelity to the interests of the house for some years, no 
suspicions were harbored. When, however, he was not found 
at his place the next morning, some misgivings were slowly 
awakened; and, investigation discovered that the money had 
been collected, and that the unfaithful clerk had left the city. 
He was followed by the officers of the law, who found him 
secreted in the upper room of a hotel in a distant place in the 
interior of the State. He was returned to the city in irons, and 
confined in a felon's cell, and awaits the fearful punishment 


of wrong-doing. He said to the officers, that as soon as 
he left the city he became so nervous and conscience-stricken, 
that he did not know what course to pursue, and wandered 
around from place to place, without aim or end ; the miserable 
victim of unappeasable remorse. In the former case, fidelity to 
trusts committed, has enriched a whole family for life ; there 
being "thrown in" the sweet and comforting reflection, that 
their fortune was owing to a father's manly fidelity ; the other, 
for the want of it, begins life at twenty-three, behind the bars 
of a jail, with no other rational prospect than that of suffering 
under the writhings of an outraged conscience, as long as life 
endures. The former will live in the serene contemplation of 
duty done, so promotive of health and happiness and a good old 
age ; while the other, under the wasting influence of unavailing 
regrets, of sharp-pointed memories, and of bitter remorse, will 
doubtless sink into a premature grave, where body and memory 
will rot together. ' 


Seventeen years ago there was a fair girl so pure, so lovely, 
so refined, that she still rises to my mind as almost akin to 
angels. She was wooed and ultimately won by a handsome 
young man of considerable wealth. He sported a fine team, 
delighted in hunting, and kept a fine pack of hounds. He 
neither played cards, drank wine, nor used tobacco. He had 
no occupation, no calling, no trade. He lived on his money, 
the interest of which alone would have supported a family 
handsomely. I never saw the fair bride again until a few days 
ago. Seventeen years had passed away, and with them her 
beauty and her youth ; her husband's fortune and his life, dur- 
ing the latter part of which they lived in a log-cabin on the 
banks of the Ohio river, near Blennerhasset's Island ; a whole 
family in one single room, subsisting on water, fat bacon, and 
corn bread. The husband had no business capacity. He was 
a gentleman of education, of refinement, of noble impulses; but 
when his money was gone he could get no employment, simply 
because he did not know how to do any thing. For a while he 
floundered about, first trying one thing, then another, but 


" failure " was written on them all. He however finally ob- 
tained a situation ; the labor was great, the compensation small; 
it was that or starvation ; in his heroic efforts to discharge his 
duty acceptably he overworked himself and died, leaving his 
widow and six girls in utter destitution. In seventeen years 
the sweet and joyous and beautiful girl had become a broken- 
hearted, care-worn, poverty-stricken widow, with a houseful of 
helpless children I 

Young woman ! if a rich young man asks you to marry him, 
and has no occupation, or trade, or calling, by which he could 
make a living if he were thrown on his own resources, you may 
give him your respect, but "give him the mitten." 

Whatever may be a young man's qualities, if he is fond, very 
fond of going to the theater, " refuse " him. 

If a young man shows by his conversation that he is an ad- 
mirer of fast horses, and is pretty well acquainted with the 
qualities and " time " of the best racing nags of the country, 
when he asks your hand, " give him the mitten" only. 

If you ever hear a young man speak of his father or mother 
disrespectfully, contemptuously, do not encourage his attentions ; 
he will do the same of you, and in many ways will make your 
heart ache before you die. 

If you know a young man likes to stand around tavern-doors, 
at the street-corners, and about " groceries," cut your hand off 
rather than place it in his ; he is worth only the " mitten." 

If your suitor can tell you a great deal about cards ; seems 
familiar with a multitude of " tricks " which can be performed 
with the same, and is himself an adept in such things, let him 
win all the money he may from others, but let him not " win " 
your heart, for he will "lose it" in a year, and leave you a 
broken one in its place. 

If you know of a " nice young man " who will certainly heir 
a large estate, who is of a " highly respectable family," who 
seems to be at home as to the usages, customs, and proprieties 
of good society, and yet who is indifferent about attending 
church on the Sabbath-day, who speaks disparagingly of clergy- 
men, who talks about religion in a patronizing way as r a very 
good thing in its place," particularly for old women, weak 
young girls and children, never marry him should he ask you. 


Such a man can never warm a woman's heart ; will never twine 
around it the tendrils of a true affection, for he is innately cold^ 
unsympathizing and selfish, and should sickness and trouble 
come to you, he will leave you to bear them all alone. 

Idleness, the having no occupation, will always and inevita. 
bly engender moral and physical disease ; and these traits will 
be more or less perpetuated in the children born to such ; the 
brunt of these calamities has to be borne by the mother, and in 
the bearing up against them, how many a noble-hearted woman 
has sorrowed, and grieved, and toiled herself into a premature 
grave, may never be known, but the number can not be ex- 
pressed in a few figures. Therefore, my sunny-faced daughter, 
if you do not want to grow old before your time, to live a life 
of toil and sorrow, and then prematurely die, give not your 
hand, but only " the mitten "to a young man, however well 
born or rich, who has not a legitimate calling by which he 
could " make a living " if he were by some fortuity left penni- 


French statisticians say that the "well to do" live about 
eleven years longer, on an average, than those who work from 
day to day for a living, who, if they fail to get work to-day, 
will have no bread to eat to-morrow, unless they obtain it on 
credit, borrow, beg, or steal. Hence, it is clear that the moral 
debasements of the last two, and the wearing economies and 
anxieties attendant on the first named, tend to shorten human life. 
If, then, the young can have pointed out to them a sure means 
of rising in the world, of attaining a happy competence, it is 
the legitimate province of the physician to indicate what these 
means are, as applicable to a large class of readers. Let every 
young man and young woman bear in mind always, that their 
destiny in life depends on their individual character ; that what 
that is they will inevitably be ; because the character of a man 
is indicated by his actions. These actions are read by the ob- 
servant, and they are "placed" accordingly. Hence, all should 
study propriety of deportment; not only as to the greater, but 
in regard to things which may be considered of scarcely any 

64 hall's journal of health. 

A shrewd young, man, one who is destined to " rise in the 
world," would never select that girl for a wife who would sit 
down on a book which chanced to lie on a chair or sofa, who 
would tread on or over a pocket-handkerchief, or any article of 
clothing on the floor, rather than stoop to pick it up. 

A young lady of taste and refinement would scarcely accept 
the attentions of a young man the collar of whose coat was 
usually speckled with dandruff, or whose finger-ends were 
fringed with black, or whose shirt-bosom was often spotted 
with tobacco-juice, or was uniformly ruffled or soiled. 

Those who are so full of the milk of human kindness as to 
promise unhesitatingly almost any thing asked of them, and 
are just as full, later on, of excellent reasons for not having 
fulfilled these promises, can never make their way into the con- 
fidence and respect of the thrifty and the good. 

A man of good repute in Wall street, the other day ap- 
plied to a well-known citizen to rent from him a furnished 
house. He was refused. A mutual friend expressed surprise. 
" He stands well on the street." "Yes." "His family are 
highly esteemed." " Yes." " He is known to be punctual in 
all his pecuniary engagements." "Yes." 

" Well, why won't you let him have your house, at your own 
price, while you are away?" 

" Because he came into my parlor and sat on my sofa with 
his hat on. Such a man can not have habits of personal neat- 
ness. He would spit on my carpets ; he would break my chair- 
backs by tilting them against the wall, and soil it with his un- 
kempt hair. The presumption is, his family are like him ; at 
all events, he alone could injure my furniture more in six 
months than would be the profits of renting. No, sir ! A man 
who sits in my parlor with his hat on, the first time he ever en- 
tered it, can not rent my house at any price." 

Each defect in a person's character is read by the observant 
as easily as the scarlet letter on the back of the erring. Let 
the young remember that the character will "crop out" in the 
manners, in the little acts of life, and that, if these are unex- 
ceptionable, and if they are uniformly neat, methodical, prompt, 
and energetic, these qualities will prove a passport to "good 
places," and to that thrift which brings with it a quiet mind and 
length of days. 



Hereafter, the price of Hall's Journal of Health will be 
One Dollar and a half a year ; single numbers Twelve 
Cents. Our readers will, we are sure, appreciate the ne- 
cessity of this increase in charges without any further 

All our publications — " Bronchitis," ." Consumption," "Health and Disease," 
" Sleep," the two Bound Volumes of "The Fireside Monthly," (now discontinued,) 
and the ten Bound Volumes of " Hall's Journal of Health " — are at the uniform 
price of $1.25 each. By mail, post-paid, $1.50 each. 

Home on the Hudson. — For sale, one of the finest Country Seats on the east 
bank of the Hudson, sixty-six miles from town, and commanding a oeautiful river 
view. About forty acres, four square, every foot productive. A handsome double 
mansion, with all the modern improvements of furnace, gas, range, with hot and 
cold water in the chambers, bath-room, laundry, etc., porter's lodge, ice-house well 
tilled, and commodious stables and carriage-house. All the buildings in the most 
complete repair. Over two thousand ornamental, shade, and fruit trees have been 
set out within the last ten years ; large garden, with every variety of small fruit, 
etc. Unsurpassed for healthfulness. Ready for immediate occupancy. Carpets, 
mirrors, book-case3 in library, gas chandeliers, etc., will go with the house. 
A large portion of the purchase money can remain for a term of years on bond 
and mortgage if desired. Reference is made to Dr. W. "W. Hall, of ftew-York, 
Theodore B. Wetmore, Esq., of 31 Pine street, New-York, whose country seat 
adjoins the place ; to Daniel Denny, Esq., President of the Hamilton Bank, Boston ; 
Hon. Erastus Brooks, New-York, 

of Baltimore, Benj. T. Treedick, Esq., of Philadelphia, and Dr. 
Pliny Earle, at the United States Lunatic Hospital at Washington, D. C. The 
New-York Evening Express says of this valuable property that it is one of the 
most beautiful and healthy country seats upon the Hudson, complete in house, 
grounds, and stables, all properly furnished and fit to be occupied at once. Over 
two thousand fruit and ornamental trees are upon the place. The owner parts 
with this property only because he is about to leave the State. 

Beautiful Hair. — u Dodge's Tincture," applied monthly, keeps the scalp free 
from dandruff, promotes, by its cleansing, agreeably stimulating properties, the 
growth of the hair where any other agent can, is an admirably soothing curative of 
wounds and sores of the scalp, and has now been discovered to destroy instantly, 
by one application, all vermin infesting the hair of children and domestic pets, and 
of persons sleeping in strange beds and otherwise. Small bottles, 25 cent3 ; 
Quarts, $1.50. P. C. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New- York. 

Economy, Light, and Cookery — W. D. Russell, of 206 Pearl street, New-York, 
has patented a lamp attachment by which water is boiled and a comfortable meal 
prepared by a common lamp, which at the same time lights the room without inter- 
fering with the comfort of the person reading, writing, sewing, etc. Price 50 cents. 

66 hall's journal op health. 

The "Medicine Shelf," published by the American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, 
Boston, and by J. G. Broughton, 13 Bible House, New-York City, abounds in 
striking illustrations of useful and practical truths, in eighteen chapters, (315 pp. 
16mo,) on Lifting the Curtain, My Neighbors, Square Corners, Sin and Sorrow, 
One Right Way, etc. Also, "Pictures and Lessons" for Little Readers, being 
nmety-six pictures and as many lessons, theoretical and practical, for young 
readers ; every one of which will be literally devoured. " Sandy Maclean and two 
other Stories," all deeply interesting. Sargeant's Temperance Tales is well worthy 
of a place in every family, literally, whether temperate or intemperate. A most 
valuable present for any one to make to any one. ."Home Stories for Boys and 
Girls," forty-seven stories. It is one of the most beautiful, interesting, and 
instructive volumes for children we have seen for many a day. Money can not be 
better laid out for family reading than by spending it at the New-York Bible 
House, number thirteen. We suppose the " other " Tract Society and the old- 
school Sunday-School Publishing House are reposing in their dignity, and are wait- 
ing for customers to come to them, for we seldom see any of their issues on our 
table, while the new-school branch are wide awake, and are making most of their 
time by letting the people know what delightful and useful reading they are pre- 
paring for them every week, for every week they have something new, and as good 
as it is new, and take pains to have them noticed in periodicals which go to fami- 
lies and households all over the land. Another of their interesting publications is 
" Our Father Who Art in Heaven," a story illustrative of the Lord's Prayer. Also, 
" Reposing in Jesus," or, the true secret of grace and strength, by G. W. Mylne, a 
book which every heart Christian can always feed upon and grow and thrive. 

Photographic Magnifier and Stereoscope Combined — sent by mail for $1.50 — 
adds greatly to the beauty, interest, and value of all Stereoscopic and Photographic 
Pictures ; it makes the Photographic Album more interesting, because it magnifies 
and brings out the features with such a life-likeness as to delight every one who 
takes up the instrument. 

A New Edition of our Book on Sleep is just issued, treating of all subjects 
connected with the hours of sleep, and is of personal and practical application to 
all classes, ages, and conditions, especially to that multitude of youth who have 
been beguiled by advertisements in the daily papers under the headings of " Man- 
hood," "Nervous Debility," "Physiology of Marriage," "Restored Powers,' 
"Marriage Guide," etc. By mail, $1.50. 

" Health and Disease " is entirely exhausted, but is promised by our printer to 
be ready by the tenth of March ; $1.50 by mail. Our new book of " Two Hundred 
Health Tracts," with monograms on various interesting subjects, will appear at the 
same time. Price $1.75. By mail, post-paid, $2. Persons will be supplied in the 
order of their application. 




Means "stricken from;" a description given by the Greeks, under the feeling that 
it was of unearthly origin. The person falls down as if suddenly struck with death. 
There is neither thought, feeling, nor voluntary motion. There is no sign of life, 
except that of deep heavy breathing. It comes on with the suddenness of the 
lightning's flash, and with as little premonition. A common fainting fit occurs 
suddenly, but there is no breathing, no pulse, and the face is pale and shrunken. 
En apoplexy, if the person is not really dead, the face is flushed, the breathing loud, 
and the pulse full and strong, usually. In mild attacks, a person is found in bed 
of a morning apparently in a sound sleep ; but if so, he can be easily waked up. 
In apoplexy no amount of ^baking makes any impression. The earliest Greek 
writers described apoplexy with a minute accuracy, which has scarcely been ex- 
ceeded since, showing that it is a malady belonging to all time. To pass from ap- 
parent perfect health to instant death on entering one's own dwelling, or sitting 
down to the family table, or while at the happy fireside, in the loving interchange 
of affectionate offices, strikes us as being perfectly terrible. But the terror belongs 
to the witnesses ; the victim is as perfectly destitute of thought, feeling, sensation, 
and consciousness, for the time being, as if the head had been taken off by a can- 
non-ball. In many cases, after lying for hours and even days in a state of perfect 
insensibility, the patient wakes up as if from an uneasy sleep or dream ; but often, 
a3 many sadly know, there is no return to life again. The essential nature of the 
disease seems to be such an excess of blood in the brain that its appropriate ves- 
sels or channels can not contain it, and it is " extravasated," let out, upon the sub. 
stance of the brain itself, and thus arrests the functions of life. Persons with 
short neck, who are "thick-set," corpulent, are almost the sole actual subjects of 
apoplexy, when not induced by falls, blows, shocks, and over-doses of certain drugs. 
Apoplexy is an avoidable disease, except in some cases of accidents, which we can 
neither foresee nor prevent; it is, essentially, too much blood in the brain. This 
blood is either sent there too rapidly, or, when there, is detained in some unnatural 
manner, the essential effect being the same. Whatever "excites the brain" does 
so by sending an unnatural amount of blood there ; such as intense and long thought 
on one subject, all kinds of liquors; any drink containing alcohol, whether ale, beer, 
cider, wine, or brandy, excites the brain and endangers apoplexy. So will a hearty 
meal, especially if alcoholic drinks are taken at the same time ; going to bed soon 
after eating heartily, sleeping on the back, if corpulent, may bring on an attack 
any night ; so will a hot bath, so will a cold bath soon after eating. The ultimate 
effects Of all opiates are to detain the blood in the brain, while the things just men- 
tioned send it there in excess. The great preventives are warm feet, regular daily 
bodily habits, eating nothing later than three o'clock p.m., and the avoidance of 
opiates, tobacco, and all that can intoxicate. In case of an attack send for a 
physician. Meanwhile, put the feet in hot water, and envelop the head with cold ; 
ice is still better. It is safer to live in a hilly than level country, in town than 
country. Winter is more dangerous than summer. The liability increases rapidly 
after forty years of age, greatest at sixty, when it gradually diminishes. Statistics 
seem to show that the most dangerous years are forty-eight, fifty-eight, sixty- 
six, while forty-six and forty-nine are almost exempt. The well-to-do are more 
liable than the laboring. Sudden changes of weather promote attacks. Let the 
liable, especially, live in reference to these well-established facts. 


" Golden Stories," published by Mr. Wood, 61 Walker street, embrace five 
delightful little books, in uniform binding, for young children : " The White Kit- 
ten," " The Tent in the Garden," " Loving Words or Loving Deeds," " The Water- 
Melon," and " Willie Wilson, the Newsboy." This House, it will be remembered, 
has had for many years the most extensive assortment of medical publications of 
any other establishment in the country, besides a large collection of miscellaneous 
books, all of sterling value. 

Almanac for 1864. Being the Tenth Illustrated Register of Rural Affairs. By 
Luther Tucker & Co., Albany, N. Y. Sent free by mail for twenty-five cents, giv- 
ing a vast amount of useful, reliable, and practical information to farmers upon 
every variety of subject connected with the cultivation of land. 

The Mother's Journal, monthly, $1 a year, New-York, by Mrs. Caroline 0. Hiscox, 
is filled with articles of sterling value ; the selections are made with a wise dis- 
crimination, nothing frivolous ever appears in its fair pages. It merits a very 
general circulation. 

" It Beats the World," said our good-natured old colored laundress the other 
day, in admiration of the " Universal Clothes-Wringer," and her reasons were terse 
and laconic : " It saves work and clothes too." 

Weather Indicator. Charles Wilder, of Peterboro, N. H., manufactures Wood- 
ruff's Barometer, which combines in a remarkable degree cheapness, accuracy, sim- 
plicity, durability, and portability. Prices from $5 to $20. 

Photographic Magnifier, a most charming accompaniment to photographic 
albums. $1, $1.50 and $3. 

The Photographic Magnifier affords the sweetest of all pleasures, as often as 
used for inspecting the portraits of those dear to us. Sold by P. C. Godfrey, 831 
Broadway, New-York. 

To Youth. — A warning against advertisements headed Physical Debility. Con- 
fessions of an Invalid. Marriage Guide. Warning to Young Men. Manhood Re- 
stored. Essence of Life. Advice to the Married. Early Indiscretions. Loss of 
Memory. Nervous Debility. See Hall's Journal of Health for December, 1863. 
Sent post-paid for twelve cents. 

Personal. — Our office for medical consultation temporarily, is at 831 Broadway, 
New-York, from eleven to one o'clock, daily. Ladies who desire a consultation 
are requested to notify us, when we will appoint a specific hour. Gentlemen who 
can not be in the city during the above hours can arrange a special appointment. 
We do not desire interruption at present, except from eleven to one, unless 

The last editions of "Health and Disease" and "Sleep" are exhausted ; new 
editions will be printed about first of February. 

Any one of our books will be sent post-paid to any person sending us four new 

John G. Broughton, Esq., No. 13 Bible House, New-York, has sent us four pub- 
lications of the American Tract Society, No. 28 Cornhill, Boston. " Temperance 
Tales," by Lucius M. Sargent, is an invaluable book for all classes, but especially 
for the young. " Pleasant Tales," in prose and verse, with twenty-six engravings. 
Contents : Mark's Temptation ; Bill and his Bible ; A Lesson from the Birds ; True 
Courage, and fifty-four ! other useful and most interesting stories, sent for forty 
cents ; also, " Black and White," by Mrs. Jane D. Chaplin, which will fir.d thou- 
sands of admiring and sympathizing readers. Christ the Children's Guide, by 
Rev. J. S. Sewall, a sweetly instructive little book of thirty-six pages. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XL] APRIL, 1864. [No. 9. 


Never taste an atom when 3*011 are not hungry ; it is suicidal,. 

Never enter an omnibus without having the exact change. 

Never stop to talk in a church aisle after service is over. 

Never hire servants who go in- pairs, as sisters, cousins, or 
any thing else. 

Never blow your nose between your thumb and fingers. 

Never deposit the results of a "hawk" or cough on the side- 

Never pick your nose in company. 

Never open your handkerchief to inspect the product of a 

Never speak of your father as - the old man." 

Never reply to the epithet of a drunkard, a fool, or a fellow. 

Never speak contemptuously of womankind. 

Never abuse one who was once your bosom-friend, however 
bitter now. 

Never smile at the expense of your religion or your Bible. 

Never stand at the corner of a street. 

Never take a second nap. 

Never eat a hearty supper. 

Never insult poverty. 

Never eat between meals. 



" What has the weather to do with business ?" was the reply of a cheery-faced 
and successful business man, to the inquiry: "Are you out such a day as this?" 
Such an hour of sleet and storm and angry howling winds is seldom seen in these 
latitudes. It was approaching three o'clock, and the bank account had to be made 
right, or financial ruin would have been the result. Suppose the storm had been 
ten times more tempestuous, the wind ten times more boisterous, the cold twenty 
degrees below zero, the City Hall clock would have struck three just as soon, and 
the bank notary would not have delayed one second later to have written the fatal 
word, " protested ;" for business knows no law but that of promptitude ; it knows 
no excuse ; death even is no apology for the failure to meet a bank engagement. 
He who will succeed in making a fortune in a large city, must meet his engagements 
in all weathers. 

It is precisely so in relation to health and disease. Moderate, daily exercise in 
the open air, with a cheerful spirit and an encouraging remuneration, is worth a 
thousand times more than all the remedies in the materia medica for the removal of 
ordinary ailments, when conjoined with temperance and cleanliness. But the same 
principle must be applied as in the successful prosecution of business. The exer- 
cise must be performed regardless of the weather. Not that exercise in bad 
weather i3 especially promotive to health ; it is not as favorable to that end as good 
weather. But if exercise is needed at all, it is not the less necessary because it is 
raining, or very cold, or unendurably hot. If a man is hungry, he is not the less 
hungry because he can get nothing to eat. The necessity for exercise as a means 
of health is abiding ; what makes the rule imperative, " Go out in all weathers " is, 
that we eat in all weathers ; and if we exercise only when the weather is per- 
fectly suitable, half the time would be lost in our changing climate. But the 
very energy and moral courage which enables a man to take out-door exercise, re- 
gardless of the weather, is of itself a potent means for the cure even of serious 

The man who offers bad weather as an excuse for not going and paying a debt, 
will never succeed in business ; nor will he get well, who, for that reason, fails to 
take his daily exercise, when it is an indispensable means of cure. It is precisely 
the same in religion ; he who is swift to offer bad weather as an excuse for be- 
ing absent from the worship of the great congregation on the Sabbath-day, or from 
other properly appointed " means of grace," never did make an efficient church 
member, will have nothing "added" in his napkin at the great accounting day! 
It is the man who is faithful to his duty, always, " regardless of the weather," or 
any thing else, who will hear the glad greeting from the Heavenly Judge, " Wklx 
»onb l" i 


The First Wedding. — We like the short courtships, and 
in this Adam acted like a sensible man — he fell asleep a bache- 
lor, and awoke to find himself a married man. He appears to 
have popped the question almost immediately after meeting 
Miss Eve, and she, without flirtation or shyness, gave him a 
kiss and herself. Of that first kiss in the world we have had 
our own thoughts, however, and sometimes, in a poetical mood, 
wished we were the man that did it. But the deed is done— 
the chance was Adam's, and he improved it. We like the 
notion of getting married in a garden. Adam's was private. 
No envious aunts and grunting grandmothers. The birds of 
the heavens were the minstrels, and the glad sky flung its light 
on the scene. One thing about the first wedding brings queer 
things to us in spite of its scriptural truth. Adam and his 
wife were, rather young to marry ; some two or three days old, 
according to the sagest elder ; without experience, without a 
house, a pot or kettle ; nothing but love and Eden.— M. M. Noah. 

Marriage. — Marriage is to a woman at once the happiest 
and saddest event of her life; it is the promise of future bliss, 
raised on the death of present enjoyment. She quits her home, 
her parents, her companions, her amusements — every thing on 
which she has hitherto depended for comfort, for affection, for 
kindness, and for pleasure. 

The parents by whose advice she has been guided — the sister 
to whom she has dared to impart the very embryo thought and 
feeling — the brother who has played with her, by turns the 
counselor and the counseled, and the younger children to 
whom she has hitherto been the mother and playmate — all are 
to be forsaken at one fell stroke — every former tie is loosened 
— the spring of every action is changed; and she flies with joy 
in the untrodden paths before her, buoyed up by the confidence 
of requited love, she bids a fond and grateful adieu to the life 
that is past, and turns with excited hopes and joyous antici- 
pation to the happiness to come. Then woe to the man who can 
blight such fair hopes — who can treacherously lure such a heart 
from its peaceful enjoyments, and watchful protection of home 
— who can, coward like, break the illusions which have won 
her, and destroy the confidence which love had inspired. 

Woe to hiin who has too early withdrawn the tender plant 
from the props and stays of moral discipline, in which she has 
been nurtured, and yet makes no effort to supply their places ; 
for on him is the responsibility of her errors — on him who first 
taught her, by his example, to grow careless of her duty, and 
then exposed her, with a weakened spirit and unsatisfied heart, 
to the wild storms and the wily temptations of a sinful world. — 

A Valuable Table.— I notice in the Farmer of July 26 an 
article under the above caption, which would be valuable if it 
was correct ; but I find so much discrepancy in it that I am 
constrained to write. 

When I was a boy I learned from Adams 7 old arithmetic 
that 268.8 cubic inches make a gallon dry measure, and on that 
supposition, the first box, 24 by 16 by 28 inches, said to con- 
tain five bushels or one barrel, is correct, if you call 40 gallons 
a barrel ; but that is not the way we reckon barrels here. No 
matter — it is the boxes we are after now: all correct, so far. 

But the second box, said to contain half as much as the first, 
is of the same length and breadth, and should be 14 inches 
deep instead of 12 inches. 

The third box, 26 by 15.8 by 8 inches, said to contain one 
bushel, does contain over a bushel and a half. 

The fourth box, 12 by 11.2 by 8 inches, said to contain one 
peck, does contain just half a bushel. 

The fifth box, 8 by 8 by 4.2 inches, said to contain a gallon, 
is correct. 

The sixth box, 4 by 8 by 4.8 inches, said to contain a half 
gallon, is 19.2 cubic inches too large. 

The seventh box, 4 by 4 by 4.1, said to contain a quart, is 
1.6 cubic inches too small. 

Now I have my hand in, if you have room to spare, I should 
like to give a simple rule to ascertain the correctness of grain 
measures in the form commonly used for half-bushels, pecks, 
etc. — that is, the round or circular form. 

First, to find the area of any circle, multiply the square of 
its diameter by .7854, that is the decimal form of 7854-10,000, 
and the product will be the answer. And now for the half- 


Measure the diameter carefully in inches and fractions of an 
inch, (a carpenter's square will answer all practical purposes, 
but the Gunter's scale is better, because it gives the fractions 
in decimal form,) then multiply its square by 7854, as directed 
above, and you have the number of square inches checked 
right out on the half-bushel bottom, by which divide the num- 
ber of cubic inches in half a bushel, and the quotient will be 
the required depth in inches and fractions of an inch. Now 
measure perpendicularly, and if not correct, cut down the top 
or move the bottom outward or inward. 

The Mother.- — She came leaning on the arm of her daugh- 
ter, and wrapped in a thick cashmere shawl, which alone indi- 
cated the extreme delicacy of a constitution that could not endure 
exposure to a breeze so gentle as that which pervaded the 
apartment. One needed to bestow but a moment's glance on 
the mother to see whence the mountain girl inherited the 
spiritual expression which at times imparted such holy .sweet- 
ness to her face. Nothing could exeeed the elevated, the 
almost unearthly sanctity which marked the countenance, the 
manner, and even the voice of the slender, shadow-like woman, 
the marble pallor of whose face seemed enhanced by the bril- 
liancy of her dark, lustrous eyes, and whose black, wavy hair 
drooped over her sunken cheek as if it were a mourning badge, 
a token of the decay of her early bloom. There was no undue 
claim to sympathy, however; no affectation of weakness in the 
gentle, hostess-like manner of the invalid, who, although she 
spoke English but imperfectly, made a successful use of her 
knowledge of the language in welcoming Meredith under her 
roof, accompanying her broken words with a kindness of tone 
and earnestness of gesture which left little for the tongue to 

Mother — O word of undying beauty ! Thine echoes sound 
along the walls of time until they crumble at the breath of the 
Eternal. In all the world there is not a habitable spot where 
the music of that holiest word is not sounded. Ay, by the 
golden flower of the river, by the crystal margin of the forest 
tree, in the hut built of bamboo-cane, in the mud and thatched 
cottage, by the peaks of the kissing mountains, in the wide- 
spread valley, on the blue ocean, in the changeless desert, where 
the angel came down to give the parched lips the sweet water 

of the wilderness ; under the white tent of the Arab, and in 
the dark-covered wigwam of the Indian hunter — wherever the 
pulses of the human heart beat quick and warm, or float feebly 
along the current of failing life, is that sweet word spoken like 
a universal prayer. 

The Motherless.— They are motherless J Oh ! gently, 
gently keep back those bitter words. Avert that cold, cruel 
stare. See you not the tearful eyes ? Alas ! that sorrow 
should ever make a child's heart its home ! 

They are motherless ! Stranger hands ministering to their 
daily wants ; stranger hearts wearying of the irksome duty. 

No fond, sweet kisses of warm embrace ! No gentle words 
of comfort and love I No soft folding of little hands in prayer ! 
No mother ! 

Missing the low, sweet cadence of her voice ; missing that 
" Good-night ! " seeking, seeking all in vain, that ark for the 
weary dove — a mother's heart. 

Draw the little forms near to your heart. Pillow the aching 
head upon your bosom. Think of your sunny childhood — 
your mother's earnest love, her gentle care, her patient forbear- 
ance, her precious forgiveness. Then only in kindness let your 
hand rest on each honored little head ; only in love reprove 
that stricken little flock. 

Oh ! let yours be the hand that will lead them in the green 

pastures, and by the still waters of the precious Saviour's love ! 

Let yours be the blessed benediction : " Inasmuch as ye have 

done it to the least of these, ye have done it unto me." Ee- 

member their angels do always behold the face of our Father 

in heaven. Then, it may be that a child's hand shall lead you 

to that heavenly home — a child's hand place the crown upon 

your head. 

Speak gently to the motherless! 

A weight of woo they boar ; 
Greet them with looks of tenderness — 

Oh ! add not to their care. 
Speak gently to the motherless 

When tears their eyes bedim ; 

And lead them unto Him. 
Then yours shall that blessing be — 
** Friends ye have done this unto me I " 


A Sweet Philosophy. — The celebrated teacher, Eabbi 
Meir, sat during the whole of one Sabbath-day in the public 
school, instructing the people. During his absence from the 
house, his two sons died — both of them of uncommon beauty, 
and enlightened in the law. His wife bore them to her bed 
chamber, laid them upon the marriage-bed, and spread a white 
covering over their bodies. In the evening the Eabbi came 

She reached him a goblet. He praised the Lord at the going 
out of the Sabbath, drank, and asked: 

11 Where are my two sons, that I may give them my bless- 
ing ? I repeatedly looked round the school, and I did not see 
them there. Where are my sons, that they, too, may drink of 
the cup of blessing ?" 

" They will not be far off," she said, and placed food before 
him, that he might eat. 

He was in a gladsome and genial mood ; and when he had 
said grace after the meal, she thus addressed him : 

" Eabbi, with thy permission I would fain propose to thee 
one question." 

"Ask it, then, my love," he replied. 

"A few days ago a person intrusted some jewels to my cus- 
tody ; now he demands them again. Should I give them up ?" 

" This is a question," said Eabbi Meir, " which my wife 
should not have thought it necessary to ask. What ! wouldst 
thou hesitate or be reluctant to restore to every one his own?" 

" No," she replied ; " but yet I thought it best not to restore 
them without acquainting thee therewith." 

She then led him to the chamber, and stepping to the bed, 
took the white covering from the dead bodies. 

"Ah I my sons, my sons !" loudly lamented the father. 
" My sons, the light of my eyes, and the light of my under- 
standing ! I was your father, but you were my teachers in 
the law." 

The mother turned away and wept bitterly. At length she 
took her husband by the hand and said : " Eabbi, didst thou 
not teach me that we must not be reluctant to restore that 
which was intrusted to our keeping ? See, the Lord gave, and 

the Lord has taken away, and blessed be the name of the 

"Blessed be the name of the Lord!" echoed Kabbi 
Meir ; " and blessed be his name for thy sake, too ; for well it 
*s written : ' Whoso hath found a- virtuous wife hath a greater 
treasure than. costly pearls. She openeth her mouth with wis- 
dom, and in her tongue is the law of kindness.' " 

How to Admonish.— We must consult the gentlest 
manner and softest seasons ; for advice must not fall like a vio- 
lent storm, bearing down and making those to droop whom it 
is meant to cherish and refresh. It must descend as dew upon 
the tender herb, or like melting flakes of snow ; the softer 
it falls, the longer it dwells upon and deeper it sinks into the 
mind. If there are few who have the humility to receive ad- 
vice as they ought, it is often because there are as few who 
have the discretion to convey it in a proper vehicle, and to 
qualify the harshness and bitterness of reproof, against which 
corrupt nature is apt to revolt, by an artful mixture of sweet 
and pleasant ingredients. To probe the wound to the bottom, 
with all the boldness and resolution of a good spiritual sur- 
geon, and yet with all the delicacy and tenderness of a friend, 
requires a very dexterous and masterly hand. An affable de- 
portment and a complacency of behavior will disarm the most 
obstinate. Whereas, if, instead of pointing out their mistake, 
we break out into unseemly sallies of passion, we cease to have 
any influence over them, or rather create a feeling antagonistic 
to the advice we wish to give them. 

Prejudice. — All men are apt to have a high conceit of 
their own understanding, and to be tenacious of the opinions 
they profess ; and yet almost all men are guided by the under- 
standings of others, not by their own, and may be said more 
truly to adopt than to beget their opinions. Nurses, parents, 
pedagogues, and after them all, and above them all, that uni- 
versal pedagogue system fills the mind with notions which it 
has no share in framing ; which it receives as passively as it 
receives the impressions of outward objects, and which, left to 
itself, it would never have framed, or would have examined 
afterwards. Thus prejudices are established by education, and 


habits by custom. We are taught to think what others think, 
not how to think for ourselves ; and whilst the memory is 
loaded, the understanding remains unexercised, or exercised 
in such trammels as constrain its motions and direct its pace, 
till that which is artificial becomes in some sort natural, and 
the mind can go to no other. It may sound oddly, but it is 
true in many cases, to say, that if men had learned less, their 
way to knowledge would be shorter and easier. It is, indeed, 
shorter and easier to proceed from ignorance to knowledge 
than from error. They who are in the last must unlearn be- 
fore they can learn to any good purpose ; and the first part of 
this double task is not in many respects the least difficult, for 
which reason it is seldom undertaken. — Literary Journal. 

How Ladies should Dress.— As you look from 

your windows in Paris, observe the first fifty women who pass ; 
forty have noses depressed in the middle, a small quantity ot 
dark hair, and a swarthy complexion. But, then, what a 
toilet ! Not only suitable for the season, but the age and com- 
plexion of the wearer. How neat the feet and hands ! How 
well the clothes are put on, and more than all, how well they 
suit each other ! 

Before English women can dress perfectly, they must have 
the taste of the French, especially in color. One reason why 
we see colors ill-arranged in England is that the different arti- 
cles are purchased each for its own imagined virtues, and with- 
out any thought of what is to be worn with it. Women, while 
shopping, buy what pleases the eye on the counter, forgetting 
what they have at home. That parasol is pretty, but it will 
kill, by its color, one dress in the buyer's wardrobe, and be un- 
suitable for the others. To be magnificently dressed costs 
money ; but to be dressed with taste is not expensive. It re- 
quires good taste, knowledge, and refinement. Never buy' an 
article unless it is suitable to your age, habit, style, and the 
rest of your wardrobe. Nothing is more vulgar than to wear 
costly laces with a common delaine, or cheap lace with expen- 
sive brocades. 

What colors, it may be asked, go best together ? Green 
with violet ; cold with dark crimson, or lilac ; pale blue with 
scarlet ; pink with black or white ; and gray with scarlet or 


pink. A cold color generally requires a warm tint to give life 
to it. Gray and pale blue, for instance, combine well, both 
being cold colors. White and black are safe wear, but the lat- 
ter is not favorable to dark or pale complexions. Pink is to 
some skins the most becoming ; not, however, if there is much 
color in the cheeks and lips, and if there be even a suspicion 
of red in either hair or complexion. Peach color is, perhaps, 
one of the most elegant colors worn. Maize is very becom- 
ing, particularly to persons with dark hair and eyes. But 
whatever the colors or materials of the entire dress, the details 
are all in all ; the lace around the bosom and sleeves, the 
flowers — in fact, all that furnishes the dress. The ornaments 
in the head must harmonize with the dress. If trimmed with 
black lace, some of the same should be worn in the head, and 
the flowers, which are worn in the hair, should decorate the 
dress. — All the Year Round. 

Ingratitude to Parents. — There was once a father 
who gave up every thing to his children — his house, his fields, 
and goods — and expected that for this his children would sup- 
port him. But after he had been some time with his son, the 
latter grew tired of him, and said to him : " Father, I have had 
a son born to me this night, and there, where your arm-chair 
stands, the cradle must come. Will you not, perhaps, go to 
my brother, who has a larger room ?" 

After he had been some time with the second son, he also 
grew tired of him, and said : " Father, you like a warm room, 
and that hurts my head. Won't you go to my brother, the 
baker ?" The father went, and after he had been some time 
with the third son, he also found him troublesome, and said to 
him : " Father, the people run in and out here all day, as if it 
were a pigeon-house, and you can not have your noonday 
sleep. Would you not be better off at my sister Kate's, near 
the town-wall ?" 

The old man remarked how the wind blew, and said to him- 
self: "Yes, I will do so ; I will go and try it with my daugh- 
ter. Women have softer hearts." But after he had spent 
some time with his daughter, she grew weary of him, and said 
she was always so fearful when her father went to church, or 


any where else, and was obliged to descend the steep stairs, and 
at her sister Elizabeth's there were no stairs to descend, as she 
lived on the ground-floor. 

For the sake of peace the old man assented, and went to his 
other daughter. But after some time she, too, was tired of 
him, and told him, by a third person, that her house near the 
water was too damp for a man who suffered with gout, and 
ner sister, the grave-digger's wife, at St. John's, had much drier 
lodgings. The old man himself thought she was right, and 
went outside the gate to his youngest daughter, Helen. But 
after he had been three days with her, her little son said to his 
grandfather: "Mother said yesterday to cousin Elizabeth^that 
there was no better chamber for you than such a one as father 
digs." These words broke the old man's heart, so he sank 
back in his chair and died. — Martin Luther, 

Entering a Room.— I have sometimes envied the cool- 
ness and self-possession of those gentlemen who, fortified by 
long practice, can enter a drawing-room, having no previous 
knowledge of its inmates, with as much sangfroid and indif- 
ference as if they were lounging into a box at the opera, and 
commence a conversation without exhibiting the slightest em- 
barrassment. Yet, after all, I doubt whether they are to be en- 
vied, for I apprehend that such demeanor must be the result 
either of remarkable self-complacency or of callousness of 
the heart and imagination. It argues the absence, I think of 
that chivalrous feeling toward the fair sex which in the middle 
ages was carried to so extreme a length that, in the words of 
an old writer of romance, " a true knight should stand more 
awed and abated in the presence of beauty than if he were 
summoned before the' throne of the most puissant emperor of 
the world." — Norman Sinclair, 

A G-ood Woman Never G-rows Old.— Years may 

pass over her head, but if benevolence and virtue dwell in her 
heart, she is cheerful as when the spring of life opened to her 
view. When we look at a good woman we never think of her 
age; she looks charming as when the rose of youth first 
bloomed on her cheek. That rose has not faded yet ; it will 
never fade. In her neighborhood she is the friend and bene- 


factor. Who does not respect and love the woman who has 
passed her days in acts of kindness and mercy ? We repeat, 
such a woman can never grow old. She will always be fresh 
and buoyant in spirits, -and active in, humble deeds of mercy 
and benevolence. 

Flowers for Winter.— Flowers intended for winter 
blooming need a season of repose, especially tropical plants, 
such as geranium, fuchsia, etc., which should be allowed rest 
from growth during the months of July and August,^ by al- 
most entirely withdrawing the supply of water. Of course 
the leaves will fall off, but the plants will be fitted to start into 
fresh and vigorous growth as soon as the water is again sup- 
plied. .Previous to this, the branches of the fuchsia should be 
pruned in. and water given sparingly at first, increasing the 
supply as the young shoots grow. 

Resurrection Flower.— Dr. Deck, of this city, has in 
his possession an extraordinary floral production. While on 
a visit to Egypt, inspecting some lead and copper-mines upon 
the Upper Nile, an Arab was taken ill, and the Doctor ren- 
dered him medical aid ; and when the Arab recovered, he gave 
the Doctor this extraordinary plant ; and the history furnished 
of it was, that it was taken from the bosom of an embalmed 
Egyptian princess, found in one of the vaults containing the 
remains of Coptic royalty. It is, to all appearance, a dry, 
dead substance, resembling the flattened head of a poppy, or 
the cup of an acorn, with a short, woody stem. But upon 
placing the stem in water, the corolla begins to expand, like a 
sunflower or dahlia, and in the course of fifteen minutes it will 
not only unfold, but it will turn its entire leaves backward, 
until they hang downward in a fringe, like the passion-flower, 
leaving an exquisite purple heart exposed, and forming a blos- 
som of symmetrical beauty. Since it has been in Dr. Deck's 
possession it has blossomed some eight or nine hundred times. 

Two other specimens of this rare flower are known to exist ; 
one was owned by the celebrated Baron Humboldt, and the 
other by a distinguished European savan. Dr. Deck's rational 
theory is, that it is a seminal vessel, and may drift about, with 
its seed carefully folded up, for ages in the desert, and only 
when it reaches the moisture of an oasis vegetates and blooms. 

FIVE minutes' value. 81 

Not the only specimens, neighbors of the Banner of Light. 
We can illumine you a little, and tell you that the California 
Farmer's collection has two specimens of the Resurrection- 
Flower, and therefore we are as rich as the Baron Humboldt and 
the distinguished European savan, and California will always 
have her share of rare and beautiful plants from all parts ot 
the world. — California Farmer. 

Five Minutes' Value. — A number of years ago, it was a 
custom of the orthodox churches in Boston to furnish about a 
dozen teachers, who would voluntarily go to the prison on 
Sabbath forenoon, to instruct classes of the convicts in a Sab- 
bath-school in the chapel. 

Hon. Samuel Hubbard was one cf those who went. Near 
the close of the time devoted to instruction, the chaplain said : 

"We have fine minutes to spare. Mr. Hubbard, will you 
please to make a few remarks ?" 

He arose in a calm, dignified manner, and looking at the 
prisoners, said : 

" I am told that we have ^.ve minutes to spare. Much may 
be done in five minutes. In five minutes, Judas betrayed his 
Master, and went to his own place. In five minutes, the thief 
on the cross repented, and went with the Saviour to Paradise. 
No doubt many of those before me did that act in five minutes 
which brought them to this place. In five minutes, you may 
repent, and go to Paradise — or will you imitate Judas, and go 
to the place where he is ? My five minutes have expired." 

Life Uncertain.— Life is beautifully compared to a 
fountain filled up by a thousand streams that perishes if one be 
dried. It is a silver cord twisted with a thousand strings that 
parts asunder if one be broken. Frail and thoughtless mortals 
are surrounded by innumerable dangers, which make it much 
more strange that they escape so long than that they almost 
all perish suddenly at last. We are encompassed with acci- 
dents every day to crush the moldering tenement that we 
inhabit. The seeds of disease are planted in our constitution 
by the haud of nature. The earth and the atmosphere, whence 
we draw our life, are impregnated with death— health is made 


to operate its own destruction. The food that nourishes the 
body contains the elements of its decay ; the soul that animates 
it by a vivifying fire, tends to wear it out by its action ; death 
lurks in ambush along our path. Notwithstanding this is the 
truth, so palpably confirmed by daily examples before our 
eyes, how little do we lay it to heart. We see our friends and 
neighbors perishing around us, but how seldom does it occur 
to our thoughts that our knell shall, perhaps, give the next 
fruitless warning to the world? 

There is something eminently tragic in the lives of almost 
all the princes and princesses of the great Muscovite Kingdom. 
Some die by the dagger, some by poison ; some are dropping 
off suddenly in a mysterious manner, and others are ailing for 
years under the influence of a malady of which nobody knows 
the cause, and for which no physician can give advice. There 
has scarcely been one sovereign of Eussia whose death ap- 
peared quite natural. Even the predecessor of the present Czar 
died with a mysterious suddenness, although he was one of the 
healthiest and strongest men in Europe, hardened like a moun- 
taineer, simple and frugal in his habits, and accustomed to 
fatigue and the extremes of heat and cold. Ever since his 
death his widow has been suffering likewise, in a manner as 
yet unexplained. All the mineral springs of the continent 
have been appealed to in vain for a cure ; in vain, too, the genial 
climate of Naples, Kome and Nice has been tried. Hopeless 
and helpless the Czarina now returns to the cold grandeur of 
the north — returns to die. 

How to Save a Drowning Person.— It may not 

be generally known that when a person is drowning, if he is 
taken by the arm from behind, between the elbow and shoulder, 
he can not touch the person attempting to save him, and what- 
ever struggles he may make will only assist the person holding 
him in keeping his head above water. A good swimmer can 
keep a man thus above water for an hour. If seized any where 
else the probability is that he will clutch the swimmer, and 
perhaps, as is often the case, both will be drowned. 


When a locomotive is under full headway it can not be safely 
stopped in a moment ; the stream of steam must be gradually 
turned in another direction, and made to play on thin air, or on 
the fly-wheel, as well as to have its supply cut off. So when 
the nervous energy of the human system has been acting on the 
brain under a "full head" for an hour or more, as in the per- 
formance of the most harrowing tragedy, or in the delivery of 
an impassioned address, or in the execution of some momentous 
surgical operation, it is not safe to arrest instantly the outgoing 
of that power through the brain ; the fact is, it is not possible 
if the performers just named were carried direct from the theater 
of their operations to a prison or vacant room, and were so bound 
that bodily motion was impossible, the mind would run in cease- 
less circles over the performances, would be vainly striking 
against the air, and sleep would be impossible, except as a result 
of sheer exhaustion ; even then it would not bring its natural 
renovation ; the tragedian, in spite of himself, would go over 
his part ; the orator would rehearse his sentences ; the advocate 
would joint together again his points and proofs ; the minister 
repeat his weighty appeals ; and the surgeon perform again his 
terrible operations, all in the mind, vainly, and with the almost 
invariable accompaniment, disagreeable and wearing — to wit, 
measuring the effects which might have resulted from certain 
variations in their respective performances, the surgeon would 
think that his operation might have been sooner performed, or 
would have had a more favorable recovery if he had done this, 
that, or the other thing which he had not done ; the clergyman 
will have his conscience touched by the reflection that if he had 
applied another text of Scripture, or presented another line of 
argument, or had summoned a deeper feeling of the heart, his 
discourse would have made a more lasting impression, and 
might have eventuated in more ineffaceable convictions. In 
one sense, these are vain thoughts ; they increase the exhaus- 
tion attendant on the previous actual labors, and are altogether 
unprofitable. The greatest lady tragedienne of modern times, 
Rachel, after an exciting performance, would go home, and 
although past midnight, would sometimes spend an hour or 
more in the physical effort of moving the furniture of one room 

84 hall's journal of health. 

into another, and in arranging it, as if it were to remain so for 
months, as a means of calming the mental excitement, so that 
she could go to sleep ; the philosophy of the matter was that 
the nervous energy was diverted from the brain, and compelled, 
in a measure, to pass out of the system through muscular action 
while the mental exercise necessary was such as to engage a 
different portion of the brain altogether, allowing those organs 
opportunity of quiescence, which had been so lately exercised 
to an unwonted degree. Our clerical readers know it often hap- 
pens that Sunday night is the worst night for sleep in the week, 
especially for those lazy and improvident and unsystematic un- 
fortunates who put off their preparation for the Sabbath until 
the very last moment, as it were, and hence have to sit up late 
on Saturday night, and even encroach on the sacred hours of the 
Sabbath, thus profaning holy time, in the feeling that the end 
sanctifies the means, or that it is a perfectly legitimate labor, for- 
getting that it is an unnecessary labor, as it might and ought to 
have been done in proper work-days. As we were saying, 
clergymen sometimes can not get to sleep for hours after preach- 
ing at night ; let such take a lesson from the above recital, and in- 
stead of going to bed as soon as they get home, let them perform 
some muscular movements, with the end above named in view ; 
or, if that be not practicable at times, they should divert the cur- 
rent of nervous energy from the organs of the brain which have 
been unusually exercised, to the consideration of subjects which 
will employ other organs. This may very well be done by 
reading a number of short articles on every variety of subject 
and by various authors, such as we have strung together in the 
preceding pages. This is very much on the same principle that 
one set of muscles are rested by the exercise of another set, 
which allows them to be quiescent. 

There are times to all, when the most industrious are utterly 
indisposed to do a single hand's turn, when the most diligent 
readers and thinkers lose the power of concentration, and would 
entirely fail to interest the mind in reading the most exciting 
history ; neither can they go to sleep, which indeed would be 
the very best thing they could do ; and then again, in times of 
great calamity, or trouble, or despondency, which unfortunately 
come to all, sooner or later, it will answer an excellent purpose 
to divert the mind and rest it by reading a variety of short ar- 


tides, which, require no lengthened thought, no special mental 
effort to take in ; even in these cases the reading may sometimes 
be almost mechanical, yet every now and then a paragraph will 
be met with which will compel attention more or less ; some- 
times from its incongruity, its oddity, its fun, its ridiculousness, 
or its profundity. Some of our weekly exchanges are valuable 
in this regard, by having half a column or more of miscellanies, 
brevities, jottings-down, etc. ; these afford the means of mental 
diversion, recreation, and rest, which are of great value in con- 
nection with the subject in hand. The Home Journal of New- 
York has a column or two of such reading every week, of great 
hygienic value. The striking sentences which are met with in 
reading some new book, and which are industriously penned 
for the entertainment of its readers, aside from their intrinsic 
merit, are worth more than money, if used in the ways and at 
the times referred to in this article. 

When a man " don't feel like doing a single thing," he is in 
danger, because he is very apt, under such circumstances, to 
dawdle or mope about and do nothing, the very state of mind 
which the great adversary delights to find, and is sure to take 
advantage of, 

" For Satan finds some mischief still 
For idle hands to do," 

as the unequaled Isaac "Watts has written. Eather than allow 
perfect idleness under any circumstances read the newspaper 
with its short and varied articles, even its advertisements, or 
even an antiquated scrap-book, as a healthful mental diversion, 
recreation, and rest under the circumstances adverted to. To 
the Christian heart, to that happiest of human kind who can 
receive with an unquestioning confidence and childlike trust 
all that the Bible says, the Psalms of David and the Proverbs of 
Solomon are of incalculable value in this connection ; they make 
the body forget its weariness, they bring comfort to the despond- 
ing, cheer to the broken-hearted, courage to the fallen, and faith 
and rest and hope and happiness to all. 



Philosophers have said that light and heat are ponderable bodies, and that 
although these have been coming out from the sun for six thousand years, that 
immense illuminary has not appreciably diminished in size. 

The sweetest rose of the beautiful May throws out its delightful fragrance from 
the first flush of the spring morning until dewy eve, and remains as sweet as ever 
and quite as large. 

The face and air of beauty charmed a thousand hearts yesterday ; a thousand 
more feed upon it to-day, and other thousands of eyes will look upon it to-morrow 
with a lingering rapture, and the next day it will be not less beautiful than it was 
a week ago. 

Influences go out hourly from the wise and good, and as years roll on these 
influences gather force, while the wise become wiser, and the good better, hour 
by hour. 

So with business men of integrity, of sterling and tried principles, they throw out 
an influence from themselves which is a power for good in every community, to 
restrain the wrong-doer, and awe villaiuy. 

All these are " emanations," influences ; material, moral, social ; there are also 
11 emanations" malign. 

In an autumn morning of the sunny South, or amid the flower-clad prairies of 
the wide-spreading West, or on the shores of our own Northern lakes and inland 
seas and crystal flowing streams from among the mountains, as delicious as the 
still air is, it is more so in the cool of the evening after the sun has gone down 
from the sky ; and yet that balmy atmosphere is so loaded with miasmatic poison 
that it breeds disease and pestilence and death in a night ; it will do the same on 
successive nights, to one or a million of human beings, without any appreciable 
diminution in either the amount or malignity of its venom ; and so ethereal is it 
that no alembic of the chemist has ever been able to detect its presence, even to 
the amount of a single atom. 

The very sight of filth and squalor and rags, of a victim of the horrifying small- 
pox, of the wretch whose whole body is a mass of festering corruption — any of these 
fill the most transient observer with unutterable disgust. 

Proximity to moral worth, to maiden purity, to virtuous womanhood, to high 
Christian character, as infallibly elevate, ennoble, and sanctify, as associations with 
lawlessness, bestiality, and crime, degrade and ruin and destroy. 

If then we desire that emanations should go out from us fairly loaded with influ- 
ences and powers which are healthful, beautiful, elevating, and benign, we must be 
clean in person, as well as pure in heart ; we must strive to be as faultless in dress 
as we desire to be engaging in manner ; we must bring to our assistance all the aids 
of taste and art in order to present to the world as far as possible a comely and 
perfect physique ; just as reason and grace are summoned to help us attain a high 
moral and religious character. In plainer phrase, if your clothes are dirty, wash 
them, or stay at home ; if they are ragged, patch them, or keep out of the street ; 
if you are deformed, employ a tailor or dressmaker of genius ; if you have lost a 
limb, get a Palmer leg ; if you have a snagglcd tooth, consult Allen of Bond street, 
for comeliness is a duty as much as health, and so is religion 1 



One of the good results of the existing civil war will "be to inaugurate habits of 
economy throughout every department of social and domestic life, which will save 
millions of money every year, so that, in spite of increased taxation, multitudes of 
careful, thrifty families will be quite as well off as to money matters, as they would 
have been had there been no war, while, at the same time, they will have acquired 
a higher moral and social character than they had before, because economy implies 
carefulness and self-denial, and these are certainly elevating, as we know that waste 
and self-indulgence degrade, and in the end brutalize as to the appetites and pro- 
pensities. This is not all. Waste brings want, and want obtunds the moral sense, 
so that in time it will not only tempt to take mean advantages in business, but next 
to borrow money, with a consciousness of having no specific means of returning the 
same ; a little later comes deliberate fraud, theft, and robbery outright. To aid the 
reader in the practice of such high and necessary virtues as carefulness, economy, 
and a manly self-denial, let a few lessons be taken from an older, more experienced, 
and wiser nation— the French. The first step for a family to take, especially in 
New-York, in summer, and in all families where there are no servants, and conse- 
quently no need of " keeping up" a kitchen-fire, is to purchase some cooking-lamp 
for oil or gas, Fish's patent, for example, by which a good meal can be prepared 
for half a dozen persons for a single cent, this alone will save the price of one or two 
tons of coal in a year. The older nations do not take any meat for the first meal in 
the day, we mean the better classes, and those who live mainly in-doors. Bentleifs 
Miscellany says of the richer classes of French, that tiiey make an early breakfast of 
coffee, taking no meat until about noon. They cook no more for one day than lasts 
that day ; and any observant housewife will soon learn how much will be eaten ; 
but if any thing is left over for to-day, less is purchased to-morrow, for waste is not 
allowed ; this saves the wickedness of trying to " eat up " the leavings of the cur- 
rent day. Close observation has shown that, at this time, a French family, in 
Paris, of three or four persons, with two servants, can live really well, with good 
management, including ordinary wine, kitchen fuel, and all supplementary expenses 
for food, for about nine English shillings a day. Outside of Paris, it certainly does 
not exceed six shillings a day for six persons, or one dollar and a half. This would 
he a healthier and happier land by far, if parents would make a systematic effort to 
impress on the minds of their children that waste is an unmitigated wickedness 
and that economy is one of the higher virtues, albeit a good many of our children 
and wives consider it " mean," and are absolutely ashamed that their unprincipled 
and cribbing servants should think they were trying to economize. Millions of money 
could be saved every year, if the larger cities of this country could adopt the plan of 
many Europeans, have no cooking done in the house, except for making a cup of 
tea or coffee, toasting bread, and boiling a potato, all of which a lamp can do, hav- 
ing other things prepared at the public cookeries. In other words, have dinner pre- 
pared outside, to be kept on the table " smoking hot," if desired, by means of 
little lamps. This plan works well abroad, could be made to work acceptably hero 
and would save a large per cenfeage of the cost of housekeeping. 



Who but an idiot or some unprincipled servant or recklessly wasteful 
spendthrift would think of building as large fires in their houses in the 
April spring-time as in bleak December ? And yet ladies and gentlemen, 
statesmen, philosophers, and scholars of every grade; the judge, the sena- 
tor, the lawyer, and the clergyman, all commit the more unpardonable fol- 
ly, unpardonable because it is against light and in favor of the lower in- 
stincts and propensities, of not only eating as much as the appetite demands, 
but of "taking something" to stimulate that appetite to call for more than 
nature really needs, as the warm weather approaches. The two objects of 
eating as to men and women are to give vigor to the body and to keep it 
warm ; hence all food contains two principles in greater or less proportions, 
according to its quality — to wit, nutrition and warmth. We need nourish- 
ment all the year round, hence we must all the year round eat food which 
contains nourishment, that is, the flesh forming principal; but in warm 
weather the food which contains the most mere fuel, should be to a certain 
extent curtailed, otherwise we will create too much heat within us, and that 
is fever, whose victims are counted by millions every year, this excess of 
heat, this fever being generated by eating food which contains more warmth, 
more fuel, called carbon by chemists, than the season of the year requires. 
To a certain extent nature regulates the demand and supply by diminish- 
ing the appetite as the warm weather approaches ; but many misinterpret 
her endeavors, and because they find that as the spring comes on their ap- 
petites are not as vigorous as they were a few weeks earlier, begin to take 
alarm, think they are going to get sick, and conclude the}'' certainly will get 
sick, unless they can get up the appetite of kind winter; hence they begin 
to take Dutch gin, under the name of Schiedam schnapps, plantation bit- 
ters, or cheap whisky, with just enough of Colombo root or any other bit- 
ter to give it "a trace" of bitter and rob it of the name of "rot-gut" or 
dirty beer, or ale, or porter, all these things tending to cheat nature into a 
call for more food than she requires, to impose on the stomach more labor 
than it can perform, hence laying the ground for summer fevers and dyspep- 
sias, which bring death to thousands every year who might have lived to a 
good old age had they simply let themselves alone, and like any other dogs 
or donkeys, or wild beasts, had simply given the stomach rest, and waited for 
an appetite. The general lessons for the spring are, eat only when you are 
hungry, and to the extent of satisfying an unstimulated appetite ; eat less of 
carbonaceous food, such as meats, fats, oils, syrups, etc., and more of cool- 
ing articles, such as green salads, vegetables, berries, fruits, and whatever 
has a natural tartness or acidity, there being little or no carbon or heat in 
them ; but they contain as much nutriment as the system requires. 



Windows are kept free from ice by painting the glass with alcohol with 
a brush or sponge. 

Odors from boiling ham, cabbage, etc., are prevented bj throwing red 
pepper-pods or a few pieces of charcoal into the pot. 

Percussion-caps are found to poison children, if swallowed. 

Pigeons are hatched in eighteen days ; chickens, twenty-one '; turkeys, 
twenty-six ; ducks and geese, thirty. 

A cement which is a good protection against weather, water, and fire, to 
a certain extent, is made by mixing a gallon of water with two gallons of 
brine, then stir in two and a half pounds of brown sugar and three pounds 
of common salt ; put it on with a brush like paint. 

Eggs, for cooking purposes. — One table-spoon of corn-starch is said to be 
equal to one egg. 

French Rolls. — Add two ounces of butter and a little salt to a pint of 
boiled milk ; while tepid, sift in one pound of flour, one beaten egg, one 
tablespoon of yeast; beat these altogether well; when risen, form the rolls 
with as little handling as possible ; bake on tins. 

Boiling Potatoes. — Put potatoes of equal size into water while boiling ; 
when done, pour off the water, scatter in some salt, cover the pot with a 
coarse cloth, and return it to the fire for five minutes, when they are ready 
for the table ; even watery potatoes are thus made mealy. 

Common cut-nails are easily driven into hard wood if rubbed with a little 
soft-soap ; the saliva is better than nothing for that purpose. 

Never condemn your neighbor unheard ; there are always two ways of 
telling a story. 

Potatoes. — The best way to cook a potato is to bake or roast it in an 
oven ; when done, crack the skins open and allow them to dry out for a few 
minutes before placing them on the table. 

Quarrels. — To avoid family quarrels, let the quarreling wretch have it all 
to himself; reply never a word. 

Corns, new cure ! — Let a piece of pure India-rubber, the twentieth of an 
inch thick, remain in constant contact with the corn, which should be kept 
closely and well pared ; it requires four or five weeks. 

Cider Vinegar. — Take the water in which dried apples have been soak- 
ed and wash, strain it well, add a pound of sugar. 



The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible House, 
New-York, are with indefatigable industry issuing book after book as at- 
tractive in manner as in matter, so that all classes of readers may be supplied 
with spiritual and mental food. " Jerry and his Friends, or the Way to Heav- 
en," by Alice A. Bodge, is full of interest and instruction. "Apples of 
Gold in Pictures of Silver," by Krune, contains eleven stories of practical 
use to ail readers, old and young. Also " Letters to a Theological Stu- 
dent," by Leverett Griggs. Sargent's Temperance Tales, and a very valua- 
ble book of " Daily Prayers." 

Agricultural Colleges are beginning to attract public attention. The 
great need of this country and its salvation from an oppressive national 
debt, is in intelligent farming; this will create gold in more incalculable 
quantities than the yield of the richest mines in California or Colorado. In 
this direction the Hon. Isaac Newton, with the assistance of his right-hand 
Secretary, James S. Grinnell, has given a sketch in the last bi-monthly re- 
port of the Agricultural Department for January and February, as to what 
studies these colleges should embrace, to wit, languages, mathematics, a 
geological museum, with a zoological department, maps, charts, philosophi- 
cal instruments ; a system of instruction for physical development, moral 
culture, drawing, land-surveying, book-keeping, normal school, model farm, 
military training, etc., etc. The report contains further a well-considered 
article on " The Future of American Cotton and Wool," tobacco cultivation, 
cattle-market, weights and measures, the weather, its effect on the farm, 
meteorological report, etc., etc. The Agricultural Department is not infe- 
rior in its importance on the future welfare of this country, to any other in 
the Government, and up to this time, it has been managed with an ability, 
wisdom, and judgment on the part of Messrs. Newton, Grinnell, with the 
aid of other gentlemen connected with this Bureau, which merits the thanks 
of this whole nation, and we trust our farmer readers, to whom the depart- 
ment sends its circulars for information and statistical statements on sub- 
jects connected with farming operations, will feel it to be a duty to them- 
selves and to the country in general to be prompt, accurate, and pains- 
taking, not only to give all the information they have within themselves, 
but to embody what they can collect from their neighbors, these very in- 
quiries tending to excite a spirit of inquiry, investigation, and experiment, 
which will add millions to the national wealth eventually. 

Vocal Gymnasium. — Prof. Hurlburt, of this city, gives instructions at 
the Cooper Institute, in private families and public schools, in the cultiva- 
tion of the voice, and the proper development of the muscles of the chest 
and of respiration in general. How to read naturally and well, without 
fatigue or consciousness of effort, is a social accomplishment of more gene- 
ral use and practical employment than almost any other study in our 
schools, and we hope that the able and conscientious and indefatigable 
Professor will receive the patronage which he so well merits.. To be able 
to read well is an accomplishment of which any one may be laudably proud. 


"The Nation's Success and Gratitude." — Our old friend, David A. 
Sayre, the Kentucky banker, only a small part of whose princely benevo- 
lences were recorded in the August number of last year, has forwarded to 
us a discourse on the above subject, delivered on the last National thanks- 
giving-day by that stern old Presbyterian and loyal Unionist, Robert J. 
Breckenridge, the vigor of whose intellect has caused him for a quarter of a 
century past to stand a head and shoulders above the men of his time, and 
who in this last eloquent utterance shows that he is still as great in mind 
as he is as fearless in heart ; and who will not join with him in his closing 
petition that a complete triumph and lasting peace may be speedily secured 
to us, by means which God will own and bless, and that he would incline 
and enable all men to walk in ways of wisdom, justice, and humanity ? 

Metropolitan Fair. — Surely it will cheer the hearts of our sick and 
wounded and imprisoned soldiers, as well as those who are now in the field, 
to learn that the wealth and the beauty and fashion of our great cities are 
making their very pleasures a means of enriching the treasury of the San- 
itary Commission, a handsome contribution to which was realized on the 
evening of Saturday, March twelfth, on the occasion of a private concert, 
being the sixth of the series given at the princely mansion of one of our up- 
town millionaires, Dr. Thomas Ward, who, as on previous occasions, 
promptly and cordially gave up the use of the splendid music-room attach- 
ed to his hundred-feet front, corner of Fifth Avenue and Forty-seventh 
street, to the committee of ladies who managed the whole* affair. A more 
elegant company has perhaps never assembled on any similar occasion in 
this city. A long line of splendid equipages lined the avenue in the direc- 
tion of the Central Park, while a double row reached up Forty-seventh 
street, (the handsomest and best built in New-York,) extending apparent- 
ly to Sixth Avenue. The night and the weather were splendid, and every 
thing went off successfully, happily, and without a single occurrence to 
mar the enjoyment of the evening, which always is the case when Dr. 
"Ward has the arrangement of affairs ; not the least interesting feature 
of the occasion was the introduction of a part of the opera of the " Gipsy's 
Frolic," the words and music of which were composed by the Doctor him 
self, whose opinion, by the way, in all matters of taste, and music, and art 
is final in the circles of the upper-five. On the nineteenth, the seventh 
concert of the series takes place at the house of the Hon. August Belmont, 
in Fifth Avenue, which no doubt will do credit to the liberal banker. 

W. J. Widdleton announces through the Publishers' Circular a new 
edition of "Health and Disease," to be ready without fail. on the first of 
April. Orders from the trade solicited. 







Ipif pelting Jif prite t 

"Patented June IT'tli, 1862. Re-issued Dec. £3d, 1863. 
Patented inebrnary S^th., 1863. 






To be used on a common lamp to beat water, cook food, or support a shade. Price, Fifty 

Cents. No family can afford to be without one of these articles. 
Same apparatus, arranged for gas, to be attached to the regular gas burner of your room p 


WM. D. EU88ELL, Agent, 

One Door North op Maiden Lane, New-York. 

Circulars sent without charge, post paid. 

Already has the invention found its place in the nursery, in the sick-room, in hospitals 
and hospital railway-ambulances, in barber-shops, in restaurants, in the student's room 
at colleges, in chemical laboratories ; and for family purposes, where summer fires have 
heretofore roasted the occupants, they now prepare their meals by means of the Lamp 
Attachment, at a less cost than they before incurred for kindling-wood, saying nothing 
about cost of regular fuel. 

Prices are from Two to Six Dollars, according to size. 

44 The smallest holds a Quart of water, the largest a Gallon. The apparatus is literally 
all that it claims to be." — Ed. Hall's Jour. Health. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XI.] MAY, 1864. [No. 5. 


Going down Broadway any day, scores of men and women 
may be observed as unconscious of the presence of their fellow- 
men, despite the pressing along of the ceaseless crowd, . the rat- 
tling of wheels, and the din of business, as if they were in the 
midst of Sahara or some boundless prairie of the West, or in 
an Indian canoe in mid ocean. There may be noticed at any 
hour, the compressed lip, the muttering speech, the sharp ex- 
clamation, the impatient gesture, and the smothered curse. 
The public pulse beats fast and high and hard ; the machinery 
of life is running at a rate so abnormal in its rapidity, that it 
must wear out long before its time, or be shivered to atoms by 
the unnatural tension. 

" Died suddenly," is the frequent announcement of the morn- 
ing paper. " Who died suddenly ?." The merchant whom we 
met on 'Change not thirty-six hours ago ; the broker whom we 
saw on the street yesterday noon with flushed face, and fingers 
clenching a package of papers, the loose ends of which were 
fluttering in the wind. He was on the half run, to get into his 
grave, and there he is. Go into a man's office, he does not ask 
you to take a seat ; that would imply that some long story was 
to be listened to ; he forgets to say good-morning, and with in- 
quiring look he asks you to begin what you have to say, and 
be off. The visitor is just as intent on business as the visited, 
and the first sentence, sometimes the first word and only word 
indicates the whole object of the interview. A man calls at 

94 hall's jouknal of health. 

the post-office for a letter : " Good-morning, neighbor, fine day 
to-day ; all well at home ? I called to see if there was any let- 
ter for me to-day, as I was expecting one." Does he make all 
this ado? Why, the post-office clerk would faint away; he 
wouldn't get through his work till midnight. You appear at 
the window, announce your name, the pile is looked over, the 
letter is silently handed to you, or the monosyllable " none "is 
uttered ; you give room for the impatient man behind you, and 
all is over. The minister would be considered an old fogy who 
would hum and haw and beat around the bush twenty or even 
ten minutes, as in the olden time, before he announced the sub- 
ject-matter of his discourse. He is expected to present the 
main idea in the first sentence, and without more ado, present 
his divisions, offer his proofs, make the application, and away, 
all in forty minutes, and wiser they who do it in thirty ; beyond 
forty he becomes tedious, is unheard ; irritation springs up; and 
he is pronounced "repetitious." 

A man enters the breakfast-room with one arm in the sleeve 
of his coat, the other half-way ; gobbles down his coffee and 
toast and tenderloin in silence, grabs up the morning paper, 
and at a two-forty gait makes for the car or omnibus, and is 
oblivious to all the world until he reaches his destination. 

Said a thoughtful wife the other day: "My husband never 
thinks of his dinner ; if I put a sandwich in his pocket in the 
morning at seven, it is there still when he reaches home at six ; 
eleven hours, not a mouthful eaten; business, business, busi- 
ness !" 

" My husband didn't sleep two hours last night," said a charm- 
ing woman not long ago. "I waked up, and in the full glare 
of gas-light he was pacing the floor, and continued it until the 
morning." "Nor does mine sleep," said another wife, whose 
husband is one of the men of the time. " He tosses and tum- 
bles the whole night through, and merely dozes for an hour." 

" Three hours is all the sleep I can get in the twenty -four,'' 
said a man of great wealth, the other day. "I would be will- 
ing to begin where I began before, a poor boy, without a pen- 

ny in the world, if I could sleep as I did then." 

But there are moral aspects of the war more astounding, and 
still more to be lamented ; it is the perfect breakdown of all per- 
sonal morality. There is a recklessness of moral principle per- 


vadingall classes, (individual exceptions every where,) which al- 
most makes the thoughtful feel that the millennium has been in- 
definitely postponed. Deception, extravagance, recklessness, 
and waste are everywhere in the ascendant, except in families 
long rich. The servant and the master ; the employers and the 
employed ; the boss and the journeyman ; the apprentice and 
his teacher ; all, all seem half demented ; seem to act as if gold 
grew on every twig, and want was never to be known again. 

But with all our admiration of womankind, it must be con- 
fessed that the wives and daughters of the common and aspiring 
classes are running riot in their fierce madness after fine dress, 
showy equipages and splendid mansions; few among these 
know the value of money, and fewer still care whence or how 
it comes, so they can get it with the trouble of asking, quarrel- 
ing or crying for it. Not one in a thousand of them appre- 
ciates the risks, and toils, and vexations and crushing responsi- 
bilities involved on the part of their husbands in providing for 
their households in times like the present. Formerly a man 
could do business with his next-door neighbor without fear or 
misgiving, but the moral sense is so obtunded now that fellow 
can not trust fellow, nor friend, friend. To trust is to be de- 
frauded. To favor, is to lose all. 

Men who formerly stood high among their fellows in New- 
York, Philadelphia, and Boston, have become government con- 
tractors and have been proved to be unprincipled scoundrels. 
Broadway clothing stores have furnished rotten coats to poor 
and suffering solders ; ship-brokers have made out of the gov- 
ernment scores of thousands in an hour. Money makes all 
laws, and unmakes them, as witness the whisky tax in Con- 
gress ; the tobacco tax, the efforts to remove the duty from pa- 
per and coal ; in a thousand other directions in Washington, in 
Albany, in Harrisburgh, and above all, in Trenton, corruption 
and trickery are the order of the day. 

The monetary affairs of the country are rapidly verging 
to a common ruin. Money is apparently plenty, but never has 
it been so scarce in the history of the government. Coin is 
the only money, and nine persons out of ten fail to receive or 
pay out a five-cent piece in a month's traffic. Never were silk 
and satin and velvet so high in price ; never were they seen so 
common on the street as at the present time. 


War presents some curious features to our view. It has 
drained our cities in large part of a redundant, idle, diseased 
and degraded class ; these either soon die or are killed off. But 
there are examples not a few where the activities of the camp, 
its discipline and its experience have made invalids robust ; 
have imparted a higher moral tone to some, and given character 
and energy to others, who before were by common consent con- 
sidered to be inane and worthless. 

When a man of a good common education and some steadi- 
ness of character, goes to war and fairly engages in battle, he is 
thereafter, until his dying day, more of a man than he ever 
was before. No one of even common observation can have 
failed to notice in the faces of returned veteran regiments as 
they have marched along our streets, a stereotyped cast of coun- 
tenance, common to all ; there is an imprint of sternness on 
every face ; of determination, and an elevation of spirit, de- 
spite of tattered garments and soiled clothing and the dust and 
sweat of a long march ; as much as to say, I have been fight- 
ing for my country, I have imperiled my life to maintain her 
liberties and her unity; these are first things; my mission is 
god-like, to wit, to maintain liberty and the right forever ! 

When this war is ended, much of the scuff and scum of so- 
ciety will have disappeared, and nine out of ten of those who 
return from victorious battle-fields will make better, sterner, 
more manly members of society than ever before. The most 
of the great soldiers of history were men of simple tastes, quiet 
manners and of unassuming deportment. This is the tendency 
of war, to lop off excrescences, to consolidate the character, to 
inure to self-denial, to impart energy, determination and self- 
reliance, and to mold the whole man aright. This war will leave 
more men in the country than were found in it the day when 
Sumter was fired at and fell. 

Official reports of European countries have shown more boy- 
children are born in war than in times of peace, and that al- 
though at the end of the wars of the First Napoleon, it was rare 
to find a Frenchman over five feet three, there was a recupe- 
ration in the next age, and now the average hight of the men 
does not vary much from what it was before the Directory. 

As soon as the war closes there will inevitably be a universal 


financial crash; in five years thereafter the country will exhibit 
a degree of solid prosperity and national power which can defy 
the world besides ; an amount of cotton will be raised annually, 
which will astonish all civilized nations. Why ? 

War makes men; determined, self-reliant men; such men 
have a degree of self-respect which idlers never dreamed of J 
these characteristics will impel them to labor ; to intelligent 
labor, to labor well directed. Five years ago, many a planter 
had from Rve hundred to five thousand acres of land, of which 
a few hundred only were cultivated, the remainder was held in 
reserve for children who were growing up with the expectation 
of a fortune and with the full calculation to live in ease and 
luxury, to end in a life of idleness, intemperance, and debauch 
ery. Five years hence, there will be ten households instead 
of one, to every thousand acres ; there will be ten families in- 
stead of one to be supplied with school-books, and libraries ; 
with the ubiquitous newspaper; the weekly journal and the 
monthly magazine. Ten families will want a sewing-machine, 
a piano, a reaper and a clothes- wringer, where one does now. 
Ten neat cottages will spring up, where was seen but fire years 
since a solitary planter's house, never papered, seldom plas- 
tered, and always in a more or less unfinished condition. In- 
telligence will not plant the teeming soil with corn and pota- 
toes at a price of twenty dollars an acre when it can raise a 
hundred dollars' worth of cotton, and sometimes three hun- 
dred dollars' worth, with less labor. 

That country is strongest, is most prosperous, and can best 
defy all outside nations which is marked off into farms of forty, 
fifty, or an hundred acres instead of embracing ten or twenty 
of these in one partially tilled plantation. So that aside from 
the mere question of slavery there will be benefits arising from 
this war which will present an encouraging front compared 
with the opposite phases. 

The ravage of war as to human life is exaggerated in al- 
most all minds, and is never so great as it seems to be. Many 
of the soldiers who sicken and die in hospitals would have 
sickened and died at home ; while the proportion of all who 
die from wounds is astonishingly small, and some of these 
would have perished by accident had they remained at home. 

It can not be denied that war is always a curse ; and can, sel- 

98 hall's jouenal of health. 

dom, if ever, fail to be a sin ; but as in the present state of hu- 
man morals it will come sooner or later, to the nationalities of 
the earth, it is well to look at both sides calmly and dispassion- 
ately, take an intelligent view of all its phases, and endeavor to 
make the best of it. 


Messes. Walker, Wise & Co., of Boston, have sent us a 
paper-covered twelvemo of sixty-three' pages, entitled Sun- 
shine, by Mrs. Dall, author of Woman's Bight to Labor. 
We always become suspicious of any man, woman, or book 
connected with " woman's, rights " in the most remote man- 
ner possible, even by a link so minute, that it requires a micro- 
scope to discover it, just as we become suspicious of the soft- 
ness of a man's cranium the instant we discover that he is fond 
of long hair, or has it parted in the middle. Those who advo- 
cate " woman's rights," spiritualism, steam doctoring, and cold- 
water sloshings, we regard as a little weak in the upper-story ; 
at least, we have never yet come in contact with one who was 
not an object of pity, who was not brimful and overflowing 
with all sorts of impracticable theories about every thing under 
the sun, or who was not forever pecking at the Bible or the 
ministers of our holy religion. And if pains were taken to in- 
quire about their domesticities, it would be found in a large 
number of cases, that there was either a strong leaning toward 
the doctrines of passional attraction, free-loveism, or the swap- 
ping of husbands and wives whenever they get tired of each 
other ; or as a celebrated vegetarian doctor and author, who 
died twenty years sooner than other people, and whose wife 
couldn't live with him, expressed it in his application for a di- 
vorce: " She was not the psychological complement I took her 
to be." Whether he meant by such a phrase that her foot was 
too flat, her ankle too thick, her waist a mile through, or her 
character like a lump of dough, was not stated ; the great pro- 
bability is, that he was a beast, and she a woman in the highest 
sense, possessing all of a woman's delicacy, elevation, and re- 

The book is well written, and abounds in valuable practical 
truths which all would do well to heed. It needed no such 


catchpenny phrase as " woman's rights " on its title-page ; and 
any respectable publisher outside of the "Hub" would have 
known this. But from transcendental Boston we may expect 
any thing from the sublime to the ridiculous, "both included." 

This journal has very frequently advocated the power of 
moral medicines as being more efficient in many cases than any 
physic of the apothecary ; so in this article we will let material, 
out-door sunshine alone, and say something of the sunshine of 
the heart and hearth ; of its power to insure a new life and 
activity when physical toil has used up the vital energies, and 
when insidious disease has sapped the powers of life, and left 
the body a mere wreck of what it was. In our book on Bron- 
chitis and Kindred Diseases, an account is given of a man who 
spent fifteen years in a dungeon so dark that it was impossible 
to discover the distinctive features of his fellow-prisoner, who 
was with him for five years of that time — during the remainder 
of his imprisonment he was alone ; and yet he lived many years 
after that, and walked a free man under the glorious sunshine 
of the sky. But a year or two, or a month or two, sometimes 
even a few weeks of no sunshine in the heart, have been all suf- 
ficient to lay the body in the grave to be at rest at last. There 
are some men, spoonies, who look as if they had never smiled, 
there is a pitiful sadness, with an unmistakable expression of 
feature, a kind of hopelessness, as if they were kept under all 
the time at home. They don't exactly die ; it's a great pity they 
didn't ; they seem to have got used to it, and settled down in a 
state of sorrowful submission; they hadn't sense enough to 
maintain their liberties, nor energy enough to run away when 
every thing was lost. 

There are other men, brave, indomitable ; who live above the 
present ; who having found themselves " in a fix," by having 
made a grand mistake in marriage, have made a virtue of neces- 
sity, and have proudly determined to " endure," to the end of 
the chapter. At the same time, there is a settled sadness on 
the features when at rest, showing plainly that there is no "sun- 
shine " at home. 

But the sight that pains us most, is that in Broadway, of 
young women and those of maturer years, in whose faces it is 
plainly seen there is no sunshine at home ; but the skeleton of 
a step-mother ; of a trifling husband ; or of one who has no 


sympathies ; nothing in common with the woman of his choice ; 
she, refined, educated, with cultivated tastes, of sensitive in- 
stincts ; he, ignorant, debased', brutal ; a gourmand, and a rake. 
He was rich; she poor; hence the tale of sadness; a home with- 
out any sunshine. 

There is a young girl, not very well dressed ; she would be 
handsome if she were ; she walks as if it were done mechani- 
cally ; as if there was no object ahead ; as if she were going to- 
ward home, but did not care whether she ever got there or not ; 
there is no spring, no elasticity in her step, but as if an iron 
weight were attached to each heel. There is certainly no sun- 
shine under the roof which shelters her. Perhaps she has a 
drunken father ; a brother who is a disgrace to the family ; or 
her mother may be her skeleton, by having no feelings in com- 
mon with her ; thwarts her in all her undertakings, in all her 
plans; always disparaging, always finding fault, always giving 
directions ; never satisfied with the manner in which any thing 
is done, and whose whole life is a dirge. Poor girl ! a little sun- 
shine at home, how it would lighten up her countenance, bright- 
en her face, and make a greater change in her whole moral 
character, than any " sunshine" which Mrs. Dall describes, 
could make on the physical nature. 

But what a light and life and genial warmth must be in the 
home of that woman who writes so well of the out- door sun- 
shine ; there must be an atmosphere of moral loveliness there, 
the mere thought of which actually " makes our. mouth water," 
and gives us an earnest, an inappeasable longing to peep in 
upon them, just a moment of any hour of any day or evening; 
the daughters — how lady -like, how affectionate ; the sons — how 
joyous and how manly ; and the husband, happy dog, looking 
on with quiet satisfaction; first upon the girls, then on the 
boys, and anon instinctively resting his eyes with fond satis- 
faction on the composed and heaven-like features of the fond 
wife of his bosom, as the "author and giver of them all," next 
to Him who rules above. 

Many times in our daily walk along the splendid Fifth Ave- 
nue, when looking at the lordly mansions of Ward, the drug- 
gist; of Henriques, the Jew; of Webb, the ship-builder; of 
James Gordon Bennett, of the Herald ; of Stewart, the dry- 
goods man ; or of Stuart, the big-hearted refiner,, who seems to 


be coining money every day, and working as "hard at it with his 
brother Aleck as if he u hadn't a minute to live," just for the 
sake of having it in his power to give it away to help "Pres- 
byters " to rise and shine. As we were saying, in passing these 
houses, we are often on the point of apostrophizing : " Well, old 
fellow, you've got more than your share of house-room." So 
the writer of " Sunshine," or rather her husband, if living, 
must have more than his share of domestic happiness ; or may 
be he has passed away to his home in the skies, waiting to re- 
ceive the one he "left behind him," to show her upward 
through the mansions of the Blessed, until they come right up 
to the great white throne to make their glad obeisance. "While, 
then, we make it a daily duty to get at least an hour or two of 
out- door sunshine ; and failing, think it an important loss to 
health and length of life, let us all aim to create an in-door sun- 
shine, the sunshine of the heart and hearth, by. a systematic de- 
termination to exercise toward every member. of the household 
the fullest measure of all that is forbearing, thoughtful, affec- 
tionate, generous and lovely. Let every thing that has the 
most distant resemblance to a contemptible whine, to a devilish 
fault-finding, to a brutal boorishness and to a narrow-minded 
and degrading selfishness, be considered as emanations from 
that pit of darkness, where fiends and furies dwell ; then shall 
light be in every family dwelling ; cheerfulness in every face ; 
and the twinkle of gladness in every eye; while every heart 
overflows with a joy so pure, that even angels might envy its 
sweetness and its bliss. And all this about a shilling pamphlet 
on "Sunshine," which every reader will thank the gifted au- 
thoress for writing. But let not this subject be dismissed with- 
out every parent, every child, determining to ask the question 
daily, 'with a religious interest, "How shall I act and speak and 
think this day, so as to bring the most sunshine to the heart 
and hearth of this household ?" And fiercest indignations be 
to the fretful wretch, fit only for a solitary prison, on bread 
and water, or for a strait-jacket, nine tenths of whose waking 
existence is spent in bringing clouds in upon an otherwise hap- 
py household by complaining and fault-findings, and bitterness 
and repinings which none but the low-born and the vicious de- 
light to indulge in ; to whom it is as natural to snap and growl 
as the ugliest cur over his meager bone. 

102 hall's jouknal of health. 

There are men everywhere who are daily crushing out the 
hearts of the women Who left happy homes to nestle confid- 
ingly in their bosoms ; not always with deliberate design, but by 
a thoughtless inattention in the exhibition of those sympathies 
on which most women feed as flowers do on water. There are 
women, too, who have so much of wormwood and of gall in 
their composition that their first morning's utterance is a whine 
or a growl ; who never, by any chance, sit down to the family 
table without a complaint; " pecking " first at one ♦child, then 
at another ; or servant or neighbor, or acquaintance or friend ; 
who never enter a room without some exhibition of queru- 
lousness or dissatisfaction. We were witness of an extraordi- 
nary exemplification of this hateful feature in the character of 
a mother, about two years ago, in a family who had not been a 
great while in New- York. Some four or five, may be more 
children were in the parlor ; some playing, some reading, some 
building mimic houses on the floor ; we were contemplating the 
scene at the time, as one fit for a painter to transfer to canvas f 
there was a deep satisfaction, or a more uproarious gladness in 
every countenance, when the door opened and the mother en- 
tered; a thin, bilious, scraggy, hatched-faced woman, with an 
apparent spinal deformity, which almost doubled her up, as her 
head was not much higher than the door-lock. As instanta- 
neous as a flash of lightning, every voice was hushed ; all play 
was suspended, and there was the silence of the grave; the 
woman looked around the room, said not a word, and withdrew. 
As soon as the door closed, a little boy of five, straightened 
himself up as he sat on the floor, drew a long breath and ex- 
claimed in a tone of surprise: "I thought mamma had come to 
kick up a fuss." As if it was one of the strangest of occur- 
rences that she should come into a room where her children 
were, without saying or doing something calculated to bring a 
cloud over the household. It is related of a merchant's widow, 
somewhere in Brooklyn, that she was of such a fault-finding 
and querulous nature, that her only son had not slept in the 
house for two years! The two daughters, who had reached 
womanhood, exclaimed one day to a lady friend of ours whose 
face was always a sun : "0 Mrs. P. ! if mother was only like 
you, how happy we and brother would be." But the father, 


where was he — in his grave ! the acknowledged victim of his 
wife's habitual ill-nature and fretfulness. 

And what shall we say of the husband and father, who comes 
home with a scowl; who brings a cloud with him which dark- 
ens the whole household the moment he enters the door, who 
frets and complains at every thing ; whom nothing can please, 
whom nobody can satisfy ? There are such men, and even 
worse. The cases above are rare ; one, it may be in a decade 
or in a hundred thousand ; but perhaps almost all have the 
germs of these undesirable traits, which ought to be watched 
against every hour of our existence, lest they might grow be- 
fore we are aware of it, to unmanageable proportions ; but this 
is only half our duty ; we should sedulously cultivate all op- 
posite qualities, that a pure and a true affection and a loveliness 
of disposition and temperament should so impregnate the whole 
character, that the household should be only the ante-chamber 
of heaven ! 


There never has been a time in our nation's history, when 
the obligation on all classes has been so urgent to economize in 
every possible direction, in food, in dress, in rents and in 
every minor article of personal expenditure. It is true that 
money was never more abundant, seemingly, than it is now. 
In reality it never has been as scarce ; the only money is silver 
and gold ; articles which three years ago were handled every 
day by the very poorest of our population, in the most ordi- 
nary transactions in business or market traffic ; how, there are 
tens of thousands who do not handle or see a gold-piece in a 
month. Even the copper penny, which was considered so 
much of a nuisance that the government, by the pressure of 
public opinion, was induced to call in that species of money 
by the kegful, is now a welcome sight to every market-man 
and shop-keeper in New- York. The rich should practice 
economy for the sake of setting a good example to those in 
more moderate circumstances. The wives and daughters of 
half our citizens are demented ; they no more know the value 
of money than an equal number of Egyptian mummies ; this 
may seem at first sight a most extravagant statement ; but it is 

104: hall's journal of health. 

short of the truth. A mummy knows nothing ; a live woman 
of our time has arrived at a state of mind by false knowledge, 
which leads to more pernicious results, than if she knew noth- 
ing at all. A mischievous argument has been presented by 
some, that the rich should spend as much as possible, and thus, 
not only give employment to those who are willing to work, 
but by a lavish expenditure in the way of dress, make impor- 
tations from abroad more necessary, and thus the income of the 
government will be increased through the Custom-House, But 
it is forgotten that gold must be sent to pay for these goods, 
and by this incessant drainage the amount of our coin becomes 
less and less, and the price of every article of consumption be- 
comes greater and greater. But suppose there were no impor 
tations, foreign countries being obliged to send for millions of 
dollars' worth of wheat and corn and meal and flour, would 
have to send also, these millions in gold, making it more abun- 
dant every month, instead of its becoming more and more 
scarce. The more gold there is, the less every article of con- 
sumption costs ; the less would be the need of hurry and expo- 
sure, and over- work of body and mind, which things kill mul- 
titudes prematurely every year; while more time would be 
afforded for rest, for rational enjoyment, and for that mental 
and spiritual and social cultivation which so add to human ele- 
vation and human happiness. 

If the times become better after the war, present economies 
will injure no one; whereas, if they become worse, the people 
will be better prepared to meet them. The safe and experienced 
sailor anticipates the storms of the sea ; and they are wisest 
who look forward to clouds and darkness and tempests in the 
business future. Economies should begin in dress and food and 
house and servants. Old garments should be patched at a very 
early stage of their giving out, and in the most durable and 
painstaking manner. Families living to themselves, should 
not allow any kind of meat, fish or fowl to come on their tables 
but once a day ; corn-meal should be the principal article for 
bread, and hominy and potatoes, and white beans, the main 
stand-bys in the way of vegetables, because they are beyond 
all comparison, the cheapest and most nutritious articles of food, 
of their class. 

As to the item about servants, it is the greatest shame and 


disgrace of our people, especially in New- York. We know a 
family of five persons which keeps four servants. Another of 
three, keeps three servants ; some families, strictly private, have 
seven, eight, or nine helps. If this over-supply of servants 
ended simply with the increased expenditure of the particular 
family, the evil would not be so great, in the few cases in which 
the hire and board of these retinues are not paid eventually 
by other and more honest and industrious people. But it is 
notorious, that generally, such persons fail and their creditors 
are the real sufferers. The really rich of New-York, those who 
have been wealthy for a generation or more, are the only per- 
sons, as a class, who do practice a wise economy. They do it 
as a pleasure, arising from an honorable conviction of the just- 
ice and right and prudence of their course, and for the assur- 
ance which it gives them of a continuance of a comfortable 
competence in the long years of the future. 

But this extravagant supply of servants has a pernicious 
effect on the servants themselves ; they become inevitably more 
and more idle, careless, inattentive, impertinent, and wasteful ; 
and when these qualities have arrived at an unendurable pitch, 
they are sent away, and then they impose themselves on less 
aspiring families, to annoy them by their worthlessness ; and in 
a few years they go down lower and lower in the scale of effi- 
ciency, are more and more unemployed, their scanty earnings 
become exhausted in the miserable hovels in which they board ; 
miserable enough, as all ladies have learned who attempt to 
hunt them up in answer to advertisements in the papers. 
Some of the places where cooks and chambermaids board while 
they are getting places, are not fit for the habitation of horned 
cattle; a good farmer would not keep his horse or his cow in 
such rickety, un ventilated, and blackened apartments, situated as 
they generally are, in the distant, filthiest, and most noisome streets 
and alleys in the whole metropolis. And yet, when these same 
persons are introduced into a respectable dwelling, they assume 
the airs of duchesses and queens. They can't use brown sugar 
in their coffee, because it gives them the headache. They won't 
touch any other. bread than that which is cut fresh from the 
loaf at the time they are wanting it ; while the slices left at the 
family table of to-day, if not thrown into the ash-barrel, or 
given to some begging cousin or acquaintance, are placed on 

106 hall's jouknal of health. 

the family table for the next meal. None but the costliest tea 
will " agree " with their delicate stomachs, and this is made so 
strong, that in order to be able to drink it, they saturate it with 
loaf- sugar. Unless they are closely watched on washing days, 
their own clothing first passes through the laundry; is first 
hung out to dry, and that too in the sunniest places in the 
yard ; while in the starching process of skirts, etc., their own 
are made as stiff as pasteboard, and in every respect have the 
preference. Such impertinences as these, the less resolute of 
our wives have to endure, and in consequence, are kept in a 
state of irritation and fretfulness and anxiety which wastes the 
strength, ruffles the temper, sours the disposition, and makes 
housekeeping a penance instead of a happiness. 

Economy in house-rent is becoming more and more a neces- 
sity, and it is greatly to be regretted that it is not more com- 
mon for two families to live together and divide this expense 
and that of servant-hire. In many families there is really no 
use for an " up-stairs girl " or chambermaid, or waitress, if the 
" door-bell " had not to be attended to ; and it is not much more 
trouble to cook for two families than for one, if they are well- 
ordered ones. In this way, better wages can be afforded and 
better servants can be had ; thus not only will the board of two 
servants be saved, but the comfort of having faithful and com- 
petent ones, will be worth more than money itself. 

It is often said and generally believed, that two families can 
not live together under the same roof. This is a great mistake ; 
when two women can not live in the same house in comfort and 
peace and social enjoyment, it is because neither of them have 
any sense of a practical kind, and have very little religion or 
good principle of any sort; it is because they have no true 
religious principles ; have been raised in vulgarity, or have had 
for mothers, persons who were unworthy of the sacred and blessed 
designation. Is a woman no better than a cat or a dog, that 
she can't dwell under the same roof with another in peace and 
harmony, with the common end of having a better table, better 
servants, a more lively household, at less expense and labor 
and anxiety and care, than if each family lived in a separate 
dwelling? "We can not harbor such an opinion of our wives 
and daughters for a single moment. "We have visited a house 
several times this last winter, one of the choicest and most truly 


elegant in this city, in which ljved three distinct families, with 
two sets of children, from a year old to seven, of boys and 
girls ; each family was abundantly able to keep their own es- 
tablishment, each having houses of their own ; the washing was 
put out ; one housemaid and one cook, both good, did all the 
work for these three families throughout the whole winter; 
there was not the slightest jar or unpleasantness, even among 
the servants ; the children, we were told, were like brothers and 
sisters of the same family ; and not a single unkind word was 
ever known to have passed between them ; while a more abun- 
dant table, better prepared, and a neater and better kept house 
is seldom seen in this great metropolis. We personally know 
two families, both rich, who have lived in the same house for 
three years, and are as fast friends to-day as when first they 
cast their fortunes together ; not so much for saving as for social 
enjoyment. We know of another household, made up of three 
or four different families, all independent; and go there any 
day, live there any week, and }^ou would not know but they 
were all of a common stock. Let any considerable number of 
families have the moral firmness, the high Christian principle, 
the wisdom and the patriotism, to unite and make combinations 
of this sort popular and honorable, and in three months there 
would be the inevitable result of fifty per cent diminution in 
house-rents ; servant-hire would be largely less ; first-class serv- 
ants would be in greater demand ; while the trifling and dishon- 
est and unprincipled would be glad to get work for little more 
than their victuals and clothes, simply because half the num- 
ber of helps could be dispensed with, and the highest wages 
could be afforded to those who were really competent, and were 
willing to give their whole time to their employers. If two 
families combine and give a really competent cook twelve dol- 
lars a month, the saving of food and comfort and health se- 
cured by that arrangement, as compared with two separate 
households, with six-dollar cooks, could not be easily estimated. 
What is the great hindrance of a social reform like this ; one 
which would not only save millions of dollars annually to the 
hard-working men who have to earn these dollars, but would 
be a means of greatly adding to social enjoyment and domestic 
comfort and general elevation and enlargement of the spheres 
of thought ? The only obstacle is the pride and ignorance and 

108 hall's journal of health. ' 

selfishness of the wives of the country. Not one husband or 
one brother in ten among the classes most needing it, would ob- 
ject to such an arrangement ; the opposition would be almost 
wholly from mothers and marriageable daughters. A society 
organized with a view to bringing about a custom of this sort, 
would, in proper hands, do more good socially, religiously, and 
in a patriotic point of view, than nine out of ten of those of the 
later times. 

Another plan, in some respects better, in others not so good, 
is that of having houses built, as in the older countries of Eu- 
rope, having each story constructed so as to afford full accom- 
modations for a whole family ; these are called flats or floors ; the 
highest are the healthiest and cheapest. But it would take 
years to make arrangements for this manner of living, as houses 
would have to be built especially for that purpose ; the other 
plan could be carried into effect at once. 

Another item of unnecessary extravagance of the times, is 
the imagined necessity of doing business in one part of the city 
and living in another. A clerk with six hundred a year must 
live up-town. A man, whose business is worth two thousand 
dollars per annum, must have his " store" down-town, and rent 
a house two or three miles away. Many of these ought to do 
business on the first floor and live up-stairs ; the oldest and most 
honored merchants in our memories " did business " in this way, 
and have left names and fortunes behind them, which their 
children and grandchildren are still living to be proud of and 
to enjoy. The Paris Kothschild is said to live in the rear of 
the building in which he does his business. 

Let our readers be assured that the purest and truest and 
highest patriotism of our times, is not the blatant cry of Union- 
ism, liberty to all, free soil, and all that, but it is individual in- 
tegrity and personal economy in their highest and strictest 
forms, carried out in every minutia of domestic expenditure. 

There is another method of exhibiting a high patriotism, as 
a means of saving the national credit, and preventing a national 
and individual financial collapse ; it is easily stated in a few 
words, to swear or affirm, in plain monosyllables : " From this 
good hour, I will not eat or drink or wear what does not grow 
in the land of my birth, the land I most love." 

But we have too much apparent prosperity ; fashion and folly 
and mad extravagance have too great a control over our peonle, 
to allow even the glimmer of a hope that such virtue can exist. 
Who is the maid or matron in New- York who will have the 
heroism of a Joan of Arc, and will step out of the ranks as the 
leader, in a cause so grand and glorious and good ? 



" Mechanics' families who are a little forehanded." Such 
was the answer of a monthly nurse of intelligence and observa- 
tion, who bad in the prosecution of her calling been thrown 
among families of all classes, from the very rich to the very 
poor ; from the most famed to the most obscure. 

Lord Byron seems from his standpoint to have arrived at 
very nearly the same conclusion. He wrote: " Mechanics and 
working-men who can maintain their families, are in my opinion 
the happiest body of men. Poverty is to be preferred to the 
heartless, unmeaning dissipation of the higher orders." 

Another author thought that the most t^ be envied was " a 
healthy young man, in full, possession of his strength and facul- 
ties, going forth in the morning to work for his wife and child- 
ren, and bringing them home his wages at night." 

Aside from the question of religion there are three indispen- 
sable requisites to a pleasurable, satisfactory state of the mind ; 
if either be absent, there can not be any continuous mental, 
heart, enjoyment. In no case can a day ever pass without some 
interruption to quiet pleasures, even to those who are most fa- 
vorably situated, because no man or woman ever waked up in 
the morning who did not experience before retiring at night 
some disappointment, some unexpected occurrence of an un- 
pleasurable character to cloud the sunshine of the happiest day. 
Who can recollect a single day in any score or two, or three, in 
which some unanticipated, disagreeable thing did not occur? 
Echo answers : " Never one !" 

He who would be uniformly happy; who would pass the 
greater part of his time in a state of mental pleasurableness, 

Must be healthy. 

Must be well-to-do. 

Must be moderately busy. 

However healthy a man may be, anxiety for to-morrow's 
bread will soon undermine the strongest constitution ; hence the 
French returns officially announce that the well-to-do average 
eleven years longer life than those who live by their daily labor. 
If a man is healthy and well-to-do, and is not busy in his call- 
ing, he will seldom fail to become dyspeptic, intemperate, or 
restless, and die prematurely. Hence, to have a life of sun- 
shine, a man must live healthfully ; must have a reasonably 
profitable calling, and must be busy and buoyant in the prose- 
cution of it. 



Every wife and mother owes it to herself, her husband, and her children, 
as well as to society at large, to prevent waste in every department of the 
household, whether provisions are cheap or dear, whether the husband is 
rich or poor ; for waste is a crime against humanity, an insult to the 
bounteous Hand which "giveth us all things, riches to enjoy." On the 
other hand, a true economy is one of the wisest, the best, and ennobling of 
domestic virtues. A hundred careful experiments were made in England in 
reference to roasting and boiling meats, in order to ascertain the respective 
losses : 

Roasted chickens, lost 15 per ct. Turkeys, lost. 20 per ct. 

Beef ribs and sirloins, 19 " Mutton legs and shoulders, 24 " 

Geese, 19 " Ducks, 27 " 

Boiled mutton legs, . . 10 " 

" beef,... 15 " 

" shoulder mutton, 28 " 

Boiling beef saves more than four per cent over roasting. If a leg of 
mutton is boiled it loses ten per cent ; if roasted, twenty-five per cent ! 

The fatter meat is, the greater the loss ; it should be moderately fat, to 
make it tender ; but there is an unprofitable fatness. 

Eleven pounds of roast beef rib loses two pounds, and the bones one 
pound, so that of the eleven pounds bought, only seven pounds come to the 
table. Hence if roast rib-pieces cost in New-York, in April, 1864, twenty 
cents a pound at the butcher's stall, it is more than thirty-one cents a pound 
on the dinner-table. 

It is philosophically true that one pound of clear roast beef is more con- 
centrated than one pound of boiled beef, has less matter in it, and hence 
may contain more nourishment ; but the more concentrated food is the more 
unwholesome it is, not only because it requires a greater digestive power to 
convert it into pure blood, but the sense of sufficiency at meals is induced 
to a considerable extent by the bulk of what is taken, and if we eat con- 
centrated food until there is bulk enough to remove the feeling of hunger, 
there is so much nutriment in it that nature can't extract it all in a perfect 
manner ; hence there is not only too much nutriment for the wants 
of the system, but all of it is imperfectly prepared, and we really get 
less strength and less pure blood out of it, than if much less had been eaten, 
or it had been taken in a more bulky, or, if you please, in a more water}' 
condition. This is the reason why dyspeptics and others eat a great deal, but 
they do not get strong. But if there is too much bulk, there is not enough 
nutriment, although a great deal is taken into the stomach. Porter and 
beer, for example, fill up the stomach, and seem to make persons fleshy, but 
there is but little nutriment and great bulk ; but great beer-drinkers are never 
strong, are puffy. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XI.] JUNE, 1864. [No. 6. 


One of the very best means for preserving the health, happi- 
ness, and morals of sons and daughters, for raising them np to 
occupy high, responsible, and honorable positions in society, 
and for securing to them an old age of quiet repose, with a 
happy freedom from wasting and wearing diseases of mind 
and body, is to make home, the family fireside, the companion- 
ship of parents and one another, the sweetest, happiest, and 
most delightful place of all others. Taking into consideration 
the intensely inquiring character of the youthful mind, and the 
tendency in all to regard as true what is put in print, there is, 
perhaps, no other one method of bringing up a loving and lov- 
able family, of securing a happy household, than that of sup- 
plying the children with suitable reading from the time they 
are first able to read at all. There may be some difference of 
opinion as to what kind of reading is most suitable, but the 
great mass of the intelligent and the good will have no difficulty 
in arriving at the conclusion that in the main it should 
be such as will combine truthfulness with interest. Fill 
and feed the mind with facts in language which shall engage^ 
the attention ; facts, and truths, and histories which lead out the 
affections, the best feelings of the human heart, which will wake 
up the sympathies to a healthful and practical exercise. There 
is no scene in domestic life so purely beautiful, except that of 

112 hall's journal of health. 

family worship, than that of father, mother, children, all gath- 
ered around the table, before a cheerful, blazing fire, of a win- 
ter's evening, reading aloud by turns, with intervals of remark 
as to the sentiments conveyed, their application to the times or 
to one another, their literal correctness, the propriety of the 
modes of expression, and the many other points which may be 
suggested to the mind of reader or listener, as page after page 
is passed over. Yery many articles might be selected from 
different writers as an example of the miscellaneous reading 
which might, with advantage, come before a family once a 
month. The subjects are various enough and practical enough, 
and withal truthful enough to engage the attention, impart in- 
struction, and lead out the mind to thoughtful inquiry and to 
practical action in any family circle which might meet together. 
All the articles are truthful. Fact and not fiction is the best 
nourishment, the most appropriate food for young minds ; to 
feed them on imaginary narrations is as inevitably pernicious 
to the mind as the habitual use of stimulants is to the body. 
An early grave, or a life of poverty, dishonor, and bodily suf- 
fering, is the fate of those who " drink ; " just as certainly will 
those who feed daily on fiction ■■ spoil " the mind, weaken it, 
unfit it for the duties of life, and for the high and holy exer- 
cise of the sympathies and the best feelings of our. nature. 
Novel-reading is the parent of selfishness, of hard-heartedness, 
and of a wayward, aimless, fruitless life. The last persons in the 
world to devote themselves to the beneficence of life, to the prac- 
tical charities which so elevate us, are novel-writers and novel- 
readers. The blessings of the good be upon him who, reading 
this article, shall resolve that there shall be at least one family 
magazine in the world which shall come every month to eager 
households, freighted with all that is beautiful in sentiment, 
truthful in narration, and in matter instructive, pure, and ele- 
vating, to be read aloud in the family ; of the advantages of 
which a recent writer well says : 

" Books and periodicals should be angels in every household. 
They are urns to bring us the golden fruits of thought and ex- 
perience from other minds and other lands. As the fruits of 
the trees of the earth's soil are most enjoyed around the family 
board, so should those that mature upon mental and moral 
boughs be gathered around by the entire household. ISTo home 


exercise could be more appropriate and pleasing than for one 
member to read aloud for tHe benefit of all. An author's ideas 
are energized bj the confidence and love of the tender family 
affections, and every heart is open to the truth, like the un- 
folded rose, to receive the gathering dews. The ties of love 
between parents and children, and brothers and sisters, are thus 
cemented yet more and more, and varied charms and pleasures 
are constantly open through this medium to make a home a 
very paradise. If parents would introduce this exercise in 
their families, they would soon see the levity and giddiness that 
make up the conversation of too many circles giving way to 
refinement and chaste dignity. Eead to your children, and 
encourage them to read to you, instead of reading your papers 
and books in silence, and in silence laying them away." Thus 
making home inviting, cheerful, and happy, the sons will be 
kept from the contaminating influence of the street, the corner- 
grocery, the engine-house, and the tavern, while the daughters 
will grow up loving, domestic,, virtuous, and pure, and both 
sons and daughters will live happily, healthfully, usefully, and 


"It is equal to any thing Mrs. Stowe has written," said a 
lady of culture and eminent critical talents, of this new volume 
of the writer of Olie. For the truthfulness, beauty, and purity 
of its sentiments, few works of fiction have been produced at 
home or abroad. It will be eagerly read by the physician, the 
lawyer, and the divine; for the talented writer who has work- 
ed out this beautiful narrative seems to be at home in all these- 
vocations ; is equally expert in setting a broken bone, in un- 
raveling a knotty point in law, and making clear as the light 
of day the principles and practice which will secure pulpit suc- 
cess. We commend the book to the learned professions. 



Bread-crust baked in an oven until it is very brown, but not black, and 
then pounded to the fineness of ground coffee, is a safer, cheaper, and quite 
as agreeable and healthful a substitute for coffee as any other mixture now 
in use. 

Men who have half a dozen irons in the fire are not the ones to go crazy. 
It is the man of voluntary or compelled leisure who mopes, and pines, and 
lounges about, who thinks himself into the mad-house or a premature grave. 
Motion is all Nature's law. Action is the mental and physical salvation of 

White beans are the cheapest and most nutritious food which can be 
eaten. Beans and pork furnish nearly all the elements necessary to human 
subsistence. A quart of beans at eight cents and a pound of pork at twelve 
cents will feed a small family for a day. Four quarts of beans and two 
pounds of corned beef, boiled to rags, in fifty quarts of water, will furnish a 
good meal for forty men, or one and a quarter cents a meal. 

Small Pox. — It is said that as soon as any eruption appears on the skin 
it is small pox, if, on pressure with the end of the finger, there is the feeling 
as if a small fine shot had been placed under the cuticle of the skin. 

Face protection from cold. — An ordinary fine wire-gauze mask, such as 
is sometimes used at masquerades, will keep the face comfortable, even if a 
fierce wind is blowing, while the thermometer is below zero ; a thin vail or 
a silk handkerchief is a good substitute. 

Coal-Gas. — Two young girls were recently found dead in their bed, hav- 
ing retired in perfect health, in consequence of filling a pot with the live 
coals of a wood-fire, and placing it in the middle of their chamber, with 
closed doors and windows, the night being very cold. On New- Year's eye 
of eighteen hundred and sixty -four, Mr. I. F. Hall, aged fifty years, a gen- 
tleman of great moral worth, an exemplary citizen and loving father, retired 
to his chamber in perfect health, but in the morning was found to have been 
dead several hours ; the gas in the room not having been turned fully off, or 
having been left burning a little, was puffed out by the wind. Within a 
year a clergyman from the West was found nearly dead in his chamber in 
New-York. Being unacquainted with the nature of coal-gas, he had blown 
out the light instead of turning it off. Every chamber ought to have a ven- 
tilator out of reach, or, which would be more certain, an open fireplace, which 
could not easily be closed. Breathing a vitiated atmosphere during sleeping 
hours, which is nearly one third of a man's entire existence, is sapping the 
constitution of multitudes. No one ought to be allowed to sleep in a close 
room. It will destrov the health sooner or later, and inevitably. 



Ox the last Sabbath of the last year, that good old minister 
McElroy, rose in his place and said : " I have been preaching to 
you forty years this day. Of all the elders who then held up my 
hands, not one survives ; of all the male members, not one remains ; 
of all the women, only six live. But although the fathers and 
mothers have passed away, the more numerous sons and daughters 
have taken their places, and their children's children are convinc- 
ing evidences that He is a covenant-keeping God whom we are 
serving this day, in that the grand-children, having had a good 
example set before them of holy living, of Sabbath observance, of 
habitual attendance on the services of the sanctuary, and a profound 
reverence, with an unquestioning and blessed faith in the word of 
God, have become religious by inheritance, as it were." 

Sons have often inherited the wealth of their fathers, even to the 
third and fourth generation. The same principle holds good as to 
our physical nature, that a life of temperance and industry and mod- 
erate ambitions secures to children, even for several generations, 
a robustness of constitution, a vitality, a physical power, which may 
well be the envy of a multitude of the sick and diseased and effemifc 
ate in every grade of society. Children who see daily in their p& 
rents the practice of all that is gentle and lovable and courteous 
and kind, will seldom fail, without the necessity of direct teach- 
ings on these subjects, to acquire the same traits of chaiacter . 
and the example lives and has its influence and power for good 
long after the parents have passed away. If parents want their 
children to grow up and inherit their own robust health, strength, 
and length of life, it must come, not so much by birth and blood, 
not so much by precept and command and reason, but by the 
daily exhibition of a calm, quiet, busy, temperate life on the part 
of their parents, carried out daily, habitually, and persistently by 
living examples. Conduct is the great, efficient teacher, not pre- 
cept, not theory, not idle profession. 



Some persons " toss and tumble " half the night and get up 
in the morning weary, unrefreshed, and dispirited, wholly unfit, 
either in body or mind, for the duties of the day ; they are not 
only incapacitated for business, but are often rendered so un- 
gracious in their manners, so irritable and fretful, as to spread 
a gloom and a cloud over the whole household. To be able to 
go to bed and be in a sound, delicious sleep, an unconscious 
deliciousness, in five minutes, but enjoyed in its remembrance, 
is a great happiness, an incalculable blessing, and one for which 
the most sincere and affectionate thanks should habitually go 
up to that beneficent Providence which vouchsafes the same 
through the instrumentalities of a wise and self-denying atten- 
tion to the laws of our being. 

Eestless nights as to persons in apparent good health, arise 
chiefly from, first, an overloaded stomach ; second, from world- 
ly care ; third, from want of muscular activities proportioned 
to the needs of the system. Few will have restless nights who 
take dinner at midday, and nothing after that except a piece of 
cold bread and butter and a cup or two of some hot drink ; any 
thing beyond that, as cake, pie, chipped beef, doughnuts, pre- 
serves, and the like, only tempt nature to eat when there is 
really no call for it, thus engendering dyspepsia and all its 
train of evils. 

Worldly care. For those who can not sleep from the unsat- 
isfactory condition of their affairs ; who feel as if they were 
going behindhand ; or that they are about to encounter great 
losses, whether from their own remissness, the perfidy of friends, 
or unavoidable circumstances, we have a deep and sincere sym- 
pathy. To such we say, Live hopefully for better days' ahead, 
and meanwhile strive diligently, persistently, and with a brave 
heart to that end. 

But the more common cause of restless nights is, that exer- 
cise has not been taken to make the body tired enough to de- 
mand sleep. Few will fail to sleep soundly if the whole of 
daylight, or as much thereof as will produce moderate fatigue, 
is spent in steady work in the open air, or on horseback, or on 
foot. Many spoil all their sleep by attempting to force more 
on nature than she requires. Few persons will fail to sleep 
soundly, while they do sleep, if they avoid sleeping in the day- 
time, will go to bed at a regular hour, and heroically resolve to 
get up the moment they wake, 'whether it is at two, four, or 
six o'clock in the morning. In less than a week, each one will 
find how much sleep his system requires; thereafter give it 
that, and no more. 

THE REST. 11' 


I am dreaming of the blessings 

Just beyond the bounds of time, 
Of the pearly-gated city, 

O'er whose wall no evils climb ; 
Where the Father folds his children 

Safely to his loving breast ; 
u "Where the wicked cease from troubling, 

And the weary are at rest." * 

Now the toiling Christian pilgrim 

On a roughened pathway goes, 
Here dejected, there disheartened, 

Ever harassed by his foes. 
Pilgrim, raise thine eye above thee, 

There are joys for the oppressed, 
" Where the wicked cease from troubling, 

And the weary are at rest." 

Hast thou sickness, hast thou sorrow, 

Pains commingled with thy tears ; 

Canst thou trace the path of weeping 

Down the passage of the years ? 

" I am sick," none say in heaven, 

None by sorrow are possessed, 
" Where the wicked cease from troubling, 
And the weary are at rest." 

Oh ! the joys of holy dying ! 

From a holy life they come ; 
Constant toiling for the Master 

Tet will bring the servant home ; 
When he calls the tired pilgrim 

To the mansions of the blest, 
" Where the wicked cease from troubling, 

And the weary are at rest." — Am. Mess. 


The late Dr. Chalmers is said to have been the author of the following beautiful 
tines, written on the occasion of the death of a young son whom he greatly loved: 
I am all alone in my chamber now, 

And the midnight hour is near, 
And the fagot's crack, and the clock's dull tick, 

Are the only sounds I hear ; 
And over my soul in its solitude 

Sweet feelings of sadness glide ; 
For my heart and my eyes. are full when I think 

Of the little boy that died. 


I went one night to my father's house — 

Went home to the dear ones all, 
And softly I opened the garden-gate, 

And softly the door of the hall. 
My mother came out to meet her son — 

She kissed me, and then she sighed ; 
And her head fell on my neck, and she wept 

For the little boy that died. 

I shall miss him when the flowers come 

In the garden where he played ; 
I shall miss him more by the fireside, 

"When the flowers are all decayed ; 
I shall see his toys and his empty chair, 

And the horse he used to ride, 
And they will speak with a silent speech, 

Of the little boy that died. 

"We shall go home to our Father's house — 

To our Father's house in the skies, 
Where the hope of souls shall have no blight, 

Our love no broken ties ; 
We shall roam on the banks of the river of peace, 

And bathe in its blissful tide ; 
And one of the joys of life shall be, 

The little boy that died. 

The Expression of Dress. — Women are more like 
flowers than we think. In their dress and adornment they ex- 
press their natures, as the flowers do in their petals and colors. 
Some women, are like the modest daisies and violets — they 
never look or feel better than when dressed in a morning wrap- 
per. Others are not themselves unless they can flame out in 
gorgeous dyes, like the tulip or the blush-rose. Who has not 
seen women just like white lilies? We know several double 
marigolds and poppies. There are women fit only for velvets, 
like the dahlias ; others are graceful and airy, like azaleas. Now 
and then, you see hollyhocks and sunflowers. When women 
are free to dress as they like, uncontrolled by others, and not 
limited by their circumstances, they do not fail to express their 
true characters, and dress becomes a form of expression very 
genuine and useful. — Meredith. 



11 Population of the. United States in 1860, compiled from 
the original returns of the Eighth Census, under the direction 
of the Secretary of the Interior, by Joseph C. Gr. Kennedy, 
Superintendent of the Census," issued at "Washington, from the 
Government printing-office, 1864. This is a book of 694 pages, 
eleven inches long and ten broad. On opening it, whole pages 
of columns of figures strike the eye, as dry as a bone, at the 
first glance ; but on a more minute examination, they are so ad- 
mirably arranged, so systematic, concise, and full, we at once 
perceive that the whole volume is rich with information ; it 
affords food for thought and reflection and comparison of the 
richest and most instructive character. A thinking man might 
feast on it for a month, and still turn over its leaves with an 
absorbing interest. It is one thing to string together the num- 
ber of men, women, children, horses, dogs, and cats of a coun- 
try; to say how many have died, how many married, how 
many born, and where they all come from. It is quite another 
thing to have a mind capable of placing these statements before 
the reader in such a manner as to make them of the highest in- 
terest, and to be a vehicle of instruction at once practical, use- 
ful, and of permanent value. For this purpose Congress acted 
wisely and well in intrusting this important and great work to 
Mr. Kennedy, who is universally acknowledged to be the most 
competent man in the nation by all odds for performing the 
work. In some future number we purpose giving several pages 
of curiosities of the census ; marriage ; which live longest, 
bachelors and maids, or married people ? who oftenest remarry, 
and do so the soonest, widows or widowers ? etc. 

"Constitution of Nature," by William Andrew, ' Milwaukee, 
1864, paper cover, 8vo, 100 pages. Proposes theories to unfold 
nature, matter, and vacuum ; relative motion and rest ; matter 
the cause of density ; vacuum the cause of expansion or poros- 
ity ; why bodies fall ; capillary attraction ; combustion ; the 
universe ; motion ; heat ; nature of the planets ; weather, life, vital 
force, etc. These are suggestive themes and have occupied the 
thoughts of philosophers of all ages, and are treated of by the 
author in a calm, dignified spirit and with convincing power. 

120 hall's journal of health. 

The American Tract Society, Boston, and No. 13 Bible House, 
New-York, have issued Vol. Ten of the Temperance Tales, by 
Lucius M. Sargent, and it is not inferior in interest to any of its 
predecessors. Among the subjects are The Life Preserver, The 
Prophets, Margaret's Bridal, Temperance Meeting in Tatter- 
town. Dove Hamilton, or Sunshine and Shadow, printed from 
the London Religious Tract Society, is a sweet little book 
of 292 pages, and full of practical household truths ; no one 
can read it, old or young, rich or poor, without deriving rich 
instruction from it. Among the subjects are : Bread cast upon 
the Waters, A Mother's Blessing, Going Home, Dove's First 
Grief, The Surprise, The Stepmother, The New Home, A Labor 
of Love, Use of Old China, Bread found after many Days, How 
all came Right at Last. 

The American Tract Society, 150 Nassau street, New- York, 
have issued an interesting little volume, and instructive to the 
old as well as the young, entitled " The Chosen Friends," or the 
twelve disciples, being a short biography of each of the twelve 
disciples of the New Testament. Also " Out of the House of 
Bondage," and " Friendly Counsels," by Rev. J. B. Waterbury, 
D.D. Another volume of 235 pages, " Helen Maurice ; or, 
the Daughter at Home," is well worthy of being placed in the 
hands of every daughter in the land, and is written in a manner 
calculated to leave a lasting impression as to the duties and 
responsibilities of life. "We hope it may be read and pondered 
over by many thousands. 

The Housekeeper's Guide, and every body's hand-book, 
containing over five hundred new and valuable recipes and 
references to household affairs, cooking, with a medical depart- 
ment, mechanic's department, and farmer's department, sixty- 
four pages ; a pamphlet which will be prized by every good 
housekeeper. Published by Smith and Swinney, chemists, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1864. Price per copy, one dollar. It ought 
to be sent post-paid to Guinea for fifteen cents. 

The Northern Monthly, a magazine of literature, civil and 
military affairs. Portland, Maine. Edward P. Weston, Editor. 
$2 a year, single numbers 20 cts. ; size and shape of the Atlantic 
Monthly; 70 pages. Among the contributors to the April 
No. 2 are Caroline E. D. Howe, Miss S. P. Warren, John 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XI.] JULY, 1864. [No. 7. 



W W. HALL, A M., M. D., NEW YORK. 

There is no necessary reason why men should not generally live to 
the full age of three score years and ten, in health and comfort • that 
they do not do so, is because 

They consume too much food, and too little pure air ; 
TlIEY take too much medicine, and too little exercise : 

and when, by inattention to these things, they become diseased, tney 
die chiefly, not because such disease is necessarily fatal, but because 
the symptoms which nature designs to admonish of its presence, are 
disregarded, until too late for remedy. And in no class of ailments 
are delays so uniformly attended with fatal results, as in affections of 
the Throat and Lungs. However terrible may have been the ravages 
of the Asiatic Cholera in this country, I know of no locality, where, 
in the course of a single year, it destroyed ten per cent, of the population. 
Yet, taking England and the United States together, twenty per cent, of 
the mortality is every year from diseases of the lungs alone ; amid such 
a fearful fatality, no one dares say he shall certainly escape, while every 
one, without exception, will most assuredly suffer, either in his own per- 
son, or in that of some one near and dear to him, by this same universal 
scourge. ISTo man, then, can take up these pages, who is not interested 
to the extent of life and death, in the important inquiry, What can be done 
to mitigate this great evil ? It is not the object of this publication to 
answer that question ; but to act it out ; and the first great essential step 
thereto, is to impress upon the common mind, in language adapted to 
common readers, a proper understanding of the first symptoms of these 
ruthless diseases 


Every render of common intelligence and of the 
reost ordinary observation, must know that countless 
numbers of people in every direction have been saved 
from certain death by having understood the premoni- 
tory symptoms of Cholera, and acting up to their knowl- 
edge. The physician does not live, who, in the course 
of ordinary practice, cannot point to a little army of the 
prematurely dead who have paid the forfeit of their 
lives by ignorance or neglect of the early symptoms of 
Consumptive disease. Perhaps the reader's own heart 
is this instant smitten at the sad recollection of similar 
cases in his own sphere of observation. 

This book is not intended to recommend a medicinal 
preventive, or a patented cure for the diseases named 
on the title-page : it will afford no aid or comfort to 
those who hope, by its perusal, to save a doctor's fee, 
by a trifling tampering with their constitutions and their 
lives. Nor is it wished to make you believe, that if you 
come to me I will cure you. If you have symptoms of 
disease, I wish you to understand their nature first; 
and then to take advice from some regularly educated 
physician, who has done nothing to forfeit justly his 
honorable standing among his brethren, by the recom- 
mendation of secret medicines, patented contrivances 
or travelling lecturers for the cure of certain diseases. 
I may speak of persons in these pages, who had cer- 
tain symptoms, and coming to me, were permanently 
cured. You may have similar symptoms, and yet I may 
be able to do you no good. I have sometimes failed to 
cure persons who had no symptoms at all. In other 
cases, where but a single symptom of disease existed, 
and it, apparently, a very trivial one, the malady has 
steadily progressed to a fatal termination, in spite of 
every effort to the contrary. The object of these 
statements is to have it understood, that I make no en- 
gagement to cure any thing or any body. The first 
great purpose is to enable you to understand properly 
any symptoms which you may have that point towards 
disease of the lungs ; and when you have done so, to 
persuade you not to waste your time and money and 
health in blind efforts to remove them, by taking stuff, 
of which you know little, into a body of which you 
know less; but to go to a man oi" "^pectability and 
standing and experience — one in whem you have con- 
fidence, one who depends upon the practice of his pro- 
fession for a living; describe >our symptoms, according 
to your ability, place your health and life in his hands, 
and be assured that thus you and millions of others 
will stand the highest chance of attaining a prosper- 
ous, cheerful, and green old age. The rule should be 
universal, and among all classes, not only never to take 
an atom of medicine for anything, but not to take any- 
thing as a mkdicine — not even a teaspoon of common 
syrup or French brandy, or a cup of red pepper tea, 
unless by the previous advice of a physician ; because 
a spoonful of the purest, simples* syrup, taken several 
times a day, will eventually -destroy the tone of the 
healthiest stomach : and yet any person almost would 
suppose that a little syrup "could do no harm, if it did 
no good." A tablespoon of good brandy, now and 
then, is simple enough, and yet it has made a wreck 
and ruin of the health and happiness and hope of mul- 
titudes. If these simple, that is, well-known things, in 
their purity, are used to such results, it requires but 
little intelligence to understand that more speedy in- 
juries must follow their daily employment, morning, 
noon, and night, when they are sold in the shape of 
"syrups," and "bitters, 1 " and "tonics," with other in- 
gredients, however " simple'" they, too, may be. 

The common-sense reader will consider these sen- 
timents reasonable and right, and think it a very laud- 
able desire to diffuse information among the peopic as 
to the symptoms of dangerous, insidious, and wide- 
spreading diseases ; but he will not be prepared for the 
information, that the publication of such a pamphlet as 
this ivill be considered "unprofessional" by some. But 
latitude must be allowed for difference of opinion ; else, 
all progress is at an end. Whoever lends a helping 
hand to the diffusion of useful knowledge, is, in pro- 
portion, the benefactor of his kind. Whether it be 
useful for man to know the nature and first symptoms 
of a disease which is destined to destroy one out of 
every six in the country, is a question which each one 
must decide for himself. I believe that such an effort 
is useful, and hereby act accordingly. Experienced 
physicians constantly feel, in reference to persons who 
evidently have Consumption, that it is too late, because 
the application had been too long delayed. The great 
reason why so many delay, is because they "did not 

think it was anything more than a slight cold" In 
other words, they were entirely ignorant of the differ- 
ence between the cough of a common cold and the 
cou»h of Consumption, and the general symptoms at- 
tendant on the two. It is not practicable for all to 
study medicine, nor is it to be expected that for every 
cough one has, he shall go to the expense of taking 
medical advice ; it therefore seems to me the dictate of 
humanity to make the necessary information more ac- 
cessible, and I know of no better way to accomplish 
this object than by the general distribution of a tract 
like this: and when I pretend to no new principle of 
cure, no specific, and no ability of success, beyond what 
an entire devotion to one disease may give any ordi- 
nary capacity, no further apology is necessary. 


or Laryngitis, pronounced Lare-in-QEK-tis, is an affec 
tion of the top of the windpipe, where the voice- 
making organs are, answering to the parts familiarly 
called "Adam's Apple." When these organs are dis- 
eased, the voice is impaired, or " there is something 
wrong about the swallow." 


pronounced Bron-KEE-tis, is an affection of the branches 
of the windpipe, and in its first stages is called a com- 
mon cold. 

is an affection, not of the top or" root of the windpipe, 
for that is Throat- Ail ; not of the body of the wind- 
pipe, for that is Croup ; not of the branches of the 
windpipe, for that is Bronchitis ; but it is an affection 
of the .lungs themselves, which are millions of little 
air ceils or bladders, of various sizes, from that of a pea 
downwards, and are at the extremities of the branches 
of thft windpipe, as the buds or 'leaves of a tree are at 
the extremity of its branches. 


The most universal symptom is an impairment of the 
voice, which is more or less hoarse or weak. If there is 
no actual want of clearness of the sounds, there is an in- 
stinctive clearing of the throat, by swallowing, hawking, 
or hemming ; or a summoning up of strength to enunciate 
words. When this is continued for some time, there is 
a sensation of tiredness about the throat, a dull heavy 
aching, or general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, 
coming on in the afternoon or evening. In the early 
part of the day, there is nothing of the kind percep- 
tible, as the voice-muscles have had time for rest and 
the recovery of their powers during the night. In the 
beginning of this disease, no inconvenience of this 
kind is felt, except some unusual effort has been made, 
such as speaking or singing in public; but as il pro- 
gresses, these symptoms manifest themselves every 
evening; then earlier and earlier in the day, until the 
voice is clear only for a short time soon in the morn- 
ing ; next, there is a constant hoarseness or hnskiness 
from week to month, when the case is most generally 
incurable, and the patient dies of the common symp- 
toms of Consumptive disease. 

In some cases, the patient expresses himself as hav- 
ing a sensation as if a piece of wool or blanket were 
in the throat, or an aching or sore feeling, running up 
the sides of the neck towards the ears. Some have a 
burning or raw sensation at the little hollow at the 
bottom of the neck ; others, about Adam's Apple ; while 
a third class speak of such a feeling or a pricking at a 
spot along the sides of the neck. Among others, the 
first symptoms are a dryness in the throat after speaking' 
or singing, or while in a crowded room, or when waking 
up in the morning. Some feel as if there were some 
unusual thickness or a lumpy sensation in the throat, 
at the upper part, removed at once by swallowing it 
away; but soon it comes back again, giving precisely 
the feelings which some persons have after swallowing 
a pill. 

Sometimes, this frequent swallowing is most trouble- 
some after meals. Throat-Ail is not like many other 
diseases, often getting well of itself by being let alone. 
I do not believe that one case in ten ever does so, bat 
on the contrary, gradually grows .worse, until the voice 
is permanently husky or subdued ; and soon the swal- 
lowing of solids or fluids becomes painful, food or drink 
returns through the nose, causing a feeling of stran- 
gulation or great pain. When Throat-Ail symptom* 


have been allowed to progress to this stage, death is 
almost inevitable in a very lew weeks. Now and then 
a c ase may be saved, but restoration here is almost in 
the nature of a miracle. 

Bronchitis is a ba"d cold, and the experience of every 
one teaches what its symptoms are. The medical 
name for a cold is Acute Bronchitis ; called acute, be- 
cause it comes on at once, and lasts but a short time — 
a week or two generally. The ailment that is com- 
monly denominated Bronchitis, is what physicians 
term Chronic Bronchitis ; called chronic, because it is 
a long time in coming on, and lasts for months and 
years instead of days and weeks. It is not like 
Throat-Ail, or Consumption, which have a great 
many symptoms, almost any one of which maybe ab- 
sent, and still the case b^ one of Throat-Ail, 
or Consumption ; but Bronchitis has three symp- 
toms, every one of which are present every day, 
and together, and all the time, in all ages, sexes, con- 
stitutions, and temperaments. These three universal 
and essential symptoms are — 

1st. A feeling of fullness, or binding, or Cord-like sen- 
sation about the breast. 

2d. A most harassing cough, liable to come on at any 
hour of the day or night. 

3d. A large expectoration of a tough, stringy, tena- 
cious, sticky, pearly or greyish-like substance, from a 
tablespoon to a pint or more a day. As the disease pro- 
gresses, this becomes darkish, greenish, or yellowish in 
appearance ; sometimes all three colors may be seen 
together, until at last it is tiniformly yellow, and comes 
up without much effort, in mouthfuls, that fall hea- 
vily, without saliva or mucus. When this is the case, 
death comes in a very few weeks or — days. 


A gradual wasting of breath, flesh, and strength are 
the three symptoms, progressing steadily through days 
and weeks and months, which are never absent in any 
case of true, active, confirmed Consumptive disease 
that I have ever seen. A man may have a daily 
cough for fifty years, and not have Consumption. 
A woman may spit blood for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and not have Consumption. A young lady 
may breathe forty times a minute, and have a 
pulse of a hundred and forty beats a minute, day after 
day, for weeks and months together, and not have Con- 
sumption ; and men and women and young ladies may 
have pains in the breast, and sides, and shoulders, 
and flushes in the cheeks; and night sweats, and 
swollen ankles, and yet have not an atom of Con- 
sumptive decay in the lungs. But where there is a 
slow, steady, painless decline of flesh and strength and 
breath, extending through weeks and months of time, 
Consumption exists in all persons, ages, and climes, 
although at the same time sleep, bowels, appetite, 
spirits, may be represented as good. Such, at least, 
are the results of my own observation. 

The great, general, common symptoms of Consump- 
tion of the Lungs are night and morning cough, pains 
about the breast, easily tired in walking, except on 
level ground, shortness of breath on slight exercise, 
and general weakness. These are the symptoms of 
which Consumptive persons complain, and as they ap- 
proach the grave, these symptoms gradually increase. 

A woman walked in the Park, in early spring, until 
a little heated and tired; then sat down on a cold 
stone. Next day, she had hoarseness and a raw burn- 
ing feeling in the throat, and died within the year. 

A man had suffered a great deal from sick headache ; 
he was advised to have cold water poured on the top of 
his head: he did so; he had headache no more. The 
throat became affected; had frequent swallowing, 
clearing of throat, falling of palate, voice soon failed 
in singing, large red splotches on the back part of the 
throat, and white lumps at either side ; but the falling 
of the palate and interminable swallowing were the 
great symptoms, making and keepins him nervous, 
irritable, debilitated, and wretched. He was advised 
to take off the uvula, but would not do it. Had the 
nitrate of silver applied constantly for three months. 
Tried homoeopathy. After suffering thus two years, 
he came to me, and on a subsequent visit, said, "It is 
<rcn«*erful, that for two years '[ have been troubled 

with this throat, and nothing would relieve it, and now 
it is removed in two days." That was four months 
ago. I saw him irl the street yesterday. He said hi3 
throat gave him no more trouble ; that he had no more 
chilliness, and had never taken a cold since he came 
under my care, although formerly "it was the easiest 
thing in the world to take cold." 

A merchant (1002) slept in a steamboat state-room in 
December, with a glass broken out; woke up next 
morning with a hoarseness and sore throat; for several 
months did nothing, then applied to a physician. 
Counter-irritants were employed without any perma- 
nent effect. At the end of four years, he came to me 
with*' a sort of uneasy feeling about the throat, more 
at times than others ; not painful ; sometimes a little 
hoarseness, with frequent inclination to swallow, or 
clear the throat. At the little hollow at the bottom of 
the neck, just above the top of the breast-bone, there 
was a feeling of pressure, stricture, or enlargement — ■ 
no pain, but an unpleasant sensation, sometimes worse 
than at others. It is absent for days at a time, and then 
lasts for several hours a day." This esse is itnder 

A Clergyman (1012) has a hoarse, cracked, weak 
voice, easily tired in speaking; a ra'w sensation in the 
throat; and in swallowing has u a fish-bony feeling" 
He had become over-heated in a public address, and 
immediately after its close started to ride across a 
prairie in a damp, cold wind, in February. Had to 
abandon preaching altogether, and become a school 
teacher." This gentleman wrote to me for advice, and 
having followed it closely for eighteen days, reported 
himself as almost entirely well. 

I greatly desire it to be remembered here, that in this, 
as in other cases of Throat-Ail, however perfectly a 
person may be cured, the disease will return as often 
as exposure, to the causes of it in the first place is per- 
mitted to occur. No cure, however perfect, will allow 
a man to commit with impunity such a thoughtless 
and inexcusable act as above named, that of riding 
across a prairie in February, in a damp, cold wind, 
within a few minutes after having delivered an excited 
address in a warm room. None of us are made out of 
India rubber or iron, but of flesh and blood and a 
reasonable soul, subject to wise and benevolent con- 
ditions and restrictions ; and it is not to the discredit of 
physic or physicians, that being once cured, the disease 
should return as often as the indiscretion that origin 
ated it in the first instance is re-committed. 

Three weeks ago, one of our merchants came to me 
with a troublesome tickling in the throat. At first it 
was only a tickling ; but for some weeks the tickling 
compels a frequent clsaring of the throat; and with- 
out a cough, each clearing or hemming brings up 
half a teaspoon-ful of yellow matter, with some sal- 
iva. On looking into his throat, the whole back part 
of it was red, with still redder splotches here and 
there — epiglottis almost scarlet. On inquiry, I found 
he had for years been a chewer of tobacco ; then 
began to smoke ; would day after day smoke after 
each meal, but especially after tea would consume 
half a dozen cigars. In time, the other naturally con- 
sequent steps would have been taken— Consump- 
tion and the grave. Among other things, I advised 
him to abandon tobacco absolutely and at once. 2a 
two weeks he came again. Throat decidedly better ; 
in every respect better, except that he, in his own 
opinion, " had taken a little cold," and had a constant 
slight cough— not by any means a trifling symptom. 
Let the reader learn a valuable lesson from this case. 
This gentleman had the causes of cough before; he 
found that smoking modified the tickling, and taking ; 
this as an indication of cure, he smoked more vigor- 
ously, and thus suppressed the cough, while the cause 
of it was still burrowing in the system and widening 
its ravages. It will require months of steady effort to 
arrest the progress of the disease, and he may consider 
himself fortunate — more so than in any mercantile 
speculation he ever made — if he gets well at all. If 
he does get well, and returns to the use of tobacco, the 
disease will as certainly return as that the same cause 
originated it, fcr the following reason, as was stated 
in the First Part :— Throat-Ail is inflammation ; that 
is, too much heat in the parts. Tobacco smoke being 
warm, or even hot, is drawn directly back against the 
parts already too much heated, and very naturally in- 
creasing the heat, aggravates the disease. Again, any 
kind of smoke — that of common wood — is irritating, 
much more that of such a powerful poison as tobaeeo 


—soothing, indeed, in its first transient effects, like 
Many other poisons, but leaving behind it consequences 
more remote, but more destructive and enduring. 

A gentleman, just married, with a salary for his 
services as secretary to a Southern house, applied 
*.» me to be cured of a sore throat. He was per- 
manently hoarse ; swallowing food was often unen- 
durably painful, besides causing violent paroxysms 
of cough. He said he knew no cause for his com- 
plaint, except that he had smoked very freely. On in- 
quiry, [ found that for the last two years he had used, 
on an average, about "a dozen cigars every day ; per- 
haps more." He died in six weeks. 

In several instances, persons have applied to me who 
had been advised to take brandy freely for a throat 
affection.. Such advice is warranted by no one prin- 
ciple in medicine, reason, or common sense. Were I to 
give it, I should feel myself justly liable to the charge 
of being an ignorant man or a drunkard. The throat 
is inflamed ; inflammation is excitement ; brandy and 
tobacco both excite, inflame the whole body ; that is 
why they are used at all. The throat partakes of its 
portion of the excitement, when the throat, body, and 
the man, all the more speedily go to ruin together. I 
have in my mind, while writing these lines, the me- 
lancholy history of two young men — one from Ken- 
tucky, the other from Missouri — who were advised " to 
drink brandy freely, three times a day, for throat com- 
plaint." One of these became a drunkard, and lost his 
property, and within another year he will leave an in- 
teresting family in penury, disgrace, and want. The 
other was one of the most high-minded, honorable 
young men I have lately known. He was the only son 
of a widow, and she was rich. He came to see me 
three or four times, and then stated that he had con- 
cluded to try the effects of a little brandy at each meal. 
A few weeks afterwards he informed me, that as he 
was constantly improving, he thought that the brandy 
would certainly effect a cure. Within seven months 
after his application to me, he had become a regular 
toper; that is, he had increased the original quantity 
allowed, of a tablespoon at each meal, to such an 
amount, that he was all the time under the influence 
Of liquor. His business declined ; he spent all his 
money ; and secretly left for California, many thousand 
dollars in debt, and soon after died. The person who 
advised him is also now a confirmed drunkard ; but in 
his wreck and ruin, still a great man. 

A gentleman from a distant State wrote to me some 
months ago for advice as to a throat affection. He is a 
lawyer of note already, and of still higher promise, not 
yet having reached the prime of life. By earnest 
efforts as a temperance advocate, in addition to being 
a popular pleader at the bar, his voice became impaired 
with cough, spitting of blood, matter expectoration, 
diarrhoea, debility, and general wasting. He was in- 
duced to drink brandy with iron, but soon left off the 
iron and took the brandy pure. The habit grew upon 
him ; he sometimes stimulated to excess, according 
to his own acknowledgment; his friends thought 
there was no interval, and gave him up as a lost man 
to themselves, his family, and his country ; but in time 
the virulence of the disease rose above the stimulus of 
the brandy, and in occasional desperation he resorted 
to opium. He subsequently visited the water cure, 
gained in flesh and strength, and was hopeful of a 
speedy restoration; but he took "an occasional cigar" 
— the dryness in the throat, hoarseness, pain or pres- 
sure, and soreness still remained ! He left the water 
cure, and in a few months wrote to me, having, in ad- 
; , dition to the above throat symptoms, a recent hcemorr- 
hage, constipation, pains in the breast, nervousness, 
debility, variable appetite, and daily cough. Within 
two months, he has become an almost entirely new 
man, requiring no further advice. 

Further illustrations of the manner in which persons 
get Throat- Ail, may be more conveniently given in the 
letters of some who have applied to me, with the ad- 
ditional advantage of having the symptoms described 
in language not professional, consequently more gener- 
ally understood. 


(105ft) " I have had for three years past atroublesome 
affection of the thorax, which manifests itself by fre- 
quent and prolonged hemming or clearing the throat, and 
swelling: both more frequent in damp weather, or after 
s-iight cold. General health very feeble, sleeplessness, 
waste of flesh, low spirits. Visited a water cure, remain- 

ed two months, but my hemming and swallowing wort 
not a whit improved. Touching with the nitrate of si lv« 
slightly makes the larynx sore. I have been alwayi 
able to preach. It has never affected my voice until 
very recently. Two weeks ago I preached two long 
sermons, in a loud an(J excited voice, in one day 
During the last discourse my voice became hoarse, and 
my hemming has become very bad ; and there has been 
a slight break in my voice ever since. Hem, hem, hem, 
is the order of the day ; clearing the throat is inces- 
sant, swallowing often, and a slight soreness of the 
larynx, particularly after a slight cold, or after several 
days' use of nitrate of silver, with a scarce percep- 
tible break in the voice. These are my principal symp- 
This case is under treatment. 


(1016) " aged thirty-seven. Have been liable, for 
several years past, in the fall, winter, and spring, to 
severe attacks of fever, accompanied with great debil- 
ity, loss of flesh, appearing to myself and friends to 
be in the last stages of Consumption ; in fact, the dread 
of it has been an incubus on me, paralyzing my ener- 
gies and weighing down my spirits. In the summers, 
too, I have been subject to attacks of bilious fever and 
bilious colic. A year ago, I attended court soon after 
one of these attacks, and exerted myself a great dea!. 
My throat became very sore, and I had hemorrhage — 
two teaspoons of blood and matter. My health con- 
tinued feeble. I went last summer to a water cure, and 
regained my flesh and strength, but the weakness in 
my throat and occasional hoarseness continued all the 
time. Afterwards, by cold and exposure, I became 
worse, continued to have chills and fever and night 
sweats, accompanied by violent cough and soreness of 
the throat. I got worse ; was reduced to a perfect 
skeleton, and had another haemorrhage. Mucus would 
collect in the top o£ the throat, and was expectorated 
freely. I am still liable to colds. The seat of the dis- 
ease seems to be at the little hollow in front at the bot- 
tom of the neck, just above the top of the breast- bone. 
At my last bleeding, the pain seemed to be in the re- 
gion of Adam's-apple. The principal present symp- 
toms are soreness in throat, dryness, pain on pressing 
it, and hoarseness ; pulse from eighty to ninety in a 
minute ; irregular appetite. These symptoms, to- 
gether with my fear of Consumption, serve to keep me 
unhappy. I find myself constantly liable to attacks of 
cold, sneezing, running at the nose even in the summer 
time. My mother and sister have died of Consump- 
tion, as also two of my mother's sisters. Feet always 
cold ; daily cough." 


There is no Consumptive disease • it is impossible. 
No personal examination is needed to tell that. The 
foundation of all your ailments is a torpid liver and a 
weak stomach. If you are not cured, it will be your 
own fault. 

The treatment of this case was conducted by corres- 
pondence, as he lived six hundred miles away, and 
therefore I had not the opportunity of a personal exami- 
nation. Within a month he writes :— " I am gradually 
improving ; feet warm ; all pain has disappeared from 
the breast; appetite strong, regular, and good: pulse 
seventy-two ; breathing eighteen ; all cough has dis- 
appeared." At the end of two and a half months, no 
further advice was needed, as he wrote—" I have not 
written to you for a month, being absent on the circuit. 
I have not enjoyed better health for years than I have 
for the month. Weight increasing ; no uneasiness or 
pain about my breast ; pulse seventy -five ; less in the 
morning. The only trouble I have is costiveness, from 
being so confined in court, and being away from home 
deprived of my regular diet. We were two weeks 
holding court, last of November, in a miserable room, 
the court-house having been recently burned; kept 
over-heated all the time. I made four or five speeches, 
and suffered no inconvenience whatever. I have no 


(1024) called over two months ago, having had at first 
an ailment at the top of the throat, apparently above 
or near the palate. It soon descended to the region of 
Adam's-apple, and within a month it seemed to have 
located itself lower down the neck, giving a feeling as 


ir there were an ulcer there, with a sense of fullness 
about the throat, hoarse after public speaking, lasting a 
dav or two, with attacks every few weeks of distressing 
sick headache. As the disease seemed to be rapidly 
descending towards the lungs, a rigid, energetic treat- 
ment was proposed, and at the end of ten weeks he 
wr i tes _"I take pleasure in introducing my friend, 

to you. He has suffered many things, from many 

advisers, with small benefit. I have desired him to 
consult with you, hoping that he may have the same 
occasion to be grateful for the providence which leads 
him to you, which I feel that I myself have for that 
which guided me to your counsels. I suffer but little, 
very little from my throat, and confidently anticipate 
entire relief at no distant day, for all which I feel 
myself under great obligation both to your skill and to 
your kindness," &c 


is a distressing malady, as those who are subject to it 
know full well, by sad experience. In this case, this 
troublesome affection had to be permanently removed 
beibre the throat ailment could be properly treated ; 
when that was done, the throat itself was compara- 
tively of easy management. 


(947) wrote to me from the South, complaining chiefly of 

Bad cough, sometimes giving a croupy sound ; 

Throat has a raw, choking, dry, rasping feeling; 

Soon as he goes to sleep, there is a noise or motion, as 

if he were going to cough ; 
Startled in sleep, by mouth filling with phlegm ; 
Expectoration tough, white, and sticky; darkish par- 
ticles sometimes ; 
Flashes or flushes p^ss over him sometimes ; 
Sick stomach sometimes, acid often, wind on stomach 

oppresses him greatly ; / 

A lumpy feeling in the throat ; 
'On entering his house, sometimes falls asleep in his 

chair, almost instantly ; 
In walking home, at sundown, half a mile from his 

store, is completely exhausted ; 
Slightest thing brings on a cough ; never eats without 

coughing ; 
If he swallows honey, it stings the throat ; 
Cot a cold a month ago, which left the palate and throat 

very much inflamed ; 
Throat and tongue both sore ; 
A hooping, suffocative cough ; can hear the phlegm 

rattle iust before the cough begins; 
A dry. rough feeling from the little hollow at the bot- 
tom of the neck up to the top of the throat. 
One night after going to bed, began to cough, choke, 
suffocate ; could not get breath, jumped out of bed, 
ran accross the room, struggled, and at length got 
breath, but was perfectly exhausted ; could not speak 
for half an hour, without great difficulty. 
In addition to his own description of the case, his 
wife writes— "Ten o'clock at Night.— I am no physi- 
cian, nor physician's wife, but am his wife and nurse, 
and an anxious observer of his symptoms, and can see 
his throat inflamed behind the uvitla. He says there is 
a lump somewhere, but he cannot tell where. Some- 
times he thinks it is in the little hollow at the bottom 
of the neck, sometimes just above, and sometimes in 
or about the swallow. A recent cold has aggravated 
his symptoms. His cough to-day has been very fre- 
quent and loose. He has emaciated rapidly within a 
month, and is now a good deal despondent. As for 
myself, I feel as one who sees some fair prospect sud- 
denly fading away. I had fondly hoped — oh! how 
ardentlv !— that he might be restored. If a knowledge 
of the fact would give any additional interest to the 
case, I will only say, he is one of the loveliest charac- 
ters on earth. None in this community has a larger 
?hare of the respect and confidence of their acquain- 

The opinion sent, for I have not seen this case, was 
as follows: — ''The whole breathing apparatus, from 
the top of the windpipe to the extremity of its branches, 
H diseased ; the lungs themselves are not at all affected 
by decay. Your whole constitution is diseased; and 
yet there is good ground for hope of life and reason- 
able health." 

In three months this patient write?— " I am glad to 
btform jo- that I think I am still improving in health 

and strength. My bowels are sometimes disordered 
by eating melons and fruits ; but I felt so much belter 
that I thought I might indulge. Pulse sixty-five to 
seventy; an almost ravenous appetite." A month 
later he writes—" My health and strength are still im- 
proving ; cough not very troublesome ; increasing in 
flesh," &c. I believe this gentleman now enjoys good 

(948) teacher of vocal music, writes— "There is a pecu- 
liar sensation in my throat for the last two months. 
Whenever I attempt to swallow, it feels as if some- 
thing were in the way ; a swelling under the jaws, a 
soreness on the sides of the throat, extending to the 
ears, and occasioning throbbing painfully. I have a 
dull aching at the top of my collar-bone, and an un- 
pleasant sensation of weakness and heaviness in my 
chest ; a bad taste in my mouth frequently. Have 
been regular, but have been afflicted for a few years 
past with sickness at the stomach and vomiting, at- 
tended occasionally with great pain for a few hours. 
During these attacks, the complexion changes to a livid 
hue. I have been very much troubled with dyspepsia. 
On recovering from the attacks above mentioned, I have 
experienced a feeling of weakness almost insupportable. 
A in very costive ; and my spirits are greatly depressed. 
Within a day or two I have taken a violent cold, which 
has affected me with sneezing, running from the eyes 
and nose, together with a* slight hoarseness. I was ad- 
vised to apply caustic to the throat, and Croton oil to 
my neck, chest, and throat. I have since discon- 
tinued these, not having received any permanent bene- 
fit from them. On two occasions, from over-exertion at 
concerts and examinations, I was unable to speak a 
loud word, from hoarseness, for several days. I am 
extremely anxious to learn your opinion. In about two 
months my public concerts take place, and it is abso- 
lutely necessary that something should be done for me." 


Yours is general constitutional disease. There is no 
special cause of alarm. A weakened stomach, -a torpid 
liver, a want of sufficient air and exercise, are the foun- 
dations of all 3'our ailments, and by the proper regula- 
tion of these, you may expect to have good health and 
a stronger voice. You must, have energy and patient 
perseverance in carrying out the prescriptions sent to 

In one month this lady writes, and the letter is given 
to encourage others who may come under my care, to 
engage with determination and energy in* carrying out 
the directions which may be given them. The reader 
may also see what great good a little medicine may do 
when combined with the judicious employment of ra- 
tional means, which do not involve the taking of med- 
icine or the use of painful and scarifying agencies and 
patent contrivances : — 

" I began your prescriptions at once. Having followed 
them for some time, I was obliged to intermit them for 
a few days, in consequence of having to conduct a 
concert, besides having to travel by stage and railroad 
seventy or eighty miles. During this time, I was up 
every night until twelve o'clock, and was much ex- 
posed to the night air. On returning home, I re-com- 
menced your directions, have made it a point to attend 
to them strictly, and have very seldom failed of doing 
so. In consequence of two omissions in diet, I suffered 
from headache, which disappeared when I ooserved 
your directions. My appetite is good; my food agrees 
with me. I sometimes feel dull and sleepy after dinner. 
I drop to sleep immediately. Seldom wake in the night. 
Sleep about seven hours, and generally feel bright and 
strong in the morning, when I take a brisk walk of two 
miles and a half; the same after six, p.m. My walks 
at first fatigued me considerably; generally, however, 
I have felt better and better from their commencement 
to their end, and have perspired very freely. The ex- 
ercise I take seems rather to increase than diminish 
my strength. I have not been prevented from* taking 
exercise from any dampness in the atmosphere. I have 
sometimes been exposed to the night air in going to 
church and other places, but without any perceptible 
injury. The means you advised produce a general 
glow, and invariably remove headache, which I some- 
times have to a slight degree after dinner. I think my 
throat is better. There is no unpleasant feeling about 
it at present, except the difficulty in swallowing, and 
even that is better. Pulse sixty-seven." 


I had for some time ceased to regard this energetic 
young lady as a patient, when she announces a new 
ailment, a difficulty at periodic times:— "I walked two 
miles eyery day, and every thing was going on well, 
until one evening after walking very fast, I sat awhile 
with a friend, in a room without fire, in November. 
The weather was chilly and damp ; was unwell, sup- 
pressed ; had a chill and incessant cough for several 
hours, ending in something like inflammation of the 

These things were remedied, and she is now engaged 
in the active discharge of her duties. This last inci- 
dent is introduced here to Warn every reader, especially 
women, against all such exposures at all times, most 
especially during particular seasons. Such exposures, 
as sitting in rooms without fire, in the fall and spring, 
after active walking, have thrown stout strong men 
into a fatal consumption ; and it is not at all to be 
wondered at that delicate women should lay the foun- 
dation of incurable disease in the same manner. I will 
feel well repaid for writing these lines, if but here and 
there a reader may be found to guard against such ex- 
posures. Our parlors and drawing-rooms are kept 
closed to the air and light for a great portion of the 
twenty-four hours, and unless the weather is quite cool 
there is no fire in them. Thus they necessarily ac- 
quire a cold, clammy dampness, very perceptible on 
first entering. A fire is not thought necessary, as 
visitors usually remain but a few minutes ; but when 
the b'lood is waimedijy walking in the pure air and the 
clear sunshine, it is chilled in a very short space of 
time, if the person is at rest, in the cold and gloom of 
a modern parlor, especially as a contemplated call of a 
minute is often unconsciously extended to half an 
hour, under the excitement of friendly greetings and 
neighborly gossip. There can be no doubt that thou- 
sands every year catch their deeth of cold, to tise a 
homely but expressive phrase, in the manner above 
named. Young women, especially, cannot act thus 
with impunity. Men perish by multitudes every year 
by exposures of a similar character; walking or work- 
ing until they become warm, then sitting in a hall or 
entryora cold counting-room; or standing still at the 
wharf or at a street corner ; or running to reach a ferry- 
boat until they begin to perspire, and then sitting still 
in the wind while the boat is crossing. It is by inat- 
tention to what may be considered such trifling little 
things that thousands of valuable lives are sacrificed 
every year. 


(950) from Washington City, complained of 

Uneasiness at throat, caused by repeated colds ; late 
hours, hot rooms ; ' 

Cough most of mornings— dry, tickling, hollow ; 

Expectoration a little yellow ; 

Bloody, streaked expectoration, six months ago ; 

Breathing oppressed, if sit or stoop long ; 

Take cold easy, in every way; 

Throat has various feelings, tickling, heavy aching r raw, 
dry, from palate to depression ; 

Swallowing a little difficult at times ; 

Voice not much affected; 

Headache, costive bowels, piles occasionally; 

Pain about shoulder-blades and at their points ; 

Soreness under both ribs sometimes ; 

Pains in the breast— more of a soreness from the top 
of the breast-bone to the pit of the stomach ; 

Have been ailing fifteen months ; 

Father, mother, sister, uncle, aunt died of Consump- 


You cannot have Consumption now : you are de- 
cidedly threatened with it. With proper attention, 
persevering and prompt you may ward it off effectually, 
and live to the ordinary term of human life to those of 
your occupation. It is my opinion, that without this 
care, you will fall into settled disease within a year. 

In two months, this gentleman called to see me for 
the first time. His lungs were working freely and 
fully, over the natural standard ; pulse seventy-two ; 
appetite good ; bowels regular. I did not think he re- 
quired any particular medical advice; and it is my 
present belief, that with proper attention to diet, exer- 
cise, and regular habits of life, his health will become 
permanently good. 

952. . 

Took a severe cold last winter, which left a severe 
cough. Every morning the breast feels sore, until snrs 
about some. Pain in the left side, running through tc 
the left shoulder blade, and between the shoulders; 
pain in the breast-bone, and in the centre of the left 
breast. Chief complaint is pain in the chest, left side, 
and a constant raising of frothy, thick, tough, and yel- 
low matter, with frequent hawking, hemming, and 
clearing of the throat. Age 22. 


Your ai.rnents are all removeable by diligent atten 
tion to the directions I may give you. I very much 
hope you will spare no pains in carrying them out most 
thoroughly. You certainly have not Consumptive dis- 

He called upon me some months afterwards, when 1 
saw him for the first time. He had nothing to complain 
of; pulse sixty; his lungs working f-reeiy and fully, 
being considerably above the natural standard ; and as 
far as I know, he continues well to this day. 

" Am officer in a bank. Was at a fire during Christ- 
mas, seven months ago.. Used my voice a great deal; 
began to be hoarse ; very much so by morning. This 
lasted a week, and went off; but in three weeks there 
appeared to be something about the palate which 
wanted to come away. Throat seemed inflamed, and 
ever since then have had a clogging feeling in the 
throat, that does not affect my voice, unless I read 
aloud, when I soon become hoarse. Two days ago, 
spit up a spoonful of dark blood ; never before or since. 
I have a binding sensation across the top of the breast, 
and three months since had a pain up aiid down the 
breast-bone. Have used iodide of potash : have had 
the throat pencilled, and then sponged with nitrate of 
silver, without benefit — pulse, one hundred and ten." 


Yours is a throat ailment, at the entrance of the 
windpipe — not as low down as the voice organs. There 
is very considerable active inflammation /there. Your 
lungs are a little weakened, nothing more ; the pains 
in the breast are not serious at all, and I see no ob- 
stacle to your entire recovery. 

I received letter after letter from this young gentle 
man, stating that no perceptible benefit seemed to fol- 
low what I advised. He was encouraged to persevere, 
and finally his symptoms began to change, and then 
disappeared; and in two months from his first consul- 
tation he wrote me to say that he had steadily im- 
proved ; pulse, permanently at sixty-five ; expressing 
his obligations, &c. This case shows strikingly the ad 
vantage of perseverance. 


(844) wrote to me for advice in reference to a throat 
complaint. I prescribed, and had entirely forgotten 
the circumstance, when the following letter was 
received : — 

" I began to follow your directions on the 4th day of 
May, not quite three months ago, and have adhered tc 
them strictly ever since. I am evidently a great deal 
better. I have lost no flesh; although it is summer, 
my weight has not varied three pounds, since I wrote 
to you; it is now one hundred and forty-nine lounds. 
My tonsils are diminished, and give me no uneasiness, 
except in damp weather. From my throat, which is 
now generally perfectly comfortable, I am continually 
bringing up a pearly substance. Sometimes it is per- 
fectly clear, and like the pure white of an egg. But 
this is a mighty change. At first, I could not talk five 
minutes in the family circle. My throat was constantly 
tickling and burning; so that a mustard plaster, v/hich 
took all the skin off my neck in front, was a comfort; 
but now I can talk as much as I'wish, read a page or 
so aloud, and am almost tempted to sing a little." 

In the same manner as a common cold, for Bronchitis 
is a common cold protracted, settling not on the Pings, 
but on the branches of the windpipe, clogging them u< 
with a secretion thicker than is natural ; this adheres 


to the Inside of the tube-like branches, and to a certain 
extent closes them : hence, but a small portion of .air 
gets iato the lungs. Nature soon begins to i'eel the de- 
liciency, and instinctively makes extra effbrtsto obtain 
the necessary quantity, in causing the patient to draw 
in air forcibly instead of doing it naturally and without 
an effort. This forcible inspiration of external air 
drives before it the accumulating phlegm, and wedges 
it more compactly in a constantly-diminishing tube, 
until the passage is entirely plugged up. The pa- 
tient makes greater efforts to draw in the air, but 
these plugs of mucus arrest it, and there is a feeling as 
If the air did not get down to its proper place, or as if 
it were stopped short, causing a painful stricture, or 
cord-like sensation, or as some express it, a stoppage of 
breath. If relief is not given in such cases, either by 
medicine judiciously administered, or by a convulsive 
uature of effort at a cough, which is a sudden and for- 
cible expulsion of such air as happened to be on the 
other side of the plug, the patient would die; and they 
often do feel as if they could not possibly live an 
hour. This is more particularly a description of an 
attack of Acute Bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis is but 
a milder form of the same thing, very closely allied in 
the sensations produced, if not indeed in the very 
nature of the thing, to what may be considered a 
kind of 

which may in most cases he removed and warded off 
for an indefinite time by the use -of very little medicine, 
if the patient could be induced to have a reasonable 
degree of self-denial and careful perseverance. 

As they do most other diseases, by inattention, neglect, 
imposition on nature. Mar>y persons have this dis- 
ease hereditarily, but the same means which perma- 
nently arrest the progress of accidental Consumption 
will as often and as uniformly ward off, indefinitely, 
the effects and symptoms of the hereditary form, the 
essential nature of accidental and hereditary Consump- 
tion being the same. The treatment is also the same, 
except that in the accidental form it must be more 
prompt, more energetic ; in the hereditary form it must 
be more mild, more persevering. I consider the latter, 
the less speedily and critically dangerous of the two. 

A number of pages will be devoted to the illustra- 
tion of a variety of topics connected with the general 
subject ; all, however, will be of a practical character 
— at least, such is the intention. 

Consumption is the oxidation of the exuda- 
tion corpuscle. This corpuscle — this little body, this 
tubercle, this seed of Consumption — is an albuminous 
exudation, as minutely described on page 5, First Part, 
and being deficient in fatty matter, its elementary 
molecules cannot constitute nuclei, capable of cell de- 
velopment; therefore, these nuclei remain abortive, 
are foreign bodies in the lungs, and like all other 
foreign bodies there, cause irritation, tickling. This 
tickling is a cause of cough, as itching is a cause of 
scratching, both being instinctive efforts of nature Jo 
remove the cause of tfce difficulty. The oxidation— 
that is, the burning, the softening of this corpuscle or 
tubercle — gives yellow matter as a product, just as the 
burning— that is, the oxidation of wood— gives ashes as 
a product. Thu3 the yellow matter expectorated in 
Consumption is a sign infallible, that a destructive, con- 
suming process is going on in the lungs, just as the 
sight of ashes is an infallible sign that wood or some 
other solid substance has been burned— that is, de- 

But why is it that this albuminous exudation, this 
tubercle, this exudation corpusxle, should lack this 
fatty matter, this oil, this carbon, which, did it have 
would make it a healthy product, instead of being s 
foreign body and a seed of death ? 

Consumption is an error of nutrition. The patient 
has soliloquized a thousand times, "I sleep pretty well 
oovvels regular, and I relish my food, but somehow or 
other it does not seem to do me the good it used to. I 
do not get strong." The reason of this is, that the 
food is imperfectly digested, and when that is the case, 
aridity is the result, which is the distinguishing feature 
of Consumptive disease. This excess of acid in the 
alimentary canal dissolves the albumen of the food, 
aad carrier it off intu the box d ia its dissolved rtate, 

making the whole mass of blood in perfect, irrpure, 
thick, sluggish, damming up in the lungs — that is, con- 
gesting them— instead of flowing out to the surface, 
and keeping the skin of a soft feel and a healthful 
warmth. Thus it is that the skin of all Consumptives 
has either a dry, hot feel, or a cold, clammy, damp- 
ness ; at one time having cold chills creeping over 
them, causing them to shiver in the Ettn or hover over 
the fire; at another time, by the reaction, burning hot, 
the cheek a glowing red, the mouth parched with 
thirst. Another effect of the excess of acidity dis- 
solving the albumen and carrying it into the blood is, 
that the blood is deficient in the fat, or oil, or carbon, 
which would have been made by the union of this 
albumen with alkaline secretions; the blood then 
wanting the fat or fuel which is necessary to keep the 
body warm, that which was already in the body, in 
the shape of what. we cah flesh, is used instead, and 
the man wastes away, just as when steamboat men, 
when out of wood, split up the doors, partitions, and 
other parts of the boat, ts keep her going, she moves 
by consuming herself. So the Consumptive lives on, 
is kept warm by the burning up, the oxidation of his 
own flesh every day and every hour ; this same 
wasting away being the invariable, the inseparable 
attendant of every case of true Consumption. He 
lives upon himself until there is no more fuel to burn, 
no more fat or flesh, and he dies—" nothing but skin 
and bone." What, then, must be done to cure a man 
of Consumptive disease 1 

He must be made more (what is called) "fleshy ;" 
that is, he must have more fuel, fat, to keep him warm. 

The acidity of the alimentary canal must be re- 
moved, in order that the food may be perfectly digested, 
so as to make pure blood, such as will flow healthfully 
and actively through every part of the system, and be- 
come congested, siuggish, stagnant nowhere. 

To remove this acidity, the stomach must be made 
strong, and healthfully active ; but no more than health- 
fully active, so as to convert the food into a substance 
fit for the manufacture of pure blood. 

To make the stomach thus capable of forming a 
good blood material from the aliment introduced into it, 
as a perfect mill converts the grain into good flour or 
meal, there is behind the mill a power to turn it, there 
is behind the stomach powers to be exerted. These 
are the glandular system, the liver being the main one 
of all. This must be kept in healthful, operating order ; 
if it acts too much or too little, the food is badly manu- 
factured, and the blood which is made out of the food, 
and of the food alone, is imperfect and impure. 

After all this is done, there is one more operation, 
which is the last finishing touch by which pure life- 
giving blood is made ; OP" a sufficient amount of pure 
air must come in contact with it before blood is con- 
stituted. This contact takes place in the lungs : not 
such a contact as the actual commingling of wine and 
water, for the air and what is soon to become blood are 
not mixed together ; they are kept separate in different 
vessels. The air is in the lungs; that, is, in the little 
bladders or cells, and this fluid, which is to be con- 
verted into blood, is in the little veins or tubes, which 
are spread around over the sides of the air-cells, as a 
vine is spread over a wall ; but these little vessels have 
sides so very thin, that the life-giving material of the 
air passes through into the blood, just as the.warmth 
of the sun passes through glass ; but while this life- 
giving quality of the air passes into the blood, making 
it perfect, the impure and deathly ingredients of the 
blood pass out of, it, into the air, which has just been 
deprived of its life. Thus it is, that while the air we 
draw in at a single breath is cool and pure and full of 
life, that which is expired is so hurtful, so poisonous, 
at least so destitute of life, that were it breathed in, in- 
stantly, uncombined with other air, by a perfectly 
healthy person, he would instantaneously die. So that 
pure air in breathing is most essentially indispensable; 
first, to impart perfection, life to the blood ; and also to 
withdraw from it its death. No wonder, then, that a 
plentiful supply of pure air is so. essential to the 
maintenance of health, so doubly essential to the re- 
moval of disease and restoration to a natural condition. 
No wonder, then, that when a man's lungs are decay- 
ing, and thus depriving him of the requisite amount of 
air, he -so certainly fades away, unless the decay is 
first arrested, and-ihe lung power or capacity restored. 

The great principles, then, involved in the cure of 
Consumptive disease, or, professionally speaking, the 
great incucatioc*, are-- 


To cause the consumption and healthful digestion of 
the largest amount possible of substantial, nutritious, 
plain food. 

To cause the patient to consume more pure air. 

To bring about the first condition requires the exer- 
cise of extensive medical knowledge, combined with 
a wide experience and close and constant observa- 
tion. To regulate healthfully the digestive apparatus — 
that is, to keep .the whole glandular system of the 
human body in healthfully-working order — requires re- 
medies and treatment as varied in their combinations 
almost as the varied features of the human face. 
Scarcely any two persons in a hundred are to be treated 
in the same way, unless you can find them of the same 
size, age, sex, constitution, temperament, country, cli- 
mate, occupation, habits of life, and manner of inducing 
the disease. Here are ten characteristics which are ca- 
pable,as every arithmetician knows, of a thousand differ- 
ent combinations ; so that any person proposing any one 
thing as a remedy — a cure for Consumption, applicable 
to all cases and stages, must be ignorant or mfamous 
beyond expression. 

The two things above named will be always curative 
in proportion to their timely accomplishment. The 
ways of bringing these about must be varied according 
to constitution, temperament, and condition. The 
mode of doing the thing is not the essential, but the 
thing done. Beyond all question, the thing can be 
done : Consumption can be cured, and is cured in 
various ways. The scientific practitioner varies his 
means according to the existing state of the case. The 
name of the disease is nothing to him ; he attacks the 
symptoms as they are at the time of prescribing; and 
if he be an experienced practitioner, he will know what 
ought to be done, and how it should be attempted, just 
as a classical scholar knows the meaning of a classical 
phrase or word the first time he ever sees it as per- 
fectly as if he had seen it a thousand times before. 
And without setting myself up as an instructor to my 
medical brethren, I may here intimate my conviction, 
that the cure of Consumption would be a matter of 
every day occurrence, if they would simply study the 
nature of the disease, read not a word of how it had 
been treated by others, but observe closely every case, 
and treat its symptoms by general principles, as old as 
the hills, and follow up the treatment perseveringly, 
prescribe for the symptoms, and let the name and dis- 
ease go. But then they must first understand perfectly 
the whole pathology of the disease — its whole nature. 
That, however, requires years of laborious study and 
patient observation. 

The above things being true, as perhaps none will 
deny, it is worse than idle to be catching up every year 
some new medicine for the cure of Consumption. The 
readiness with which every new remedy is grasped at, 
shows beyond all question that the predecessors have 
been failures. ' Scores of cures have been eagerly ex- 
perimented upon ;— naphtha, cod liver oil, phosphate of 
lime, each will have its day, and each its speedy night, 
simply because no one thing can by any possibility be 
generally applicable, when solely relied upon. The 
physician must keep his eye steadily upon the thing to 
be done, varying the means infinitely, according to the 
case in hand. Therefore, the treatment of every in- 
dividual case of Consumption must be placed in the 
hands of a scientific and experienced physician in 
time, and not wait, as is usually the case, until every 
balsam and syrup ever heard of has been tasted, tried, 
»nd experimented upon, leaving the practitioner nothing 
o work upon but a rotten, ruined hulk, leaving scarcely 
anything to do but to write out a certificate of burial, 
and receive as compensation all the discredit of the 

The intelligent reader will perceive that I have 
spoken of the cure of Consumption as a matter of 
course. From the resolute vigor with which cod liver 
oil has been prescribed and (believingly) swallowed 
within a very few years past, one would suppose that 
almost every one believed that the cure of Consump- 
tion was a common every day affair. A few years ago, 
nobody thought so, except perhaps here and there a 
timid believer who kept his v credence to himself, 
lest he should be laughed at. But the public got hold 
of the idea that cod liver oil was a remedy for the cure 
of Consumption, and swallowed thousands of barrels 
t»f what was said to be it, before they thought of in- 
quiring for the facts of the case. I have never to this 
hour heard or read of a single case of true Consump- 
tion ever being perfectly and permanently arrested by 

the alone use of cod liver oil. No case that I hava 
seen reported as cured would bear a legal investigation. 
There has always been some kind of reservation. It is 
my belief that all the virtues of cod liver oil, or any 
other oil, or phosphate of lime, as curative of consump- 
tion of the lungs, are contained in plain meat and 
bread, pure air and pure water ; the whole of the diffi- 
culty beirig in making the patient competent to con- 
sume and assimilate enough of these. Herein consists 
the skill of the practitioner, and on this point he needs 
to bring to bear the knowledge, the study, the investiga- 
tion, the observation, the experience of a life-time; 
and he who trusts to anything short of this, throws 
his life away. 

The following articles are interesting and corrobora- 
tive. " LittelPs Living Age," No. 379, for August, 
the most popular and best conducted journal of the 
kind in America, copies from the London " Spectator" 
the following highly interesting and well-written ar- 
ticle. Every line of it merits the mature consideration 
of the intelligent reader. 


" While one-third of the deaths in the metropolis 
are ascribable to diseases of the chest, the hospital 
accommodation devoted to that class of diseases has 
heretofore been only one-tenth ; that is to say, the 
most prevalent and destructive class of diseases has 
had the least counteraction among the poorer classes. 
This peculiar, if not studied neglect, must be ascribed 
to a notion, now happily dying out, that diseases con- 
nected with the respiratory organs, and especially the 
lungs, were virtually beyond the reach of certain 01 
effective treatment. It was indifference to this old 
notion that Lord Carlisle made an admission, in his 
address to Trince Albert, on laying the first stone of the 
City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest — 
' We admit,' he said, ' that hospitals ought to give the 
preference to those maladies which afford a prospect 
of cure, rather than to those of a less hopeful charac- 
ter.' Now this admission, especially as compared with 
the qualification which followed it, that very much 
may be effected by precaution and a timely counterac- 
tion, is far too strong for the truth. Without accepting 
as literally true the inference of a physician eminent 
in the treatment of pectoral diseases, that all persons 
are at one time or other visited by maladies of that 
class, we believe it is certain that the proportion of 
mortality, enormous as it is, scarcely represents the 
comparative extension of such diseases. In the prac- 
tical and popular sense of the word, it may be said 
that cure is as common in the class of pectoral diseases 
as in any other class. It has become much more com- 
mon, indeed, since the great advance that has been 
made with the knowledge of such complaints in our 
own day. This advance has been of a two-fold char- 
acter. The immense progress of physiological inquiry 
has thrown great light on the connection and common 
causes of most cognate diseases, not only with each 
other but with the general health, and has thus enor- 
mously augmented the power of the physician in treating 
them by medicine and regimen. The invention of the 
stethescope, by placing the exploration of the inner 
chest within reach of observation, has given a distinct- 
ness of knowledge on the most characteristic and 
dangerous symptoms, heretofore unattainable : it has 
thus completed the round of evidence whi«h estab- 
lishes the connection of diseases, and at the same time 
guides the nature and application of topical treatment. 

In discovering that the prevalency of pectoral dis- 
eases was far greater than had been supposed, science 
has also discovered how much more they are under 
subjection to the general laws of physiology and med- ' 
icine. This branch of science, however, is younger 
than others — a fact which teaches us to remember 
how much is to be expected from the active and vigor 
ous intellects now devoted to its exploration. We may 
also remember that while the primary object of hos- 
pitals is the relief of sufferers who are too poor to ob 
tain it for themselves, they are also great instruments 
for the behefit of society at large, by checking the in- 
roads of disease where it could not otherwise be en- 
countered. Thev are still more signally valuable as 
great schools for' the study of the diseases to which 
they are appropriated. They exemplify most power- 
fully the double blessing of charity, for him that gives 
as well as him that receives ; the aid extended by a 
hospital to the poor is returned to the rich in the 


knowledge which it collects ; for in rescuing from un- 
timely death the assembled children of poverty, science 
learns, as it could in no other way do, methods which 
enable it to rescue the children of wealth. 

The more hopeful character of the most modern 
science had been in great part anticipated by the brave 
intellect of Andrew Combe. Before his time, it was 
too generally, if not universally assumed, that the 
symptoms of* Consumption were a death-warrant; he 
proclaimed the reverse truth, and established it. He 
became in his own person the teacher and exemplar, 
both to physician and patient; and in his compact 
popular volume and regimen, he has recorded, in a form 
accessible to all, the conclusions of his practical ex- 
perience. He did away many of the old coddling 
notions, which helped to kill the patient by stifling the 
pores of the skin, filling the lungs with bad air, soften- 
ing the muscular system with inaction, and deadening 
the vital functions ; a service scarcely more useful in 
reconciling the patient to the restorative influences of 
nature, than in returning hope to the afflicted relatives, 
and in showing what might be done by common sense 
and diligence. At an early age, Andrew Combe was 
found to be in a Consumption — words which were 
formerly accepted as a death-warrant, in submission to 
which the awed patient duly laid down and died ; 
Andrew Combe lived more than twenty years longer, a 
life of activity, usefulness, and temperate enjoyment. 

"The 'People's Journal,' for July, one of the most 
popular European publications, has an interesting ar- 
ticle in relation to the Consumption Hospital, founded 
at Brompton ; and few institutions have risen so 
rapidly. It has a long list of noble and wealthy sub- 
scribers, with the Queen and most of the royal family 
at its head. 'As death has abundantly proved the 
mortality of the disease, so, paradoxical as it may 
seem, death also supplies us with evidence that the 
chief structural lesions of Consumption, tubercles in 
the lungs, are not necessarily fatal. The writer of 
these lines can state, from his own observation, (which 
has not been limited, and is confirmed by that of others,) 
that, in the lungs of nearly one-half of the adult per- 
sons examined after death from other diseases, and 
even from accidents, a few tubercles, or some unequiv- 
ocal traces of them, are to be found. In these cases, 
the seeds of the malady were present, but were dor- 
mant, waiting for circumstances capable of exciting 
them into activity, and if such circumstances could not 
occur, the tubercles eradually dwindled away, or were 
in a state of comparative, harmless quiescence. This 
fact, supported by others, too technical to be adduced 
here, goes far to prove an important proposition, that 
Consumptive disease is fatal by its degree, rather than 
by its kind ; and the smaller degrees of the disease, if 
withdrawn from the circumstances favorable to its in- 
crease, may be retarded, arrested, or even permanently 
cured. There are few practitioners of experience who 
cannot narrate cases of supposed Consumption which, 
after exhibiting during months and even years, un- 
doubted symptoms of the disease, have astonished all 
by their subsequent, more or less, complete recovery. 
Cautious medical men have concluded themselves mis- 
taken, and 'that the disease was not truly tuberculous ; 
but, in these days, when the detection and distinction 
of diseases is brought to a perfection bordering on cer- 
tainty, the conclusion that recoveries do take place 
from limited degrees of tubercles of the lungs, is ad- 
mitted by the best authorities, and is in exact accor- 
dance with the above-mentioned results of cadaveric 
inspection. Consider properly, and you will be ready 
' to admit the truth of what has been already established 
by experience, that Consumption may be often pre- 
vented, arrested, or retarded by opportune aid. On this 
point we know that many medical men are utterly in- 
credulous, and stigmatize others who are less so, in no 
measu.ed terms ; but, with the present rapid improve- 
ments in all the departments of medical knowledge, 
there is less ground for such incredulity than there was 
for that which opposed and ridiculed Jenner in his ad- 
vocacy of vaccination as the preventive of small-pox.' 

In view of the above and other testimonials of the 
most distinguished living writers in favor of the cura- 
bility of Consumption, it is impossible for any well-in- 
formed and well-balanced mind any longer to deny it. 
We cannot conceive it possible that so many great men 
should be so much deceived on a point which they 
iiave n.nde it '-he business of a life-time to investigate 
and study. 


"A very curious .example of suicide by means of 
starvation occurred some years ago in Corsica. During 
the elections, the Sieur V. rushed into the electoral 
college armed with a dagger,. which he plunged into 
the breast of a man who had done him some injury. 
The man fell dead at his feet. The assassination was 
committed in the full light of day, and in the presence 
of an assembled multitude. 

" V. was tried, found guilty, and condemned to death. 
His high spirit and resolute character were well known, 
and it was suspected that he would seek, by a volun 
tary death, to evade the disgrace of perishing- on the 
scaffold. He was therefore vigilantly watched, and 
every precaution taken to deprive him of the means of 
putting an end to his existence. 

"He resolved to starve himself to death during the 
interval which elapsed between the sentence of the 
Court or Assizes and the reply which the Court of 
Cassation would make to the appeal he had addressed 
to it. 

" He had succeeded in concealing from the observa 
tion of his jailers a portion of the food with which 
they supplied him, so as to make it be believed that he 
regularly took his meals. After three days' abstinence, 
the pangs of hunger became insupportable. It then 
suddenly occurred to him that he might the more 
speedily accomplish the object he had in view by eating 
with avidity. He thought that the state of exhaustion 
to which he was reduced would unfit him to bear the 
sudden excess, and that it would inevitably occasion 
the death he so ardently desired. He accordingly sat 
down to the food which he had laid aside, and ate 
voraciously, choosing in preference the heaviest things. 
The consequence was that he was seized with a vio- 
lent fit of indigestion, from which, contrary to his ex- 
pectation, the prison doctor speedily cured him, 

" He then resumed his fatal design. He suffered 
again what he had undergone before. The torture was 
almost beyond his strength. His thirst, too, was in- 
tolerable. It overcame his resolution. He extended 
his hand towards the jug of water which had been 
placed in his cell. He drank with avidity, and, to use 
his own expression, was restored to life. 

" To avoid yielding again to a similar temptation, he 
daily took the precaution of overturning the jug of 
water which was brought to him. Lest he should be 
induced to raise it to his lips, he threw it down with 
his foot, not venturing to touch it with his hand. In 
this manner he passed eighteen days. 

"Every day, at different intervals, he noted down in 
his album a minute account of his sensations. He 
counted the beatings of his pulse, and marked their 
number from hour to hour, measuring with the 
most scrupulous attention the gradual wasting of his 
strength. In several parts of his melancholy memento, 
he declares that he ieit it harder to bear the agonies of 
thirst than those of hunger. He confesses that he was 
frequently on the point of yielding to the desire of 
drinking. He nevertheless resisted. 

"He was surprised to find his sight become more 
and more clear, strong, and accurate ; it appeared to 
him like the development of a new sense. The nearer 
he approached his latter moments, the more his power 
of vision seemed to increase. On this subject he thus 
expresses himself: 'It appears as though I could see 
through the thickest walls.' His sense of feeling like- 
wise attained the most exquisite sensibility. His hear- 
ing and smelling improved in a similar degree. His 
album contains many curious statements on these sub- 

The Sieur V. had devoted some attention to an- 
atomy and physiology ; and he attributes the increased 
acuteness of his senses to the way in which the in- 
testinal irritation acted on the nervous system. 

"His ideas, he says, were numerous and clear, and 
very different from anything he had experienced in 
moments of excitement or intoxication. They were all 
directed to logical investigation, whether he applied 
them to an analysis of material objects, or to phi losophie 
contemplation. He also felt himself inspired with a 
singular aptitude for mathematical calculation, a study 
for which he had previously felt very little inclination. 
In short, he declares that he never derived so much 
gratification from his intellectual condition, as through- 
out the whole duration of his physical torture. 

" He made notes in his album to the last moments of 
his existence. He had scarcely strength sufficient \a 


hold the pencil with which he traced the following 
words: 'My pulse has nearly ceased Ip beat — but my 
brain retains a degree of vigor which, in my sad con 
dition r is the greatest solace Providence could bestow 
on me. It is impossible that I can live out this clay. 
*My jailers watch me, and fancy they have adopted 
every precaution. They little think that I have out- 
witted them. Death annuls the sentence which has 
been pronounced on me. In another hour, perhaps, 
they will find nothing but a cold corpse.' 

"V. expired as he foretold. His album has been 
carefully preserved. It is a record replete with in- 
terest to medical professors. The slow torture, endured 
with so much courage, and described with such re- 
markable clearness, renders it one of the most curious 
documents in the annals of medical science." 

Illustrating the same point, a gentleman, Mr. I. F. PL, 
stated to the author that he was once under medical 
treatment for some affection of the eyes, requiring a 
very scanty diet. His general health was excellent, 
but he was always hungry; yet so far from having any 
sense of debility, he had, when he went out into the 
street, an elasticity of mind and body, an instinctive 
desire of locomotion, which caused him to feel as if 
he could almost fly, and a joyousness of spirit, which 
was perfectly delightful. 

These two cases strikingly show, that with a smaller 
amount of food, and consequently of blood, men are 
cheerful in mind and active in body ; CjP"* therefore, 
a small amount of food, perfectly digested, gives more 
health and strength than a larger, not so. It is better, in- 
comparably better, to feel a little hungry all the time, 
than to feel full, oppressed, heavy, with over eating. 

ETery patient of mine, who ever expects to get well, 
must keep this fact constantly and practically in view. 
It is too much the custom to measure one's health by 
the avidity of bis appetite and his increase in flesh, as 
if he were a pig; forgetting that a voracious appetite 
and fat are always indications of a diseased body. A 
uniform moderate appetite is the attendant of good 
health. A racer's ribs must be seen before he is fit for 
the track, because then he is most capable of endu- 

The next incident shows, that with a moderate 
amount of substantial food and cold water, such being 
prisoner's fare, men may live for many years, with but 
little exercise, in the dark vaults of a prison, breathing 
all the time an atmosphere not very pure, as may be 
readily supposed. And it is earnestly hoped that the 
incidents narrated will leave upon the mind of every 
reader a life-long impression as to the value, both to 
the sick and the healthy, of living habitually on a 
moderate allowance of plain, substantial, nourishing 
food. It may be well to recollect here that it is not the 
quality, so much as the quantity of food, which lays 
the foundation every year of innumerable diseases and 
deaths. Let it be remembered, also, that men need a 
variety of food ; living on one dY two kinds for a length 
of time will always undermine a healthy constitution. 
Milk only has all the elements of life ; and any other 
one kind' of aliment, used indefinitely as to time, will 
as certainly deteriorate the constitution, bodily and 
mental, as anything that is planted will deteriorate if 
kept for successive years in the same field unrenewed. 
The popular notion that one or two kinds of food at a 
meal is Most wholesome, is wholly untrue. On the 
contrary, several kinds at a meal, other things being 
equal, are more conducive to our well-being. Quantity, 
and not quality, is the measure of health. 


wrote from the great jail of Vienna as follows : — 

" I am an old man now, yet by fifteen years my soul 
is younger than my body : fifteen years I existed, for I 
did not live. It was not life in the self-same dungeon, 
ten feet square. During six years I had a companion ; 
nine years I was alone. 1 never could rightly distin- 
guish the face of him who shared my captivity in the 
eternal twilight of our cell. 

"The first year we talked incessantly together. We 
related our past lives," our joys forever gone, over and 
over again. 

" The next year we communicated to each other our 
ideas on all subjects. 

"The third year we had no ideas to communicate ; 
we were beginning to lose the power of reflection. 

" The fourth, at intervals of a month or so we would 

open our lips, to ask each other if it were indeed po* 
sible that Ihe world were as gay and bustling as it wr.t 
when we formed a portion of mankind. 

"The fifth year we were silent. 

" The sixth, he was taken away, I never knew where, 
to execution or to liberty. But I was glad when he was 
gone: even solitude was better than that pale and 
vacant face. After that, I was alone. 

" Only one event broke in upon my nine years' 
vacancy. One day, it must have been a year or two 
after my companion left me, my dungeon door was 
opened, and a voice, I knew not whence, uttered these 
words : ' By order of his Imperial Majesty, T intimate 
to you, that one year ago your wife died.' Then the 
door was shut. I heard no more. They had but flung 
this great agony in upon me, and left me alone with it 
again."— Phil. Pennsylvanian, March 2, 1850. 

Having shown the bearing which food has on health, 
I desire to make some statements as to the value of air 
and exercise in the same direction. These will be 
given succinctly, in the hope that the intelligent reader 
will study them and apply them at length, especially 
if he should come to me for medical advice. My habit 
is not merely to cure when I can the patient who 
comes to me, but to induce him to study and under- 
stand his own case and constitution, so that by the 
application of general principles he may afterwards be 
able to regulate his health under all ordinary circum- 
stances, as far as it can be done by diet, air, exercise, 
and regularity of personal habits ; but never venturing 
to take an atom of medicine, however simple, except 
by the special advice of an educated, experienced 


Men are reported to have lived three weeks without 
food, but without air we cannot live three minutes 
The lungs of a full-sized man weigh about three 
pounds, and will hold twelve pints of air; but nine 
pints areas much as can be inhaled at one full breath, 
there being always a residuum in the lungs ; that is,-all 
the air that is within them can never be expelled at 
once. In common, easy breathing, in repose, we in- 
hale one pint. Singers take in from five to seven pints 
at a single breath. We breathe, in health, about 
eighteen times in a minute ; that is, take in eighteen 
pints of air in one minute of time, or three thousand 
gallons in twenty-four hours. 

On the other hand, the quantity of blood in a com- 
mon-sized man is twenty pints. The heart beats 
seventy times in a minute, and at each beat throws out 
four tablespoons ; that is, two ounces of blood : 
therefore, there passes through the heart, and from 
it through the lungs, an amount of blood every twenty- 
four hours equal to two thousand gallons. 

The process of human lite, therefore, consists in 
there meeting together in the lungs, every twenty-four 
hours, two thousand gallons of blood and three thou- 
sand gallons of air. Good healtn requires this abso- 
lutely, and cannot be long maintained with less than 
the full amount of each ; for such are the proportions 
that nature has ordained and called for. It is easy, 
then, to perceive, that in proportion as a person is con- 
suming daily less air than is natural, in such proportion 
is a decline of health rapid and inevitable. To know, 
then, how much air a man does habitually consume, 
is second in importance, in determining his true condi- 
tion, to no other fact; is a symptom to be noticed and 
measured in every case of disease, most especiallly of 
disease of the lungs; and no man can safely say that 
the lungs are sound and well and working fully, until 
he has ascertained, by actual mathematical measure- 
ment, their capacity of action at the time of the ex- 
amination. All else is indefinite, dark conjecture. And 
I claim for myself to have been the first physician in 
America who made the measured amount of con- 
sumed air an essential element as to symptoms, in 
ascertaining the condition of persons in reference to 
the existence of Consumptive disease, and making a 
publication thereupon. The great and most satisfac- 
factory deduction in all cases being this, that if, upon 
a proper examination, the lungs of any given person 
are working freely and fully, according to the figures of 
the case, one thing is incontrovertibly true, demonstra- 
bly true, that whatever thousand other things may 
be the matter with the man, he certainly has nothing 
like Consumption. And Consumption being considered 
a fatal disease by most persons, there is quite «. wil- 


Rngness to have anything else ; and the announcement 
and certainty that it is not Consumption, brings with it 
;t satisfaction, a gladness of relief, that cannot be 

On the other hand, just in proportion as a person is 
habitually breathing less air than he ought to do, in 
such, proportion he is fallin^fast and surely into a fatal 
disease. This tendency to Consumption can be usually 
discovered years in advance of the actual occurrence 
of the disease ; and were it possible to induce the 
parents of children over fifteen years of age to have 
investigations as to this point in the first place, and then 
to take active, prompt, and persevering measures to 
correct the difficulty, and not one case in a thousand 
need fail of such 'correction, with but little, if any 
medicine, in most instances many, many a child would 
fct prevented from falling into a premature grave, and 
would live to be a happiness -and honor to the old age 
of those who bore them. Persons who live in cities 
and large towns think, and wisely so, that the teeth of 
their children should be carefully examined by a good 
dentist once or twice a year; but to have the con- 
dition of the lungs examined, and, if need be, rectified, 
who ever thought of such a ihing? And yet, as to 
practical importance, it immeasurably exceeds that of 
attention to the teeth. The latter are cared for as a 
matter of personal appearance and comfort : the lungs 
are a matter of life and death. We can live and be 
happy without a tooth, but without lungs we must pre- 
maturely die. Were the condition of the lungs, after 
such an examination as I have suggested, a matter of 
opinion or conjecture only, I would not propose it ; but 
it is not : it is a thing of numerical measurement, of 
mathematical demonstration, as to the one point, Do 
the lungs work freely and fully or not ? If they do 
not, declining health is inevitable, sooner or later, unless 
their activity is restored, which, however, can be done 
in the vast majority of cases. 

While speaking of the health and habits of the 
young, it may be well further to state, that wrong in- 
dulgences debilitate the system ; in time, the mind be- 
comes unable to fix itself upon any subject profitably. 
Exhausting discharges further weaken the energies, 
and idiocy sometimes supervenes, in various forms and 
degrees of epilepsy ; at other times, fatal symptoms of 
Throat-Ail and Bronchitis. (See Trousseau and Belloc.) 

" A youth, aged nineteen, indulged freely for some 
time, and at length began to experience pains about 
the throat. The voice was altered ; shrill at first, then 
entirely lost. Swallowing liquids became impossible. 
He spit up large quantities of matter, and died after a 
year's illness. The lungs, on examination, were en- 
tirely-sound, but the whole throat was ulcerated." 

Throat-Ail and Consumption are diseases of debility, 
and it may be easily supposed that no progress can be 
made towards a cure while causes of debility are in 
operation. This statement is made here- to save the 
necessity, in all cases, of more direct inquiries. If, 
however, there is no personal control, parents may ap- 
ply for their children, and permanent relief be obtained 
without wounding the feelings or self-respect of the 
ailing party, who indeed may be blameless. x 


(851. Sept. 2.) Your lungs are unimpaired ; they 
are in full working order. There is no tendency at this 
time to Consumptive disease. Your ailment is dyspep- 
tic laryngitis, complicated with a slight pleuritic affec- 
tion, and with proper attention you will get well. At 
the same time, it is important for you to know, that 
these throat affections are among the most incurable of 
all diseases when once fully established. This con- 
sideration should induce you to commence at once a 
proper course of treatment, and to persevere in it until 
you are perfectly restored to health. 

Note. — His principal ailment was an uneasy feeling 
in the throat, a frequent' clearing of it, and an almost 
constant pain in the left breast. He wrote me in three 
weeks, that my prescriptions were acting admirably, 
and that he was getting well. 

(852. Sep. 2.) Your ailment is common tubercular 
disease, mainly tending to fix itself on the lungs, and 
nex? on the bowels. Decay of the lungs has not yet 
kegun to take place ; they are becoming inactive, about! 

one-tenth of them doing you no efficient good. There 
is a reasonable probability that the disease may be ar- 
rested at this stage. A return to good health is by nc 
means impossible; it is doubtful. The throat ailment 
is nothing more than what may arise from a dyspeptic 
condition of the stomach, liable to end in tubercular 
ulceration in your case, your lungs being already tuber- 
culated to some extent; the right side slightly more 
than the other. 

Note.— He complained chiefly of spitting blood, cough 
and debility ; had been using cod liver oil for several 
mbnths to no purpose. I have not heard from him 
since giving the opinion. 

(853. Sept. 2.) You have chronic laryngitis, torpid 
liver, lungs acting imperfectly. There is no decaying 
process, no Consumptive disease, and I see no special 
reason why you may not, with judicious treatment, 
recover your health. 

He complained chiefly of husky voice (had to aban- 
don preaching), constipation, and variable appetite. In 
five months he wrote me that he " was able to enter 
upon his pastoral duties," and had been discharging 
them three months. 

(854. Sept. 12.) Your lungs are not in a safe condi- 
tion ; one-third of them are now useless to you. It 
will be necessary for you to use diligent efforts to arrest 
the progress of your disease, and spare no pains in 
doing so. 

Note. — Complains chiefly of spitting blood, cough, 
sore throat, debility. He appears to be getting well 

(855. Sept. 7.) Your disease is common consump- 
tion of the lungs; one fourth of them are doing you 
no good ; a port of them are irrecoverably gone ; there- 
fore, under no circumstances can you be as stout and 
strong as you once were. The decay of your lungs is 
progressing every hour. If that decay is not. arrested, 
you cannot live until spring. Whether that oecay can 
be arrested I cannot tell. It is possible that it may be 
done. It is not my opinion that it can be done. 

Note— -Chief symptoms harassing cough, drenching 
night-sweats, daily expectoration .of blood, constipa- 
tion, irregular appetite, great emaciation and debility, 
could scarcely walk around one square. In three 
weeks he could walk twenty squares in a day without 
special fatigue. Here he ceased very unexpectedly to 
call upon me. Being a favorite child of his father, I 
took great interest in his case. Whether he suddenly 
relapsed and died, or thought he could get along now 
without farther aid from a physician, I do not know. 


"At this time the lungs are untouched by disease ; 
they do not work as free and full as they ought to do, 
but it is impossible that there should be any decay, or 
that they should be tuberculated to any extent. If 
your present weak state of health continues, the sys- 
tem will become so debilitated by winter, and so sus- 
ceptible to impressions from cold, that you will in all 
probability fall into an eventual decline. At this time, 
nothing is the matter with you but symptoms arising 
from a torpid liver and impaired digestion. Your health 
can be certainly restored."' 

Note. — Aged thirty; he had spitting of blood, pains 
in the breast, and other symptoms which greatly 
alarmed himself and- friends, as pointing to settled Con- 
sumption. He got perfectly well with little or no med- 
icine, and remains so to this day. 

On the same day, September 18, a young woman 
came for examination, having walked several squares. 

Opinion. — "You are in the last stages of Consump- 
tion. A large portion of the lungs is utterly gone ; tire 
decay is rapidly progressing, and nothing can arrest ft. 
Death is inevitable before the close of the year." 

Note. — She had a hoarse, loud cough, cold feet, chills, 
no appetite, irregular bowels, difficult breathing on 
slight exercise. I did not prescribe. She died in a 
short time. 

(714.) J. S., married, aged 40, an officer in the Mexi- 
can war, and severely wounded at Cerro Gordo, com- 
plained most of cough, weakness, sweating at night, 
and shortness of breath. Any sudden movement of 
the body or mental emotion produced almost entire 
prostration. Had lost one-ninth of his weight. 

Opinion. — ''Your lungs are in good working order; 
no decay, not an atom ; the yellow matter expectorated 
is a morbid secretion from the windpipe and its 
branches. Your heart is affected ; the calibre of its 
bloodvessels is too small to transmit the blood with 


sufficient rapidity ; hence the fluttering nnd great debil- 
ity ©n any sudden motion or protracted exercise, for 
these but increase the quantity of blood to be conveyed 
away. Your ailments depend on constitutional causes 
to a great extent, and in proportion are capable of re- 

I heard of this gentleman no more for one year, 
when he came into my office a well man in every 
respect, saying that he began to get well in three days 
efter taking the first weekly pill, and thought as he 
was doing so well, there was no necessity of writing. 

A case (988) similar, in some respects, is now under 
treatment : great throbbing of heart and weakness on 
slight exercise ; a violent beating in the temples the 
moment he lays his head on a pillow at night. This 
does not occur when he lies on his back. Frequent 
numbness and pricking sensation in left arm and leg ; 
tosses and tumbles in bed for hours every night before 
he can get to sleep ; great general weakness, and total 
inability to walk ; riding in any kind of a carriage 
over a rough road, often but not always, brings on sick 
headache; has frequent distress at stomach; pulse 
t<ne hundred; much dispirited, and has fallen away 
rjiore than one-sixth. 

Opinion. — "Your ailment is a symptomatic heart af- 
fection, depending now, mainly, on constitutional 
causes, originating in over efforts of mind and body. 
The lungs are sound and well." 

In three weeks he writes, each of the two weekly 
pills brought away large quantities of stuff, yellow as 
yolk of egg, with masses of a colorless, stringy sub- 
stance, and left my bowels regular. I now sleep as 
well as I could wish; very little pain in the side; 
stomach no longer distresses me. I have gained 
strength, but no flesh, and some throbbing yet remains. 

Note. — This man will probably get well if he con- 
tinues to follow the directions as well as at the be- 
ginning. He had been advised to exercise his arms 
and the muscles of his chest a great deal, and was told 
that he must work, and thinking he could accomplish 
both at the same time, and being naturally industrious, 
he began to saw wood for family use during the coming 
winter ; but every day he became weaker and worse, 
until he could scarcely stand up. This being a heart 
affection, every moment of such exercise necessarily 
aggravated the malady.' 

This shows the mischievous effects of taking a 
wrong view of a c^ise and of following the advice of 
every person one meets with. Many persons are ad- 
vised to death. Overconfident advice is the attendant 
of inexperience and ignorance. Jt is forgotten that un- 
paid advisers, being well themselves, do not endanger 
their own lives, in case their recommendations are in- 
efficient, if, indeed, not positively hurtful. Many are 
infatuated with vegetable remedies, taking it for granted 
that they can do no harm, even if they do no good; 
forgetting that in many cases a loss of time is equiva- 
lent to a loss of life, and that the most virulent poisons 
to all nature— those which produce almost instan- 
nneous death— are of vegetable origin, such as nico- 
tine, prussic acid, and the like. 

I. Q,. H., married, aged forty-eight; had a distress- 
ing cough, which, with a severe pain below the point 
of the right shoulder-blade, prevented any refreshing 
sleep. lie arose every morning sweaty, haggard, and 
weary; no appetite, and daily expectoration of large 
quantities of matter. He had fallen off forty-two 
pounds, and was greatly depressed. I informed him 
that his lungs were not diseased, and that there was 
no necessary obstacle to his recovery. His friends 
ihgught he became worse under my treatment, for at 
the end of four weeks he was confined to his bed day 
and night, with frequent rigors and flushes. The pain 
steadily increased, at times aggravated almost beyond 
endurance by a cough, which I thought nothing could 
safely control, and hence gave nothing for it. He 
thought he could not live unless speedily relieved ; his 
relative, a physician, came to remonstrate against my 
"holding out hopes of recovery to a man who was 
evidently sinking with Consumption." I informed the 
patient he was better ; that he would probably need no 
more medicine, and explained to him the reasons for 
such an opinion. In a few days his strength began to 
increase, and he walked out. He left the city soon 
afterwards, and now, at the end of three years, he is 
a hearty, healthy man, weighing upwards of two hun- 
dred pounds, having taken no medicine since he saw 
Eue. I considered his case to be one of great torpidity 
of the liver, with abscess, and treated it accordingly. 

The reader may see by this, how important it is some 
times to know that a case is not Consumption, ana 
also the value of a steady resistance against ignorant 

(July l 23.) "Your lungs are not diseased, nor are 
they even impaired in their. action. There is not onlj 
no Consumption in your cftse, but there is a less ten- 
dency that way than in most persons. You have not 
merely lungs enough for the ordinary wants of the sys- 
tem, but a large amount in reserve. Your whole ali 
mentis a dyspeptic condition, and there is no reason 
why a rational habit of life should not restore you to 
as good health as you have ever enjoyed, without any 
medicine whatever." 

He complained of pain in the breast, large expectora 
tion, voice sometimes husky, and a tightness across the 

(July 23.) " Your lungs at this time are not in a 
satisfactory condition, more than one-sixth of them 
being valueless to you. A portion at the top of the 
right breast has decayed away. Your case is one pre- 
senting all the ordinary symptoms of common Con- 
sumption. It will be altogether impossible for you to 
arrest the progress of your disease if you continue your 
present habits of business (printer). If you pursue an 
out-door calling, and acquire judicious habits of life, it 
is probable that your disease may be arrested, and that 
you may be restored to renewed health." 

Note.— As he had a good appetite, was working daily 
at his trade, and did not feel very bad, he thought it 
not advisable to abandon his calling, and died in three 

(Nov. 8.) "Your lungs are whole, sound, and in 
full working order. There is at present no appearance 
of Consumptive disease. Your ailments arise wholly 
from' general constitutional causes, and may be re- 
moved by proper and rational habits of life and con- 

Note. — He was not satisfied with my opinion ; was 
fully impressed with a belief that he was falling into a 
decline, and insisted upon repeated examination. He 
was a man of wealth, of fortunate social relations, 
and very naturally dreaded death — too much so for a 
man. He observed faithfully the directions given, no 
medicine was advised, and wrote in three months that 
he was as well as he ever was in his life ; his chief 
complaint was an "uneasy sensation about the heart," 
and some "trouble in the throat." 

(Nov. 9.) " Your lungs are not diseased materially 
at this time. They do not work fully, but there is no 
decay. Your ailment is Chronic Laryngitis, of a very 
dangeroiis and aggravated character. It 'is very doubt- 
ful whether you will get well. Something may be done 
for you by a rigid attention to all 'the directions given." 

Note. — He could not speak above a whisper ; swal- 
lowed food with great difficulty and pain. He re- 
mained under the treatment of his family physician, 
and died in seven weeks." 

(849.) " You are suffering under the combined in- 
fluence of dyspepsia and consumptive disease, and 
they mutually aggravate each otheV. One-fifth of 
your lungs are now useless to you. This is a very 
serious deficiency. The extent to which you may be 
benefited, can only be ascertained by attention to 
directions given. Your case is not hopeless, yet it is 
critical and of a very grave character." He died in 
five weeks. He could not or would not control his ap- 
petite, and the author ceased to prescribe, as is his 
practice when instructions are not implicitly followed. 

(Aug. 30.) " All your ailments arise from a want of 
natural proportion between exercise and eating. If 
these were properly regulated, you would get well 
without any other means, as the lungs are sound, 
healthy, and entire. You are too full of blood, and it 
is not healthful ; hence it does not flow freely, but 
gathers about the internal organs, oppressing them and 
giving rise to any number of ailments, constantly 
varying as to character and locality. Make less blood, 
and take more exercise, according to the printed in 
structions given you. and your return to good health 
will be speedy and permanent." 

She complained of pains and oppressions, particularly 
about the chest, tickling cough, &c. I heard no move 
of her for six months, when her husband, a Southern 
planter, called to express his satisfaction, and to say 
that she was in good health, and had been for some 

(Sep. 30.) " Your disease is common consumption of 
the lungs. It began at the top of the right breast, and 


after making some ravages there, it ceased and attacked 
the left, which is now in a state of continued decay. 
It may spontaneously cease on the left side, as it did on 
the right; in that event, life would be preserved for the 
present. Without such an occurrence as just named, 
one-half of the lungs being useless to you, the consti- 
tution usually fails in six or eight weeks, and some- 
times much sooner." She died in six weeks. 

Frail and feeble persons often outlive by half a 
life-time the robust and the strong, because they 
feel compelled to take care of themselves, that is, 
to observe the causes of all their ill-feelings, and hab- 
itually and strenuously avoid them. Our climate is 
changeable, and in proportion unhealthful. In New 
York City, for example, during one week in December 
last, in which the thermometer ranged from five de- 
grees above Zero to fifty-five, there were forty-one 
deaths from inflammation of the lungs, while the 
ordinary number is about fifteen. The healthy 
disregard these changes to a great extent, and perish 
within a few days. The feeble are more sensitive to 
these changes ; they increase their clothing and their 
bedding with the cold, and with equal care diminish 
both, with the amount eaten, as the weather grows 
warmer, and thus long outlive their hardier neighbors. 
These precautions, with others, must all observe, 
through life, who have been cured of an affection 
of the throat or lungs. Let this never be forgotten, for 
the oftener you are re-attacked, the less recuperative 
energy is there in the system, and the less efficient will 
be the remedial means which once cured you, unless 
by months of continued attention and wise observances 
you give the parts a power and a strength they never 
had before. This can be done in many cases. 

But once cured, avoid the causes which first injured 
you. If you put your hand in the fire, you may re- 
store it, but however magical may be the remedy, that 
hand will be burned as often as it is placed in the fire, 
without any disparagement of the virtues of the resto- 
rative. No cure of your throat or lungs will render you 
invulnerable. What caused the disease in the first in- 
stance will continue to cause it as long as you are ex- 
posed to them. No promise is given you of perma- 
nence of cure longer than you are careful of your 
health. The safer plan by far will be to consider your- 
self peculiarly liable to the disease which once an- 
noyed you, and make proportionate endeavors to guard 
yourself habitually against its advances. All assu- 
rances that any mode of cure will afford you a 
guarantee against subsequent attacks, are deceptive. 
No medicine that any man can take in health will pro- 
tect him from disease. There is no greater falsity than 
this, that if you are well, a particular remedy, or drink, 
or medicine, will fortify the system against any speci- 
fied disease, whether cholera, yellow fever, or any 
other malady. So far from this being so, it is precisely 
the reverse. Doubly so ; you are thrown off your 
guard, and in addition you make the body more liable 
to the prevalent malady by poisoning the blood ; for 
whatever is not wholesome food, is a poison to the sys- 
tem, pure water excepted. Nothing, therefore, will 
protect a healthy man from disease but a rational at- 
tention to diet, exercise, cleanliness, and a quiet mind ; 
all else will but the more predispose him to it. But 
when once diseased and then cured, these things are 
not sufficient to keep him well ; he must avoid what 
first made him an invalid, otherwise permanent health 
is not possible, but a speedy relapse and death are in- 
evitable, as to Throat-Ail, Bronchitis, and Consump- 


M. Landouville removed an enlarged tonsil of a 
woman, aged 21. In eight days she had uncontrollable 
spitting of blood, which was constant, besides vomiting 
a large quantity. Small pulse ; extremities cold. The 
danger was imminent. Various means had already 
been adopted in vain ; such as ice externally, styptics 
Eternally; then pressure with lint dipped in lemon 
/uice; but it was at length controlled by pressing ice 
against the spot with forceps. (See Hays 1 Med. Jour., 
October, 1851.) Other cases are given in medical pub- 
lications ; they are not of frequent occurrence, but each 
one operated upon is liable to experience disagreeable 
results. An operation is seldom necessary — not one 
case in twenty. And as in the case above, the 
danger was not over for a week after the operation had 
been performed, other* who have the tonsils taken out 

have cause for a lengthened and most unpleasant sas' 

It must not be forgotten that Throat-Ail is in ver} 
many instances wholly unmanageable, and ends fatally, 
simply from its being thought lightly of, until it has 
produced such a state of general irritation throughout 
the system, that the constitutional stamina is exhaust- 
ed, and the pulse is habitually a fourth, or third, or 
even more, above the natural standard. Most gener- 
ally, such cases go on to a fatal termination, in spite of 
all modes of treatment. This is so uniformly the re- 
sult, that any certain benefit in such cases cannot be 
promised; nor is it just that the general principles of 
treatment should suffer discredit from failure here ; 
they are admirably and uniformly successful when 
ever they are applied in the early stages of the disease 
It is to invoke prompt attention to the first and earliest 
symptoms of Throat-Ail, that pains have been taken 
in these pages to describe them plainly, clearly, and 


The human body is inconstant transition. The par- 
ticles of which its structure is constituted are not the 
same in position and relation for any two minutes in 
succession. Thousands of atoms which compose it the 
present instant are separated from it the next, to make 
a part of it no more ; and other thousands, which are 
a portion of the reader's living self while scanning this 
line, will have been rendered useless and dead on read- 
ing the next. There are two different armies of 
workers, whose occupations cease not from the cradle 
to the grave. One army, composed of its countless mil- 
lions, is building up the body ; the other removes its 
waste; one party brings in the wood and the coal 
for the fire-place and the grate, the other carries 
away the ashes and the cinders ; — the builders and the 
cleansers. When the builders work faster than the 
cleansers, a man becomes fat, and over-fat is a disease. 
When the cleansers are too active, the man becomes 
lean, and wastes away to a skeleton, as in Consump- 
tion. Health consists in the proper equilibrium of 
these workers. 

Every movement of the body, every thought of the 
mind, is at the expense of a portion of the material 
frame; that is to say, certain atoms of the living body 
are killed by every action of the mind, by every motion 
of the body, and being dead, are useless. But they 
must be removed from the body, or these " heaps of 
slain" would fill up the workshop of life, and the whole 
machinery would stand still ; the fire-place would be 
filled with ashes, the furnace clogged with cinders, and 
the grate be useless. Vast masses of these dead atoms s 
are pushed, worked out, or thrown from the body at 
the surface. At any night, on undressing, the clean- 
liest person may rub from the body Countless numbers 
of these dead atoms, a teaspoon-ful of them may be 
gathered from the feet at a single washing, if long ne- 
glected. Hence the value of thorough daily frictions 
to the skin, as promotive of health, because, on an 
average, we all eat about one-third more than is need- 
ed ; thus throwing on the cleansers a third more labor 
every twenty-four hours than they were designed to 
perform. By the frictions we come to their aid arti- 
ficially. They are wise who perform these frictions 
daily and well ; but wiser they by far who do not eat 
the extra one-third, and consequently do not need to 
be scrubbed' and bathed and washed every day of their 
existence, to save them from the effects of over-feed- 
ing. Better eat less and save trouble. The surplus 
third would feed half the poor of the land. 

But a larger portion of these dead atoms are scattered 
in the more interior parts of the body, and the 
cleansers remove them by first rendering them fluid, as 
solid ice or snow is made fluid by heat. It is then, as 
it were, sucked up by these cleansers, and conveyed 
finally to the blood, just at the heart, where they arc 
mingled together and sent direct to the lungs, where 
they meet with the pure air that is breathed. Here an 
exchange takes place between the air and the blood, v. 
The air gives to the blood its oxygen, its life, while the 
blood gives its death to the air. Hence it is that the 
air gives life as it goes into the lungs, but gives death 
if breathed unmixed as it comes from the lungs ; that 
is, if a healthy person were to breathe for three min- 
utes no other air than that which has just come out of 
the lungs of another man, in three minutes he 
would die. Hence my insisting sc much on causing 


Consumptive persons to breaths the largest possible 
amount of pure air; it unloads the blood more per- 
fectly of its dead atoms, and also gives life to the 
essence of food which it also meets in the lungs ; that 
is, puts the. finishing work to its becoming living blood. 

Let us notice next the builders, whose work is to 
supply new and living particles as fast as the old ones 
fall off and die. These new particles are in the blood, 
which delivers its living freight as it flows through the 
body, as a steamer delivers its freight to the thousand 
different ports as it ploughs along the majestic Missis- 
sippi. Whenever a living particle comes to the point 
where it is needed to supply the place of one just 
fallen or dead, by some inscrutable, inexplicable agency, 
is quick as electricity itself, a vesicle, a cell, a little 
boat, as it were, is formed, which floats it to the spot, 
delivers its charge, and bursts and dies, its duty done, 
the object of its creation, having been performed ; — an 
apt type of the whole and living man, who, when the 
great object of his creation is performed on earth, him- 
self passes away in death ; and happy indeed would he 
be, were that work so fully, so well, and so invariably 
done. These little wrecked, these bursted boats, 
have been collected, and ascertained to be made in- 
variably and almost wholly of two materials — phos- 
phorus and lime, which also are constituents of 
the brain itself. This phosphorus and lime are sup- 
plied by what we eat and drink. If we do not eat and 
drink enough, or if what we do eat and drink has not 
enough of these constituents ; or if, again, it is not per- 
fectly digested, then there is not enough of these con- 
stituents to make the necessary boats to freight the 
nutrient particles to their destination ; hence, the man 
wastes away to skin and bone, and dies — not because 
he does not eat, but because what he does eat does him 
little or no good. Especially thus is it in Consumption ; 
a man dies of inanition, or, as physicians say, an error 
of nutrition. 

Consumptive people die for want of strength, want 
of flesh, want of nutriment ; not for want of lung sub- 
stance, as is almost universally supposed. They die, in 
almost every instance, long before the lungs are con- 
sumed, so far as to be incapable of sustaining life. 
Numerous cases are given where men have lived for 
years with an amount of available lungs not equal to 
one-fourth of the whole. They were there, perhaps, 
but not available, not efficient. The majority of 
persons who die of Consumption, perish before a third 
of the lungs have consumed away, in consequence of 
loose bowels, torpid liver, indigestion, night sweats, 
want of sleep, clogging up of the lungs with matter 
and mucus by the daily use of cough drops, balsams, 
tonics, or other destructive agents. These symptoms 
need but be controlled to protect life indefinitely; 
that is to say, if the symptoms were prescribed for 
according to general principles, and properly nursed, 
letting the Consumptive portion of the disease alone, 
it would sometimes cure itself, or at least allow the pa- 
tient to live in reasonable comfort for a number of years. 

The reader may almost imagine that he has a clue to 
the cure of Consumption, if he could but give the 
patient phosphorus a#id lime, or phosphate of lime — 
that is, burnt bones— eight or ten grains, with the first 
mouthful of each meal, so as to let it be mixed with 
the food and carried with it into the blood ; from twenty 
to thirty grains being daily needed in health. The 
scientific world were charmed less than a hundred 
years ago by the discovery of oxygen. It was sup- 
posed that as oxygen was the constituent of the air 
which imparted vitality to the blood, gave it its purity, 
its activity, and filled the man with life and animation, 
nothing was needed but to take enough oxygen 
to purify the blood, and thus strike at the root of 
all disease. Accordingly, the oxygen was prepared and 
administered. The recipient revived, was transported, 
was fleet as the antelope, could run with the wind. He 
smiled, he fairly yelled for joy, and — died, laughing, or 
from over excitement. The machine worked too fast; 
it could not be stopped, and pure oxygen has never 
been taken for health since. 

Thus it will, perhaps, always be with artificial reme- 
dies ; they cannot equal those which are prepared in 
Nature's manufactory. The phosphate of lime, in 
order to answer the purposes of nature, must be elim- 
inated from the healthful digestion of substantial food 
in the stomach, and the only natural and efficient means 
of obtaining the requisite "amount is, to regulate the 
great glands of the system in such a manner as to 
%use the perfect digestion of a sufficient amount of 

| suitable food, gtjF" and this is within the power of the 
I scientific practitioner, in the great majority of cases of 
Consumption, when attempted in its early stages; but 
for confirmed Consumption— that is, when the lung's 
have begun to decay away, it is criminal to hold out 
any promises of cure, or even of essential relief, in any 
given instance. 

It is often stated as disparaging to physicians, that, 
notwithstanding the general increase in knowledge, in 
all departments, and the claim that meulciKe is reduced 
almost to a science, that human life is gradually short- 
ening. There is great reason why men should not live 
so long as formerly. As a nation, we live more lux- 
uriously ; our habits of eating and sleeping have be- 
come more artificial, more irregular. Large numbers 
of people have no regular occupation. Our young 
women are trained in female boarding schools, which, 
witti rare exceptions, are academies of mental, moral, 
and physical depravation ; where novel reading in 
secret, and a smattering of everything in public, with a 
thorough practical knowledge of nothing, is the order 
of the day. From graduation to marriage nothing is 
done to establish the constitution, to make firm the 
health — no instructions given as to how that health 
may be preserved, no active teaching as to household 
duties, no invigorating morning walks, no wholesome, 
elegant, and graceful exercises on horseback. The days 
are spent in eating, in easy lounging, in ceremonial 
visitings, in luxurious dreaminess over sentimental fic- 
tions ; their nights in heated rooms or crowded assem- 
blies of hot and poisoned, if not putrid air. No wonder 
that with educations like these, the girls of our cities 
and larger towns fade away into the grave long before 
they reach the maturity of womanhood. 

Our young men, also, in cities and large towns espe- 
cially, grow up in too many instances without any 
stamina of constitution. Bad practices — dunking, chew- 
ing, smoking, theatre going, secret society gatherings- 
involving late hours, late suppers, late exposures, pri- 
vate indulgences— these destroy the health, deprave 
the morals, and waste the energies of the whole man. 
Many are permitted to grow up without any trade, 
trusting to a wealthy parentage, or political influence, 
or the name of a profession, entered only for show and 
not for practical life. Others grow up as clerks in 
stores, banks, offices, with good salaries it may be ; but 
when the merchant has become a bankrupt, the offices 
failed, the banks broken, the party in power defeated, 
their occupation is gone, their resources are exhausted ; 
they lounge about waiting for a place, the clothes are 
wearing out, the board bill is in arrears, independence 
lost, spirits broken, mind irritated, disposition soured, 
and the first crime' is committed — that of engaging 
board without any certain means of paying, or leaving 
a struggling widow in arrears ; — the proud, the high- 
minded, the well-dressed, courteous, and cheerful-faced 
young man of six months ago has made his first step 
towards degradation, by miking a toiling woman give 
him for nothing the bread and meat which she had , 
earned in toil and sweat, and tears perhaps, and which 
the children of her own bosom needed. When the 
honor is lost, low habits and loss of health and life soon 
follow. Let every young man from the country hesi- 
tate to come to the city to try his fortune, unless he 
have learned well an honest and substantial trade ; then 
he may work his way sternly and steadily to useful- 
ness, influence, and wealth. It is for want of a suitable 
education and occupation that such numbers of our 
young go down to a premature, if not dishonored, grave. 
But notwithstanding these errors as to the education 
and employment of our young men and young women, 
medical writers have been extensively disseminating 
useful knowledge by means of books, pamphlets, lec- 
tures, newspaper articles and the like, in reference to 
the preservation of health in the nursery, the school- 
house, the academy, the college— in factories, work- 
houses, penitentiaries, as to diet, exercise, ventilation, 
drains, sewerages, house-building ; and the general re- 
sult is, that within three hundred years past, the 
average length of human life has been increasing and 
not diminishing. The average age increased two and a 
half years for the twenty years ending 1820 in the United 
States. For the fifty years ending in 1831 in France, it 
increased from 28| years to 31£, notwithstanding the 
devastations of the wars of Napoleon and the French 
Revolution. In London, for the century ending 1828, 
the average age of all who died had increased 4| years. 
In Geneva, 300 years ago, it was 21 years ; it is now 41. 

Europe is computed to have a population of twa 


hundred and thirty millions. Not a hundred years ago, 
Gibbon, the great historian, estimated it at less than 
one-half. This immense increase hastaken place not- 
withstanding the millions who have emigrated to this 
and other countries — notwithstanding, too, the far 
greater drawback, that during a considerable portion of 
the time the most desolating wars were waged that 
were ever carried on there.This can only be accounted for 
by the reforms which medical science has introduced, 
and the more general diffusion of practical knowledge 
as to the preservation and promoiion of health, in pub- 
lications made by eminent physicians and surgeons. 

As, therefore, a higher degree of medical intelligence 
has extended the average of human life— in some 
places fifty per cent., taking all diseases together— it is 
reasonable* to suppose that increased intelligence as to 
one class of diseases would, in the course of time, have 
a like happy effect ; that if more truthful views as to 
the nature, causes, and symptoms of diseases of the 
lungs were extensively promulgated among the people, 
their fearful ravages would be diminished in correspond- 
ing proportion. 

In Idol, the deaths in Boston, from Consumption 
alone, were about thirty.per cent, of the entire mor- 
tality, and the Medical Association announces that it 
" is steadily on the increase from year to year." If this 
is the case in Boston, where such large quantities of 
cod-liver oil have been purely made, and hence more 
easily and cheaply obtained, it presents a striking and 
practical contradiction of its curative powers in Con- 
sumption, and calls upon us in louder and louder tones 
to look less to the cure of this terrible scourge, and 
more to the detection of its early symptoms and its pre- 
vention, by scattering intelligence to every family, and 
on the wings of every wind, as to what are its causes 
and what these early symptoms are. Such is the ob- 
ject of this publication. 

Patent .Medicines are those whose contents are not 
made known. A physician who has any respect for 
himself would scarcely use them, or advise their use. 
It is a universal custom among all honorable practition- 
ers, to communicate to their brethren any valuable dis- 
covery, thus, any one of them is benefited by the dis- 
coveries of all the others : they hold their knowledge 
in common. A remedy discovered to be truly valuable 
in New York to-day, in the cure of any disease what- 
ever, is, in a few months, known wherever the English 
language is read and spoken. Thus thousands, scat- 
tered over the world, whom the discoverer never could 
see, are benefited and blessed by his discovery, through 
the regular practitioner. Smie other person obtains 
this knowledge, prepares the ingredients, disguises 
them with some inert substance, and sells it as a secret 
remedy, leaving those to die, as far as he cares, who 
do not buy from him or his agents ; while thousands of 
others, in other states and countries, perish for the 
want of a knowledge locked up in his bosom. Any 
patent medicine is a cure for a given disease, or it is 
not. If it is not a cure,4.t is false and criminal to sell 
it as a cure. If, on the other hand, it is what it pro- 
fesses to be, it cannot be much better than murder to 
withhold it from those who cannot purchase it, and 
to allow thousands, at a distance, to die from the want 
of it, who never heard of it, or, if they did, live too far 
away to send for it in time. Let those who purchase 
these articles think of the argument, and aid and abet 
no more, by their patronage, those who allow their 
fellow-creatures to die by thousands' every year, who 
would be saved (if what is said be true) by the knowl- 
edge of the remedy whose composition is so carefully 

Many things have been passed over in the foregoing 
pages, which might satisfy the curiosity or interest 
a large class of readers, but it is not necessary that they 
should be known, and if known, might have an in- 
jurious effect, considering the present state of knowl- 
edge on the subject of Consumptive disease ; such, for 
example, a-s stating what symptoms are infallibly fatal* 
what kind of persons, as to sex, temperament, color of 
hair, eyes, skin, make of body, are most liable to it, or 
having it, have less hope of recovery. Tor similar rea- 
sons, I have given but iew fatal cases and their symp- 
toms ; for persons having one or more of these same 
symptoms might conclude that they, too, must die, 
when those same symptoms, in combination with 
others, 'vould indicate a very different result. I do not 
wisn the readei to suppose that I do not lose any 
gases — that few or none die in my hands. I lose pa- 
tient as other ohysjiuans do. I have lost some whom 

I expected would recover. Nor do I wish to make the 
impression, that it is a frequent occurrence that per- 
sons in the advanced stages of Consumption are re- 
stored to comparative health; for it is not a frequent 
occurrence— it is a rare thing.' My object is, first, te 
show what the early symptoms are ; and, second, to in- 
duce the reader to make application to me at this early 
stage, with the fall assurance of my belief, that thus 
one person would not die of disease of the throat or 
lungs where one hundred now do. In truth, I had 
greatly rather that persons in the advanced stages 
would not apply to me ; for it at once involves a de- 
gree of responsibility and solicitude, which is to extend 
through weeks and months, and for which any money 
paid is not the shadow of a remuneration. 

I greatly desire it to be understood that I have 
no magical means of cure. Ailments of the throat 
and lungs are not to be removed by a box or' pills 
or a bottle of balsam. It is not the work of a day, no» 
of a week. These cases often require weeks am 
months of treatment, and of a treatment constantly 
varying, to meet the varying phases of the disease. 
Sometimes it occurs, but not often, that a person writes 
for advice in full, and it is given, and the single pres- 
cription, persevered in, has effected a happy cure, and 
months and years after, such persons have come to see 
me, to express their gratification. At other times, pres- 
criptions are sent, and the persons never heard of after- 
wards. In nearly aliases, these are young people, or 
persons who have no energy of character, no perse- 
verance, no determination. For a few days or a fort- 
night, they give a general attention to the directions, 
and because they are not cured, break off and apply to 
some other physician, to follow the same course, or be- 
come negligent of themselves, and eventually die. It 
is a most hopeless task to attempt to cure any of Throat- 
ail or Consumption who have no energy of character. 
It is time, and trouble, and money lost, as they are not 
diseases to be eradicated in a day, by a drop or a pill. It 
is to be accomplished, if at all, by a determined, thorough 
and persevering attention, for weeks and sometimes 
many months, to rational means, jjlsf calculated to 
build up the constitution, with a decreasing use of med- 
icine and an increasing attention to habits of life. 

Asthma.— I have said but little of this distressing 
disease. It is not often critical or dangerous until ad- 
vanced life. As a general rule, it is incurable. Chil- 
dren who have it, sometimes grow out of it. In some 
women, it often disappears at the turn of life ; in 
others, during the years of child-bearing. A fit of 
asthma, as it is called, generally cures itself, by being 
let alone. An attack is often hastened away by ju- 
dicious means. In persons of a feeble constitution, it 
is liable to come or go any day or hour, and prove fatal 
in marked changes of weather — that is, to very cold, or 
from cold to a warm, heavy, thawy, foggy atmosphere. 
The only proper and efficient method of treatment is, 
to prevent the attack, which can be done in the great 
majority of cases, and for an indefinite length of time. 
The distinguishing symptom is want of breath ; the 
patient feels sometimes as if it would almost kill him 
to speak two or three words ; the necessity of breath 
is so great, fje cannot find time to cough, and represses 
it, lest it should take his breath away. He can neither 
cough, sneeze, spit, nor speak freely. He sits up, 
wheezes, throws his head back, wants the doors and 
windows opened. The attacks generally come on 
towards the close of the day, and pass off about mid- 
night or soon after, when the cough becomes loose, and 
large quantities of a substance more or less yellow, 
pearly, and tenacious, are expectorated ; urination be- 
comes copious, and the patient recovers, to be attacked 
in the same way night after night, until the v/olence of 
the disease is expended, and recovery takes place; or 
if these ameliorations do not occur about midnight, the 
case is aggravated, and the patient dies in a few hours. 
This disease is treated more at length in the large ed- 
ition. 'It is certain, that in a vast number of cases, 
whether hereditary or accidental,' the attacks can b8 
indefinitely warded off by proper care and habits of 
fife, if the constitution is not much broken. 

Many a lovely child is destroyed in a single night by 
this alarming disease. Its nature is described in the 
First Part. It is a disease of the windpipe, which is 
filled or lined with a phlegm, which becomes more and 
more tough, almost leathery— thickens, and at length 
closes up the passage to the lungs, and the child dies. 


It usually comes on in the night. The distinguishing 
symptom is a wheezing, barking cough. A mother 
who has ever heard it once, needs no description to 
enable her to recognise it again. The first born are 
most likely to perish with it ; simply because the 
parent has no experience of its nature, and hence is 
not alarmed in time, or knows not what to do, while 
the physician is being sent for. In the hope of being 
instrumental in saving some little sufferer, whose life 
is inexpressibly dear, at least to one or two, I will make 
some suggestionsr-not for the cure of the patient, but 
to save time. The instant you perceive that the child 
has Croup, indicated by the barking Cough, uneasy 
breathing, restlessness, send for a physician, and as 
instantly wrap a hot flannel around each foot, to keep 
it warm ; but while the flannels are being heated, dip 
another flannel, of two or more thicknesses, in spirits 
of turpentine, or spirits of hartshorn ; or have a large 
mustard plaster applied, one that will reach from the 
top of the throat down to some two inches below the 
colla* bones, wide enough at top to reach half-way 
round the neck on either side, and nearly across the 
whole breast at bottom. But it will take time to send 
for a physician, to prepare flannels, and to make the 
plaster or obtain the turpentined flannel, and in some 
cases fifteen minutes is an age — is death, if lost ; there- 
fore, while these things are preparing, give the child, 
if one year old or over (and half as much, if less), 
about half a teaspoon-ful of Hive Syrup, and double 
the dose every fifteen minutes until vomiting is pro- 
duced ; and every half hour after vomiting, give half 
as much as caused the vomiting, until the physician 
comes, or the child ceases to cough, when he breathes 
free, and is safe. If you have no Hive Syrup, give a 
leaspoon-ful of Syrup of Ipecac, and double the dose 
•very fifteen minutes until vomiting is produced. If 
you have been so thoughtless as to have nothing at all, 
boil some water, keep it boiling, dip a woolen flannel of 
*everai folds into it, squeeze it out moderately with 
our hand, and apply it as hot as the child can possibly 
Oear to the throat, and in from one to three minutes, ac- 
cording to the violence of the symptoms, have another 
to put on the instant the first is removed, and keep 
this up until the breathing is easy and the cough is 
loose and the phlegm is freely discharged, or until the 
arrival of the physician. 

1 wish to impress upon the reader's mind a few dis- 
connected subjects. Consumption most generally 
comes on by a slight cough in the morning, about the 
time of rising or first stirring about. The existence of 
tubercles in the lungs is not necessarily fatal ; they 
remain dormant for a life-time, unless irritation or in- 
flammatory action is excited by bad colds neglected, or 
exhausting habits or diseases, or debilitating occurren- 
ces, or toasting indulgences. These things throw more 
persons into fatal Consumption than are destroyed by 
the hereditary form of the disease; and these should 
be, as they can in very many instances, safely rem- 

The following recipes are frequently referred to:— 

How to Toast Bread.— Keep the bread a proper dis- 
ance from the fire, so as to make it of a straw color. 
It is spoiled if it is black, or even brown. . 

Toast Water. — Take a slice of bread about three 
inches across and four long, a day or two old. When 
it is browned, not blackened, pour on it a quart of 
water which has been boiled and afterwards cooled. 
Cover the vessel, and after two hours, pour off the 
water from the bread gently. An agreeable flavor 
may be imparted by putting a piece of orange or lemon 
peel on the bread at the time the water is first poured 
on the bread. 

Barley Water. — Take two tablespoons of pearl bar 
ley, wash it well in cold water, then pour. on it half a 
pint of water, and boil it fifteen minutes; throw this 
water away, then pour on two quarts of boiling water, 
•and boil down to a pint; then strain it for use. An 
ounce of gum arabic dissolved in a pint of barley water 
is a good demulcent drink. 

Flax-seed Tea.— Take an ounce or full table-spoon 
ef flax seed, but not bruised, to which may be added 
two drams of bruised liquorice root; pour on a pint of 
boiling water, place it covered near the fire for four 
tours, strain through a cotton or linen rag. Make it 
fresh daily. 

Tamarind Whey. — Two tablespoon-fuls of tamarind, 
stirred in a pint of boiling milk ; then boil for fifteen 
minutes, and strain. 

Wine W hey.— Take a pint of milk, put it on the fire ; 

as soon as it begins to boil, pour on eight or ten 
spoons of Madeira wine, in which has been stirred two 
teaspoons of brown sugar ; stir the whole until it ha* 
been boiling tor fifteen minutes : then strain through a 

Boiled Flour and Milk. — Take a pint of flour ; make 
it into a dough ball with water; tie it tightly in a 
linen bag; put it into a pan of water, covering the 
ball, and let it boil ten hours ; place it before the fire 
to dry, cloth and all; take it out of the cloth, remove 
the skin, dry the ball itself. Grate a tablespoon of this, 
and stir it into a pint of boiling milk, until a kind of 
mush is formed. 

Boiled Turnips. — Small turnips boiled make one of 
the best articles of food which invalids and convales- 
cents can use. Carrots may be added ; half and half. 
Boil them once; repeat the boiling in fresh water 
until they are quite soft; press the water out through 
a coarse cloth ; then mix enough new milk to form a 
kind of pulp; season with salt, and then place them 
before the fire until it is a little dry or crusted. 

Beef Tea. — Cut into thin slices a pound of lean meat, 
pour on a full quart of cold water, let it gradually 
warm over a gentle fire; let it simmer half an hour, 
taking off the skum ; strain it through a napkin. Let 
it stand ten minutes, then pour off the clear tea. 

Cracked Wheat.— Dry some common wheat, then 
grind it in a coffee mill; boil it three or four hours; 
add a little salt, a little milk, butter, cream, or molasses 
may be added, as in using homminy. It should be 
always washed clean, and then boiled long enough to 
become of the consistence of boiled rice or homminy. 
A pint of wheat dried and grounnd is enough, for a 
day ; not to be used for supper. 

Dandelion Diet Drink. — Take three ounces of the 
bruised root of the dandelion flower, which should be 
gathered in July, August, and September; pour on a 
quart of water, boil it to a pint, and strain it. 
60 Drops make one Teaspoon. 

4 Teaspoons " ■ one Tablespoon. 

2 Tablespoons " one Ounce. 
2 Ounces •' one Wine-glass. 

2 Wine-glasses " one Gill or Teacnp. 
4 Gills " one Pint. 

I greatly desire that nothing I have written should 
excite unreasonable expectations as to the speediness 
of cure of the diseases treated of; they come on slowly, 
are sometimes for years gathering force in the system, 
and hence it is unreasonable to suppose that they are 
to be eradicated except by energetic treatment, 
long-continued, unless attended to in their very first 
stages. The patient, page 107 top of second column, 
expressed himself as being cured in two days: — it was 
three months before every remnant of disease seemed 
to have left his throat. Remember this, if no other 
sentence — attend at once to the first morning cough, oi 
frequent hawking, hemming, swallowing, or want of 
clearness of voice of two weeks' continuance ; other- 
wise, in nine cases out of ten, a fatal Consumptior 
will be the result. 

40 Irvino Placs, New York. 




It is not possible to supply a pure warmth by any furnace 
ever invented, unless it simply heats water or air, out of which 
is given the caloric necessary to make a dwelling comfortable. 
But warming houses by steam, hot water, or hot air, costs, for 
an ordinary residence, about eight hundred dollars, which 
makes it impracticable — places this luxury wholly beyond four 
fifths of all the households in the land. That the heat which 
comes from any furnace through an ordinary register, although 
the coals are red-hot, is a sickening stench, can be demonstrated 
any moment in a winter's day ; it is sending into a room an in- 
cessant stream of air, almost wholly divested of its oxygen, 
which is the element for which alone air is breathed at all ; nor 
is this all — the oxygen has not only been abstracted, but sul- 
phureted hydrogen and carboneted hydrogen, which are 
among the most noisome smells in nature — that of rotten eggs — • 
replace the oxygen ; and that such an atmosphere, steaming into 
our parlors, and dining-rooms, and chambers, can not be other- 
wise than most pernicious to health, only but an idiot can deny. 
Every year new patents are coming out, claiming to meet the 
failures of-their predecessors, proving conclusively that all pre- 
vious ones have been signal and lamentable failures. 

It may be a more potent and convincing argument against 
the pestiferous effects of furnace heat, at least in the minds of 
some, that it ruins the furniture and the woodwork of all 
buildings into which it is introduced. 

Open wood-fires, the most cheery and delightful of all modes 
of house-warming, are too expensive, and are exceedingly 
troublesome. The common open grates for coal are the next 
best, but they fail to give a comfortable heat in the coldest 
weather; they fail to keep the feet warm, which is the most 
important part of the body to be kept agreeably heated; and, in 
addition, the very instant the coal in the grate is touched, the 
whole room is filled with a fine dust, which settles on the paint- 
ings, the furniture, the carpets, and the very clothing in the 
drawers, making dingy the most polished surfaces, scratching 
the furniture and the gilding, and grinding out the carpets by 
the flinty dust. 


But there is a method of warming houses, cheaper than 
grates and more efficient, giving almost none of their dust; 
incomparably less troublesome than wood-fires, while the heat 
is just as genial and quite as pure ; the fire needs replenishing 
but once a day, jaever requires a poker, if properly attended to ; 
gives very little dust, keeps the feet warm, and keeps before 
the eyes the cheery sight of a broad bed of burning, glowing 
coals. In short, it is a plan for warming houses, which has 
never, in all its points, been surpassed — has never been equaled. 
It is Dixon's low-down grate. It is believed that there is 
scarcely a single educated physician in Philadelphia, who owns 
the house he lives in, who is not supplied with one or more 
of these delightful luxuries. They cost from twenty-five 
dollars each and upward, and are placed in stead of an ordinary 
.fireplace or grate in the course of a few hours. 

Three fourths of the heat of a grate or fireplace goes up the 
chimney, and is wasted. Dixon's Philadelphia low-down grate, 
by a moderate extra expense, can be so arranged that all the 
ashes are conveyed into the cellar, and the otherwise wasted 
heat is saved to a considerable extent, and conveyed into the 
rooms above ; hot the heat of burning coals, but air is brought 
from out-doors, carried behind the chimney -back, heated with- 
out coming in contact with the coals, and is conveyed into the 
room above by an ordinary register, not in a sulphurous odor, 
but simply in the shape of pure air warmed, which is of ines- 
timable value for sitting-rooms, chambers, and nurseries. "We 
had one of these admirable contrivances put in our house in 
1859, and every additional year only increases our appreciation 
of the luxury. This notice has been written without the know- 
ledge of the manufacturer, and will surprise him as much as 
any one of our readers ; but it would add so much to the health 
of families, both in town and country, whether they burn soft 
coal, anthracite, or common wood, for it is adapted to the con- 
sumption of any kind of solid fuel, that we feel constrained to 
bring it thus prominently forward, and the more fearlessly 
because we know whereof we affirm. To save us the expense, 
time, and trouble of answering letters of inquiry, our readers 
will please address T. W. Dixon, 1324 Chestnut street, Phila- 
delphia, 6r his agents, Mead & Woodward, 37 Park Kow, New- 
York City. 



The very name brings with, it associations of the sweetest, 
dearest, tenclerest kind ; it makes ns think of sisters in the far 
past, whose voices have long since been hushed in death, and 
have gone upward to strike the strings of immortality; of 
daughters in their youth and beauty and loveliness ; of home 
with all its affectionate and refining and elevating influences. 
In fact, we can scarcely think of a home without a piano. 
How it binds a family together ! keeping the girls from the 
contaminations of the theater and the ball-room, and the boys 
from the street and the negro minstrelsy ; cultivating a taste for 
all that is pure and gentle and loving, and, to that extent, 
throwing a barrier around the young ; guarding them against 
the indulgence of vicious propensities and intemperate habits ; 
implanting in their minds a lofty looking-down on low associa- 
tions, and the companionship of the reckless, the dissolute, and 
the unrestrained. It is well then to know of an instrument 
which, has such high social influences, that its value, more than 
that of any other musical instrument, depends on the quality of 
its tone, which, in turn, owes its perfection to one mechanical 
point, in reference to which that very valuable paper, recog- 
nized the world over as authority in the mechanic arts, The 
Scientific American says, under the head of the " Use and 
Abuse of the Piano-Forte " : 

" The great desideratum aimed at, by the best manufacturers 
of pianos, is to make them stand in tune well, for unless they 
succeed in this respect, the quality of tone or beauty of finish 
they may impart to their pianos is comparatively of little value, 
To attain this desirable object, therefore, is the principal aim of 
our best makers ; but few, however, succeed, and we will briefly 
state the reason. The steel pins that hold the wires of a piano 
are driven into a solid block of wood, and in order that this 
wood may retain a firm hold of the pin, and yet admit of its 
being turned by the hammer of the tuner, not only is great 
care and skill necessary in regard to the fitting of these pins, 
but it is absolutely requisite that the wood forming the \ pin- 
block ' should be of the very best seasoned material. Now this 
1 seasoned ' wood is best when prepared by out-door seasoning 

14A hall's journal of health. 

instead of by artificial means ; but unfortunately this former 
method requires considerable capital to admit of so much dead 
stock, as it were, lying by. This large capital but few manu- 
facturers have, and the result is, they have to use heat-dried 
wood, and the majority place wood thus seasoned in their 
pianos that will not stand the action of the hot-air furnaces in 
such general use in private houses. The consequence in such 
cases can be readily foreseen, the result being that a year or 
two's use so shrinks up the wood of the pin-blocks of those 
pianos in which this half-seasoned stuff is used, that the pins 
move in the block from every hard blow on the wires, and 
hence the piano will not stand in tune.' 

" So much for the injurious effects of this artificial heat on a 
piano, as far as its standing in tune is concerned. In reference 
to its effect on the l action ' of a piano, namely, the keys and 
machinery for striking the wires, the result is, that the heat 
warps the keys, loosens the hold of the great number of screws 
used in an action, in the wood, and thereby causes the keys to 
stick or rattle, as the case may be. Now, how to obviate these 
evils is the question, and the answer is, in the first place, only 
to purchase those pianos that are made of thoroughly seasoned 
wood, and of the best quality of materials generally, for such 
only are the cheapest pianos, no matter what their first cost may 
be; and, secondly, to keep your piano as much from the influ- 
ence of the hot air of your house furnace as possible, for it in- 
jures the best made pianos, and almost renders those of inferior 
quality useless." 

Some years ago we drew attention to this fact of the proper 
seasoning of the timber, as the reason why the Worcester piano 
gave out the same sweet musical tones at the end of fifteen years' 
constant family usage as on the day it came from the manufac- 
turer's ware-rooms. Every piece of wood connected with the 
keys and strings was, at that early day, in Mr. Worcester's es- 
tablishment, subjected to a seasoning process for from two to six 
years; hence they had a reputation in the damp climate of the 
South and the West-Indies not equaled by those of any other 
manufacturer in the land. Many piano -makers have failed be- 
cause they had not the means, the time, and the high moral 
principle to procure the best materials ; hence no one family 
ever made a second purchase ; no father, having bought one for 


his own use, made a present of another to his newly married 
daughter. Such men ought to fail. Worcester never failed. 
His extensive establishment was never shut up for an hour by 
a strike, for he early and always made it a practice to employ 
the very best hands, and he wisely concluded that they de- 
served the very best wages, and the very best he always 

The Worcester piano, so superior before, is absolutely peer- 
less now by a patented improvement — the maker's own discov- 
ery — which so lengthens the tones of the instrument as to 
excite the astonishment and admiration of the very best of liv- 
ing performers, who have enthusiastically testified as to this 
point. Grottschalk does not hesitate to say that a hundred per 
cent is added to the volume of the tone by means of Worces- 
ter's hinged plate improvement ; and Pattison, and Timm, and 
Maretzek, and Stein, and Mason, and Sanderson, and a long 
list of the most celebrated performers and most accomplished 
teachers join in the testimonial. As this important improve- 
ment is peculiar to Worcester's pianos, parents who are anxious 
to have the very best article for tbeir children will obtain these 
unrivaled instruments in preference to all others, esjDecially as 
they are afforded on as liberal terms as at other first-class 
establishments, with the additional most important advantage 
that the care and time and money spent in most manufactories 
in New- York, Philadelphia, and Boston in making a flash ap- 
pearance, irrespective of any inherent utility, are given at Wor- 
cester's to the substantial and lasting finish of the instrument. 


The American Tract Society, No. 150 Nassau street, New- 
York, is issuing several volumes exceedingly appropriate to 
the times, as their several titles will indicate : u United States 
Primer," eighty-four pages, 12mo. " Advice to Freedmen," 
by Eev. J. W. Brinkerhoff, sixty-four pages, paper cover, clos- 
ing with fourteen beautiful hymns. Tens of thousands of both 
these little volumes should be circulated. " I wish I was Poor," 
a story for little girls. "The Weed with an 111 Name" is a most 
instructive and suggestive little book for all classes of persons ; 

146 hall's journal of health. 

it is full of life-lessons, and wisest are they who learn them 
earliest. " Soldiers and Soldiers' Homes," a vest-pocket book 
bj Mrs. Phelps. We earnestly wish every one of our soldiers 
could be presented with one. " The Anglo-American Sabbath," 
by the Eev. Philip Schaff, DJD., read before the National Con- 
vention, at Saratoga, August 11th, 1863. Where the holy 
Sabbath is best observed, there are the best, the most law-abid- 
ing individuals in all climes ; the happiest families, the most 
prosperous communities, and the greatest and noblest nations 
of all ages; and they who labor for the better observance of 
the Sabbath-day, with the greatest intellects, do more for a 
nation's radical good than the greatest generals. 

Business Success.— The Messrs. Scott & Baldwin, No. 505 
Broadway, New- York, owe their success to the steady observ- 
ance of a few general business principles, which, if carried out 
uniformly among mercantile and other buyers and sellers, would 
insure success in almost every case, and would prevent an 
amount of human sorrow and destitution which no array of 
figures could intelligibly express to the human understanding.; 
it would shut the door against falsehood and other human 
meannesses, which in amount would be utterly incalculable ; 
and, if this article should lead a tithe of our readers to resolve 
upon the adoption of the business methods about to be stated, 
we shall consider that we have lived to no small purpose in our 
da}^ and generation. 

Many years ago the gentlemen above referred to began busi* 
ness together, and so have amicably and pleasurably continued 
to the present hour, never having made even an approach to a 
" failure," never having had occasion, in any of the commercial 
crises which have, like a ruthless tornado, swept thousands oi 
our most active and wary merchants into hopeless bankruptcy, 
been under the necessity of asking even " an extension." 

1. They began with' the inflexible determination never to 
purchase what they could not conveniently pay for on the 

SDOt. ; 

2. Never to ask or give credit for any article pur- 

3. Never to abate a penny on any article offered for sale. 



4. Never to sell an article which, was not, in all respects, 
what the j claimed it to be. 

5. Never to give short change or of a kind inferior to the 
note offered. t 

6. Never to allow a clerk to remain an hour who should ex- 
hibit the slightest discourtesy or want of patience to any cus- 
tomer for any cause. 

Here are six business rules which are worthy of being com- 
mitted to memory by every youth in the nation who has an 
ambition to become a successful business man. 

We are sure that any of our readers who have occasion to 
"deal with the gentlemen above yarned will find it both pleasur- 
able and profitable. 

" The People's Journal of Health " is a comely -looking 
monthly from Chicago, Illinois, at one dollar a year, edited by 
Drs. Hayes and Blackall. We welcome it as a co-laborer with 
us in the great cause of instructing the people as to the best 
method of keeping vrelL • This third number of Yol. I., the 
first which reaches us, abounds in good things, written wisely 
and well. We wish every State could have its own Journal 
of Health, ably conducted ; the tendency would be to promote 
a taste for this kind of reading, with the inevitable effect of 
largely increasing our own subscription-list. We believe that 
there is a plenty of room on this " mundane sphere " for every 
body ; for every brother, laboring in a good cause, to flourish 
and prosper. ' 

We are glad to notice The American Artisan and Patent 
Kecord, published weekly, at two dollars a year, by Brown, 
Coombs & Co., No. 212 Broadway, New-York. v Mr. Brown 
was in the office of our -particular pet, the Scientific A?nerican, 
for many years, and helped to make that unequaled paper the 
great success it is. We hope that the Artisan will merit and 
attain the success and high character of the Scientific without 
the least prejudice to the latter; but if Mr. Brown ever gets in 
sight or hailing distance of Mr. Munn, he will have to keep 
wide awake, for the " Scientific " has the start, has the inside 
track, and a bottom which can't be knocked out ! 

American Tract Society, Boston, No. 28 Cornhill, and No. 
13 Bible House, New- York, have issued " New Stories from an 

148 hall's jouenal of health. 

old Book," 216 pages, with illustrations. " Walter Lightfoot's 
Pictures," 180 pages, by Mrs. H. E. Brown. " The Gospel 
among the Oaffres, or the Story of Rev. Mr. Moffat, and his 
Labors in South- Africa," 284 pages. " Ancient Egypt, its An- 
tiquities, Eeligion, and History to the Close of the Old Testa- 
ment Period," 'by the Rev. George Trevor, M.A., Canon of 
York, 400 pages. The first two volumes are specially adapted 
to secure the attention of children, and to inculcate sound, prac- 
tical principles ; the last two are of very great value as veri- 
table histories, and would be important additions to any library, 
public or private. 

The whole country owes a very great deal to the energy, en- 
terprise, and judgment of the managers of the Boston American 
Tract Society, and the money spent at its rooms is not only a 
personal benefit to the purchaser, but places means in the hands 
of the Society of extending its beneficent operations to all lands. 

" The Union Monthly and Journal of Health and Education," 
a dollar monthly, Philadelphia, Pa., edited by Wm. M. Cornell, 
M.D., LL.D. Dr. Cornell is a veteran in the science and practice 
of medicine. The public are familiar with his contributions to 
the press, which are "uniformly sound in principle, safe in prac- 
tice, and always of a high moral tone. We wish him a great 

To Farmers. — That very excellent agricultural weekly, 
"The Country Gentleman," begins a new volume with July, 
$2.50 a year, Albany, N". Y. It has been conducted with great 
ability for many years, and any farmer's family can not fail to 
be benefited many times its subscription price, if it is carefully 
and habitually read, and its suggestions as to the most certain 
and profitable modes of managing all that pertains to the farm 
are attended, to. It is a most miserable economy not to take 
some agricultural publication. Certainly no farmer of intelli- 
gence, thrift, and influence would do without one, at five times 
the present cost. , 


Vol. XI. 

AUGUST, 1864. No. 8. 


The true method of renovating the health and invigorating 
the constitution is for gentlemen, scholars, clerks, and others of 
sedentary occupation, to travel on foot through mountainous, 
regions, camp out, fish, hunt, botanize, or with hammer and 
satchel read the "rocks " of every locality through which they 
pass. Ladies should eschew the luxurious carriage-trunks of 
warehouse size, and skirts forty yards in circumference, and in 
the old-time " riding habit " ride on horseback over the hills 
and far-away. A week thus spent is worth more than a month's 
sojourn at the spa or the sea-side, where the daily routine is but 
a succession of alternate loungings, gluttonies, late suppers, and 
midnight revelry. The best time is not during the sweltering; 
heats and suffocating dusts of summer, but the cool and brac- 
ing autumn. The following description of a friend, of a, ram- 
ble in the Green Mountains of Vermont is timely. Some with 
more leisure might spend a few months among the u Japs," ' 
or other peoples little known. Let us, then, tc in, the mind,"" 
take a stroll by the side of the " daffodil meadows," by the 
brink of of the birchen-shadowed and rock-fretted stream,,, that 
" bathes the green woods in freshening spray -mist ;" over the 
breezy mountains, redolent with the healthful; perfume of the 
fir, the spruce, and the pine. 

If you seek such scenes, gentle reader,, go to Northern Vermont — 
" the Switzerland of America," a region not much trodden by the 
footsteps of Cockney tourists and pleasure-seekers, but abounding 
in scenery of such variety as to meet the requisitions of every shade 
of taste and fancy; streams rushing, in "fury and foam," down 
the hills, and hurrying away through pleasant vallies, to join " la 
belle riviere," the beautiful Connecticut ; Jakelets, nameless, because 
numberless, reposing "serene as the Sabbath, and bright as a holy 
day," in the shadow of the hills ; mountains of every grade and hue, 
rock-ribbed and forest-crowned, from" those of humble name, up to 
that magnificent range from which the State- appropriately receives 
its appellation. 

Near the village of Brookford, in Orange county, is- # singular con- 
ical eminence, standing, like "The Peak of Teneriffe, alone in solitary 


grandeur," called " Wright's Mountain." Allured by the descrip- 
tion of the fine view from its summit, I undertook the ascent, in 
company with a friend, a task attended with some difficulty, owing 
to the fact that its sides are extremely precipitous, and the total 
absence of any path, at least, any that we could discover. Encou- 
raged, however, by the extreme enthusiasm of my companion, who, 
leading the way, forcibly reminded me of the picture of Christian 
ascending the hill " Difficulty," on which I used to gaze with ex- 
treme delight, in an old copy of " Pilgrim's Progress " which I 
thumbed when a child ; his untiring perseverance and exhaustless 
ingenuity in surmounting obstacles, in the form of enormous over- 
hanging rocks, every moment threatening ruin, like the stone of 
Tantalus, steep as the sides of a church ; his free use of the motto 
" Excelsior," and assurances oft-repeated, that we were near the 
summit, that the desired eminence was .at length gained ; when, un- 
like most who climb such giddy heights, we were amply repaid for 
all our toil. On the South, and contiguous to the base of the moun- 
tain, flowed the sparkling waters of Wait's River, a monstrous 
misnomer, by the way, for a more rapid hurrying little spirit of a 
stream is nowhere to be found beyond the silver line of its waters, 
a landscape of great beauty and variety, terminated by the " purple- 
rim " of the White Mountains. 

On the east, the ever lovely Connecticut, dotted, as to its banks, 
with picturesque villages that are the exclusive'glory of New Eng- 
land, beyond the "Franconia Range," prominent among these, 
" Moose Hillock," with its scarred sides and wooded back ; far 
beyond, the ever-present glory of the famous Mount Washington ; 
north, another variegated landscape, dotted with farms whose 
fields from this elevation appeared like the beds of a carefully culti- 
vated garden ; with the appropriately named " Blue Mountains " of 
Ryegate in the back ground ; eastward, the " Orange Hills," com- 
pelled to assume this humble appellation in presence of their more 
dignified neighbors, the Green Mountains beyond. 

Amid all this limitless variety of hill and valley, mountain and 
plain, straying streamlets and rolling rivers, my eye rested with 
peculiar interest upon one spot — a house, a barn, an orchard, a 
brook — that was all! these, but dimly distinguished at the distance 
of several miles, the home of my childhood, the parent nest from 
which I had wandered long years ago. That dim streak, is the road 
that -my "baby footsteps" trod to the "village school;" there are 
the rocks where I climbed, the hills yet radiant with the dreams 
of youth ; from the waters of that crystal brook, on a well-remem- 


bered evening, when dark storm-clouds were gathering, and mutter- 
ins: thunderings were heard in the distant west, with an enthusiasm 
that Christopher North himself might have envied, were the first, 
most "beautiful, and prized of * trout lured to their doom by the 
youngest of old Izaak Walton's disciples ! — trivial things, but just 
such as the flood of years cannot efface, while they bear with them 
perhaps, much of higher importance. What wonder, if with these 
scenes mingled other forms, some of whom " remain until this pre- 
sent, but the greater part have fallen asleep." Nor, in their ab- 
sence, can the coming years bring such joys as' those of the past 
have borne away ! But the train I what, of thought ? — no, of cars! 
We must hurry down, only looking at " The Sybil's Cave," a wild, 
wierd place, amid rocks all tumbled about in admirable disorder, 
which Blair pronounces one of the elements of the sublime; in at 
one opening, through a dark window passage, up and out at another, 
suggestive of wolves and bears, who doubtless once revelled in these 
halls, long since abandoned for more remote retreats. 

In the county of Orleans, the hills are not quite so steep or rugged 
as those of Orange, consequently the scenery is scarcely so striking 
and picturesque, although quite equal in views of both the great 
mountain ranges : indeed, through all this region, almost every turn 
of the road presents a landscape worthy of the pencil of a Turner, 
or the pen of a Ruskin. This portion of the State abounds in large 
" granite boulders," a species of which, the " spotted granite of 
Craftsbury," is peculiar to this region, and of great interest to the 
scientific. In the town of Westborough, on the farm of Mr. Waugh, 
is to be seen one of these huge boulders, twelve feet in length and 
nine in height, weighing, according to measurement, eighty tons, 
resting upon the outer edge of another of much greater dimensions, 
and so nicely poised that the effort of a single man is sufficient to 
move it through an arc of several inches, while the combined force 
of a large party with levers and other appliances of power, was 
insufficient to move it out of its place. . i 

As I swayed the huge mass to and fro, with a single hand, I could 
not but wonder how it came there, and wish that, since there are 
said to be " sermons in stones," that this one had a tongue to tell 
its history perfectly, sure that a few words would throw more light 
upon the mystery of Creation, than all that geologists have ever 
written. The clerical friend who was with me, curious in the doc- 
trine of chances, was soon immersed in the calculation of the num- 
ber against this stone being found precisely in this situation ! the 
solution was not reached when we parted. Another, weighing fifty 


tons, and in a similar position, stands near by, placed there by the- 
same power ; but whether by the throes of the same convulsion, 
who can tell? s . 

Passing by many objects of beauty and interest, we come to the 
crowning glory of this region, " Willoughby Lake," a most roman- 
tic little tarn, reposing calmly in the embrace of two giant hills 
which rear their rugged heights two thousand feet upon either side 
—itself some five or six miles in length, from one to two in breadth— 
to the hill on the left, they have given the name " Mount Hor," to 
that upon the right, " Mount Pisgah." 

We approached the upper or eastern end of the lake, just as the 
sun was setting behind Mount Hor, and shedding his last beams 
upon the summit of Pisgah ; it required no great effort of the ima- 
gination to transform the distant landscape that was discovered at 
the foot of the vista formed by the mountains, into " the land that 
lies beyond the flood ;" the dome-like dress of Owl's Hood, distinctly 
visible at the distance of forty miles, into one of* the " everlasting 
hills;" this flood of fight that was poured upon the sky, and bathed 
these mountain summits, into the " celestial glory " of that city that 
has no need of the sun, for there is no night there. 

A night's rest in the very comfortable " Lake House," and a 
capital breakfast, of which the chief attraction was those incompara- 
ble trout which abound in the lake and the streams of the neigh- 
borhood, prepared me for the ascent of Pisgah, and the enjoyment 
of the scene from its summit. 

A walk of some two miles, by no means excessively steep or diffi- 
cult, conducts to the top of the mountain. If the view yields in 
magnificence to that which greeted the vision of Moses as his eye 
swept the glories of the promised inheritance from " the top of Pis- 
gah that is over against Jericho," I can well conceive that his soul 
would be filled with sadness at the thought that he " could not 
enter in." 

Mount Washington and his fellows, Cornel's Hump, Jay Peak, 
Nose and Chin, and Owl's Head, with the glassy surface of Mem- 
phremagog at his base, all in full view; the country spread out like 
a map before us far as the eye could reach, dotted with villages and 
sown with small lakes that flashed like transparent glass in the rays 
of the morning sun. 

A descent of a few hundred feet brings to the extreme verge oi 
a cliff that overhangs the lake, at an elevation of twelve hundred 
feet, and apparently so directly above, that a single step would 
measure the horizontal distance. Though not much inclined to 


enthusiasm, here I must confess myself overcome with mingled 
emotions of awe and sublimity. The immense height, the tremen- 
dous chasm, with the lake at the bottom, the wooded slopes and 
sides of Mount Hor, rising like a wall of emerald beyond a landscape 
such as I have attempted to describe, all combine to form one of the 
most sublime scenes, certainly, to be met with in the limits of our 

In the evening, accompanied by two or three pleasant compa- 
nions, we went out upon the lake for the purpose of hearing the 
famous Echo. When we had rowed between one and two miles, 
and were near the base of the left-hand mountain, our oarsman 
blew a loud blast with a shell ; rolling in loud reverberations, until 
we distinctly counted the sixth repetition, it died away in the far 
distance. We repeated it again and again, with the same grand 
effect, until the chill air, and the moon rising in beauty and casting 
her silver radiance upon the transparent water, warned us that it 
was the hour to return. Those who have heard " Green Mountain 
echoes," by Dodsworth's Band, may form some idea of this mag- 
nificent echo, of which this piece of music is a successful imitation. 

There are many other things of which I would speak, did I not 
fear that this article is already prolonged to a degree which may 
render it unsuitable for your pages. 

I returned from my rambles in Vermont, regretting that I could 
not have remained where I found so much to delight and attract ; 
and heartily recommend the region, at which we have but glanced, 
to all who are seeking for health or enjoyment in the more quiet 
and picturesque scenes of Nature. 


There are many odd countries in the world, whose inhabitants 
rejoice in many odd customs; but for the oddest of people, and the 
queerest of manners, commend us to those islands included in the 
sovereignty of Japan. 

Until a very recent date, no Europeans were permitted to tres- 
pass beyond the sacred limits of this most exclusive of empires, nor 
were any Japanese allowed to quit their native shores. Even now, 
when you land at Nagasaki, your movements are watched by reg- 
ular sentries, who report every step you take to their superiors ; 
while to prevent the Japanese themselves from roaming to foreign 
lands, all their vessels are built after a government model, with open 


sterns, so that long sea voyages are impossible ; and if they exclude 
us from visiting them, they are in turn equally debarred from visit- 
ing us. 

They need not be afraid of visitors, from any possibility of being 
overpowered by numbers ; for the thousand and one isles which 
make up the empire of Japan, contain thirteen thousand densely 
peopled towns. Jeddo, the capital, seated in the island of Niphon, 
has a population nearly equal to that of London ; and we are told by 
travellers that the castle in which resides the secular emperor (there 
are two emperors — one sacred, one secular,) could accomodate for- 
ty thousand men. Miako,' a city covering twelve square miles, 
could raise a battalion of fifty-two thousand priests alone; while 
Osacco, the Birmingham of the empire, could itself send forth an 
army of eighty thousand. 

" You scarcely emerge from one borough," says Ksempfer, " but. 
you enter another ; and you may travel many miles, as it were, in 
one street, without knowing it to be composed of many villages, 
save by the different names that were formerly given them, and 
which they after retained, though joined to one another." 

Earthquakes are disastrously frequent in Japan, and are of terri- 
bly long duration. One in 1586 lasted, with varying intensity, for 
forty days. Two hundred thousand perished at Jeddo, during the 
convulsion of 1703 ; and a large city was prostrated by that of 1792. 
It becomes impossible, therefore, for the Japanese architects, to con- 
struct lofty piles out of clay and bamboos, and the chimneys of the 
Manchester factories would be out of place in Niphon. The law re- 
stricts the height of a dwelling to six kins, or forty-four feet three 
inches, and there are few houses which boast of more than one story. 

Let us walk into a Japanese house, passing without notice the 
worthy householder, who sits in a tub of water at the door, per- 
forming his ablutions with a refreshing freedom from bashfulness. 
You notice that the floor is slightly raised above the level of the 
earth, and thickly covered with mats of rushes and rice-straw, ele- 
gantly decorated. These mats are used instead of chairs, and there 
are no tables, but you will be provided with a little raised tray when 
you take refreshments. There are no beds— you must sleep upon 
mats, sit upon mats, smoke upon mats, and fidget upon mats. 

Observe that the rooms are separated by folding screens of gilt 
or colored papers, and lighted by windows of oiled paper, for glass 
is unknown. You cannot warm yourself at the fire — there is, alas! 
no fireplace; but in the middle of the room you may crouch down 
on the brink of the square-tiled hole, from which ascend the fumes 


of charcoal. The said charcoal, by-the-by, is always burning, and 
over it a kettle of hot water is always boiling. The Japanese drink 
tea as voraciously as English old women ; but they use little sugar ; 
don't put many spoonfulls into the pot, and serve it up in porcelain 

The bath-room resembles European bath-rooms in its general ap- 
pointments ; but it is more frequently resorted to than in our chilly 
British Isles. The Japanese men bathe, the woman bathe, the chil- 
dren bathe, in-doors and out of doors, morning, noon, and night. The 
water movement is universal, and most zealously followed out. 

At the top of the house is a large tub of water, as a resource in 
the not unfrequent event of a conflagratian. £To London insurance 
company, we fancy, would insure, at any premium, the inflammable 
structures of bamboos, screens, oiled papers, mats, and timber 
ycleped by the Japanese — houses. There are wooden tanks in the 
streets, and rude fire-engines at appointed stations — where the alarm 
is given by the patrols, who on discovering the first shooting flames, 
strike forcibly the thick planks, suspended from posts for that pur- 

The Japanese women, according to recent travellers, are models 
of amiability and good temper, graceful in their manners and at- 
tractive in their persons. But they dye their lips a fierce scarlet, 
their cheeks a violet, and stain their teeth black, with a detestable 
gangrenous compound — practices scarcely in harmony with the 
toilet artifices of an English belle. They are fond of dress, of course, 
or would they be women ? 

The Japanese gentleman is, generally, a well-looking, intelligent, 
and active individual. He wears two swords — a large and a small 
one ; while the middle class man is only entitled to one sword ; and 
"the lower orders" carry none. He carries a fan wherever he goes, 
and whatever he does, and he delights in huge trousers, like a sheet 
" stitched up between the legs, though open at the sides, in order 
to allow of the play of the feet while walking." His shoes, and his 
horse's shoes are made of plaited straw. Consequently, they wear 
out with unequalled rapidity, and force upon their wearer a sham- 
bling, shuffling gait, like Robinson's in the " Wandering Minstrel." 
Tanners and curriers are not in good odor in Japan, for they have 
to touch the bodies of the dead — a necessity which the Japanese re- 
ligion, singularly enough, resents. 

Kendall, in his " Memorials of the Empire of Japan," pronounces 
an opinion on the Japanese character which seems admirably impar- 
tial: — "They carry," he says, "their notions of honor to the verge 


of fanaticism, and they are haughty, vindictive and licentious. On 
the other hand, brawlers, braggarts, and backbiters are held in the 
most supreme contempt. The slightest infraction of truth is pun- 
ished with severity ; they are open-hearted, hospitable, and as friends, 
faithful to death. It is represented that there is no peril a Japanese 
will not encounter to serve a friend ; that no torture will compel 
him to betray a trust ; and that even the stranger who seeks aid will 
be protected to the last drop of blood." — London Journal, 


Thousands of men in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Bos- 
ton, and other business centres, who commenced operations from a 
quarter to a half century ago,' are still on 'Change. A part of them 
have done well, are doing well, and could continue to do well longer. 

Meanwhile, the young men are asking with impatience, when 
will these old fellows die off and give us a chance ? Young Ame- 
rica is quite sure it would be contented with half, or a quarter of 
what the old men have gathered ; and would retire with an excel- 
lent grace, and give place and elbow-room to another generation. 

To the young men, we would say : not quite so fast ; the fathers 
have showed this long time a will and an energy, that cannot easily 
be hurried, and you may as well be a little patient, since they will 
either await a higher summons than yours, or will withdraw from 
the marts of commerce very much at their own discretion, as you 
will wish to do by and by, if you should first be as successful as 
they have been. 

For older business men, successful, prospered, rich — which in the 
parlance of the day, means far more wealth than their own or their 
childrens' best good requires — the question of retirement is a hard 
one. Their associations are all mercantile. Their habits are all 
business habits. Money-making is their life, comfort, health, every- 
thing. To take them from the theatre of their successes, might 
prove too much like drawing the finny tribe from the water, and 
the feathered races from the air, and dooming each to the element 
designed for the other. Not a few retiring men have been very 
happy while building themselves a palace, because thus far they 
were trading, manufacturing, using every day their natural and 
acquired skill in bargaining, in daily association with business men ; 
but have been miserable from that day forth. They have found 


great pleasure in the laying out and construction of a princely home 
to die in ; but were unreconciled to remaining and dying amid the 
awful stillness that reigned, when the noise of the saw and hammer 
had ceased. The singing of birds had less music for their ears, than 
the rumbling of wheels on cobble-stones ; the green earth and blue 
sky pleased them less than brick and mortar ; and, the first you 
know, they have sold an earthly paradise for half its cost, and are 
back to their old haunts, as much in the way of their juniors as 
ever, but some tens of thousands less rich for the operation. Such 
examples are a damper. 

Others again seem to enjoy rural life with a zest known only to 
those who have been long deprived of it. "God made the country, 
man the city ;" and they feel that God's works are a thousand times 
the loveliest and best. A quiet old age and a graceful departure 
are the result of their retirement. Here then are arguments pro 
and con, the experience of one class balancing that of the other, 
and leaving the question undecided. 

In favor of perseverance in business to the end of life,, it may be 
said : how easy for the elderly man to make money ; he has the use 
of all the ropes, capital, practical skill, knowledge of men, extensive 
acquaintance, old customers. He can make more in one year now, 
than he could in three, at his first setting out. But in reply to this, 
it is unquestionably true that old men sometimes lose by adhering 
too long to the walks of business. Times change ; modes of doing 
business, to which they were unused in their better days, are intro- 
duced ; the young men are quicker to learn new things ; and the old 
man finds himself left behind in the race. Here then is another 
balance. If the elderly business man has advantages, he also labors 
under disadvantages, as compared with the young. 

May it be urged that the successful business man should retire 
partly in favor of his juniors ? Some of them have served him, 
have contributed, it may be supposed, to his success, and are deserv- 
ing of his esteem and warm friendship. If he has paid them well, 
allowing something like a fair division of the profits, it would be 
difficult to fasten upon him an obligation to yield his place and ad- 
vantages to them ; but it would certainly be the mark of a manly, 
generous mind, to be influenced by such a consideration — to say, in 
retiring, that he has enough, and rejoices to leave the young men, 
who have served him, in a better position than his was, at their 
stage of life. 

But the question of retiring or holding on, will depend very 
much upon the man himself, what he was in the outset of a business 


career, what business has made him, and what he purposes to 

If he is physically one of those nervous, active, stirring men, who 
never can be comfortable except when uncomfortably hard at work, 
never easy except when driving ahead, one who must work as long 
as he lives, and must die when he can be active no longer, such as 
are some of the very best of men, it is better that he should enlarge 
rather than abandon his business. Such men never can rest ; but 
they generally wear like steel ; and the more you give them to do, 
the better they wear. They are uncomfortable to themselves and 
every body else, unless they have a little more to do than they can 
possibly do ; and they Can, in old age, do that which they have been 
accustomed to, better than something new. 

Again, if you are selfish by nature, and made doubly so by the 
competitions of trade, close-fisted, rapacious, hoarding, or, what is 
hardly better, rolling over and rolling up for yourself alone ; ex- 
tending your sympathies hardly beyond the family circle, and not 
at all beyond the cousin-hood and nephew-dom ; recognizing no ob- 
ligations to men outside of your own little circle ; anxious to pay 
your note, because it is for your interest to pay it, but willing your 
washer woman should call for her pay a third and a fifth time, since 
she cannot hurt you ; in short, if nature and trade have made you a 
hunks and a miser, we advise you to stick to your business; not a 
fig need you care for the young men who want your place ; and as 
for the brotherhood of the human family, it will have to take care 
of itself, as best can. Go on, accumulate and hold fast, and God 
will see that your wealth falls into better hands, when you can hold 
it no longer. 

But if, on the other hand, you have cultivated a generous nature, 
learned to feel for others' woes, to ■ comfort the desponding, to re- 
claim the erring, to feel towards every one whom you have it in 
your power to aid as towards a brother, and if you really believe 
that you can see your property stationary or decreasing, without 
mourning over it, the hungry fed from it, the naked clothed, the 
ignorant taught, want and suffering relieved, then we very much 
suspect that better and happier work awaits you, than this dabbling, 
all the way down to the grave,, after more wealth. Do not think 
to be happy by inaction. Nothing is more absurd, than to expect 
that you can pass all at once from a state of extreme activity to 
one of indolence, and be contented. Every law of mind and body 
forbids such a hope. Neither can you expect to be contented with 
any splendor which your wealth might procure, nor with mere 


trifling. Gunning, fishing, a walk, a drive, gossip by the way, an 
innocent game, a snooze after exercise, are all very well in their 
place. But a man of your high-born, noble sentiments, needs to 
think that he has done something useful that day, before he can 
enjoy any one of these, and that these are but his recreations, not 
the things for which he lives. If you withdraw from business, con- 
tinue to have about as many cares as before, and of a kind that you 
can feel are quite as important. Mot he who has a thousand cares, 
but he who has none, is the really wretched man. Make yoursell 
liable to be called upon, to go, now here and now there, on some 
good errand. Of all things, contrive to get hustled and rubbed a 
good deal. A man of your habits, cheated by turns all his life, and 
having saved himself at other turns only by keeping a sharp look 
out, needs a good deal of shaking up and rubbing to keep him 
bright and free from rust in old age. Make up your mind to be 
active and useful, enterprising to do good. 

In your former employment it was pleasant to make good bar- 
gains, if you could make them and wrong no one. Now you can 
make better bargains. Near you will be a poor widow, with a long 
row of children. She is willing to wash, iron, sew, anything to 
sustain and train up those children in the way they should go. 
God has promised that the widow and fatherless shall not want. 
He will not send Gabriel to carry them bread, He will expect you 
to fulfill his promise. Sometime, when there has been sickness in 
the widow's cottage, or work 'enough has not offered, she will fail 
by a few shillings of bringing the week out, and she will know 
where to go for the balance — will go to you, or, more probably, to 
your wife — for you will give her a chance at some of the good bar- 
gains — and will relate her efforts and the deficiency, and ask you to 
loan her six shillings, and you will not loan her six shillings, but 
will give her a dollar, and wish she had asked for more. She will 
value the dollar as much as you would a hundred, and so you have 
a hundred for one ; and more, every one of her four children will be 
as grateful for that dollar as you would be for a hundred ; and now 
you have five hundred for one ; and remember that " He that giveth 
to the poor lendetH to the Lord," and the Lord will certainly allow 
good interest and pay up. So then if you retire from the marts of 
business, you can make better bargains than ever. A smart, enter- 
prising boy will need another quarter's schooling before he goes to 
a trade, but there is no one to pay the five dollars tuition. You 
will pay it, and he will love you, and talk about you, as long as you 
live, and after you are dead ; and again you will get at least five 


hundred for one. This is getting rich pretty fast, not in money, 
but in something better, in imperishable memories, in treasures of 
the soul, riches that will abide and be a part of yourself, when all 
material wealth will be left behind. 

To withdraw from business, to be idle, to trifle, to do no good, 
with no efforts to be a benefactor, none to grow and expand into a 
higher and nobler manhood, is a vulgar, low, creeping device — but 
you may retire, if you will only go with the right spirit. 

J. A. N. 


It is true that Christians are in and not of the world, but they 
are not therefore to become ascetics and remain gloomily isolated 
from all society, denied to the comforts and pleasures of earth. 
There is no " must needs go out of the world " imposed upon the 
friends of Jesus, but an imperative, " Go ye into all the world," and by 
a pure and elevated social and religious intercourse, " preach the gos- 
pel to every creature." Thus, by the * manifestation of the truth in 
our lives, we will commend ourselves and our religion to every man's 

There are two errors just here. The first : that religion requires 
and produces in its subject an austere and harsh countenance on 
which no smile ever plays, the compressed lip, contracted brow, 
unrelaxed muscles and ever present tear-drop ; in fine, a " touch-me- 
not " expression and action towards every person who has not a sad 
and disfigured face consonant with our own ; the second : that sor- 
row, tears, fear, humility and grief, belong only to the unconverted 
and not at all to the renewed soul. It makes conversion a synonym 
for assured hope and unalloyed joy and gladness, and requires the 
foul-mouthed blasphemer of yesterday and convert of to-day to 
be recognized as a convert, to possess the high-emotioned experience 
of " assurance of God's love, peace of conscience and joy in the Holy 
Ghost, which pertains to the man who has grown hoary in the ser- 
vice of the Redeemer, and through a varied experience of sunshine 
and shade has attained the high pinnacle, " ready to be offered, and 
the time of departure at hand " Between these two opposite ex- 
tremes of melancholy and fanatical joy, there is a medium at which 
every one should aim, and to the attainment of which true godliness 
will gradually but surely prompt and guide our effort. I have said, 


gradually, " for every soul carries within itself treasures of sorrow," 
from whose fountains come only anguish and bitterness until a 
mightier than Moses cast in the tree whose leaves are life-giving, or 
the healing salt. These instantaneously find their place in the secret 
sources, and mingling with the waters, affect sensibly the fountain ; 
but it is a work of time to so change that the stream shall be wholly 
pure. This will still be the characteristic of the renewed heart ; its 
sorrow will not be all sorrow, its joy will not be without tears and 
mourning. Hear the royal Psalmist : " Light is sown for the righteous 
and gladness for the upright," but, "Rejoice with trembling;", and 
the royal Preacher : " It is better to go to the house of mourning, 
than to the house of feasting;" yet, "pleasant words are as a honey 
comb, sweet to the soul, and health to the bones." The Saviour com- 
bines these thoughts in that wonderful and precious benediction ut- 
tered from Mount Gerizim : " Blessed are they that mourn, for they 
shall be comforted." 

The renovated soul has not lost any of the many fruitful sources 
of mental and physical suffering, but has an additional one in that 
sorrow for sin which interpenetrates the soul in every emotion and 
action, giving it all that humble sadness and serious thoughtfulness 
which, like a veil, overspreads and colors the joys it cannot conceal. 
But contemporaneous with this, there are new principles and opposite 
forces imparted, which by attraction and propulsion, elevate the soul 
and fill it with joy, alleviating every pain and sorrow. , Through 
their transforming power, the sorest chastisements become a precious 
oil, and all afflictions are counted light, because they " work out an 
eternal weight of glory." Here social sympathy too comes in, bear- 
ing relief and consolation ; for sorrow shared is lightened, while joys 
divided are doubled. There is a giving that does not diminish, a 
withholding that does not increase ; a giving that is more blessed 
than to receive — the Bible announces the fact, the true Christian life 
solves the problem and proves it. Christianity then does not forbid 
society, but demands it, elevates it, purifies it by restricting all that 
is low and trifling in its character, all that wounds the sensitive 
spirit and the tender conscience, by furnishing whatever promotes 
and favors it. Religion is appropriate — is an element of joy and 
gladness around the " Fireside," at the watering place, in the car and 
steamboat, as well as in the closet and in the house of God. 

J. C. K. M. 

Whatever you have to do, do promptly, cheerfully, and well. 


Summer Recreations. 

Four young men, knapsacked in the old Continental style, 
passed along the other day, bound for the White Mountains ; 
they were a hale, jolly-looking 'set, intending to travel about 
twenty miles a day, resting from nine A.M. to five P.M. ; they lived 
chiefly on bread and milk, bountifully procured on the road at 
small cost. This is the true philosophy of summer recreation ; 
and let clerks, clergymen, lawyers, judges, students, and other 
sedentary persons make a note of it, for it is an example well 
worth following. Such a " trip," from the middle of August to 
the first of October, over the hills of New-England, the Cat- 
skill Mountains, or the Adirondacks, would be glorious. We 
had a taste of this ourselves, just twenty years ago this autumn, 
beginning at Menai Bridge, through Bangor Walls, the. famous 
slate quarries, over to Dublin and Donnybrook Fair, up through 
Ireland to Belfast, with its linen factories ; the Giant's Cause- 
way ; over to the Banks of Bonny Doon, Glasgow, Edinburgh, 
Abbotsford, and the famous castle or church there, which we 
first saw by the aid of a tin lantern, too impatient to wait until 
next morning, being paid for our hurry by seeing a drove of 
sleepy sheep in the inclosure ; thence to Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
which divides Scotland and England ; thence by steamer to 
great London, where we footed it indefinitely, ad infinitum, all 
over. These are perigrinations of some account; and the mem- 
ory of them is inexpressibly dear. How luscious the draughts 
of what we saw, and felt, and heard, and such an appetite — 
such glorious sleep I We were chuck full of life, and frolic, 
and fun, wanted to run foot-races on the road every day, with 
our younger and more sedate brother, ■ " Dr. Sam." Poor fel- 
low, a dozen years dead. Dignified people always do die be- 
fore their time. This way of being as sober as a judge isn't 
wholesome ; it clogs up the wheels of life, and stops them pre- 
maturely. We poked at him some of our mother's philosophy, 
who never did any thing in her life until she had satisfactorily 
answered the question, "What's the use?" Why, it's fun to 
run a race, especially if you are blindfolded, and making for a 
tree on the sea-shore, to get there first. Suppose it is " infra dig," 
nobody knows us ; and if they did, it is none of their business 
whether we walk, run, or roll over, and with that we turned a 
double summerset, while he called for a smelling-bottle. 
Reader, we believe in fun more than physic, hence we "still 
live," and lively as a cricket too ! 



If while perspiring, or while something warmer than usual, from exercise or a heated room, 
there is a sudden exposure in stillness to a still, cold air, or to a raw, damp atmosphere, or to a 
draft, whether at an open window or door or street-corner, an inevitable resalt is a violent and 
instantaneous closing of the pores of the skin, by which waste and impure matters, which were 
making their way out of the system, are compelled to seek an exit through some other channel, and 
break through some weaker part, not the natural one, and harm to that part is the result. The 
idea is presented by saying that the cold has settled in that part. To illustrate : 

A lady was about getting into a small boat to cross the Delaware ; but wishing first to get an 
orange at a fruit-stand, she ran up the bank of the river, and on her return to the boat found 
herself much heated, for it was summer, but there was a little wind on the water, and the clothing 
soon felt cold to her ; the next morning she had a severe cold, which settled on her lungs, and 
within the year she died of consumption. 

A stout, strong man was working in a garden in May ; feeling a little tired about noon, he sat 
down in the shade of the house and fell asleep ; he waked up chilly ; inflammation of the lunga 
followed, ending, after two years of great suffering, in consumption. On opening his chest, there 
was such an extensive decay, that the yellow matter was scooped out by the cupful. 

A Boston ship-owner, while on the deck of one of his vessels, thought he would " lend a 
hand" in some emergency ; and pulling off his coat, worked with a will, until he perspired freely, 
when he sat down to rest a while, enjoying the delicious breeze from the sea. On attempting to 
rise, he found himself unable, and was so stiff in his joints, that he had to be carried home and 
put to bed, which he did not leave until the end of two years, when he was barely able to hobble 
down to the wharf on crutches. 

A lady, after being unusually busy all day, found herself heated and tired toward sundown 
of a summer's day. She concluded she would rest herself by taking a drive to town in an open 
vehicle. The ride made her uncomfortably cool, but she warmed herself up by an hour's shopping, 
when she turned homeward ; it being late in the evening, she found herself more decidedly chilly 
than before. At midnight she had pneumonia, (inflammation of the lungs,) and in three months 
had the ordinary symptoms of confirmed consumption. 

A lady of great energy of character lost her cook, and had to take her place for four days ; 
the kitchen was warm, and there was a draft of air through it. When the work was done, warm 
and weary, she went to her chamber, and laid down on the bed to rest herself. This operation was 
repeated several times a day. On the fifth day she had an attack of lung fever ; at the end of six 
months she was barely able to leave her chamber, only to find herself suffering with all the more 
prominent symptoms of confirmed consumption ; such as quick pulse, night and morning cough, 
night-sweats, debility, short breath, and falling away. 

A young lady rose from her bed on a November night, and leaned her arm on the cold win- 
dow-sill to listen to a serenade. Next morning she had pneumonia,) and suffered the horrors of 
asthma for the remainder of a long life. 

Multitudes of women lose health and life every year, in one of two ways ; by busying them- 
selves in a warm kitchen until weary, and then throwing themselves on a bed or sofa, without 
covering, and perhaps in a room without fire ; or by removing the outer clothing, and perhaps 
changing the dress for a more common one, as soon as they enter the house after a walk or a 
shopping. The rule should be invariable to go at once to a warm room and keep on all the cloth, 
big at least for five or ten minutes, until the forehead is perfectly dry. In all weathers, if you 
have to walk and ride on any occasion, do the riding first. "' 



Every wife and mother owes it to herself, her husband, and her children, 
as well as to society at large, to prevent waste in every department of the 
household, whether provisions are cheap or dear, whether the husband is 
rich or poor ; for waste is a crime against humanity, an insult to the 
bounteous Hand which "giveth us all things, riches to enjoy." -On the 
other hand, a true economy is one of the wisest, and most ennobling of 
domestic virtues. A hundred careful experiments were made in England in 
reference to roasting and boiling meats, in order to ascertain the respective 
losses : 

Roasted chickens, lost 15 per ct. Turkeys, lost 20 per ct. 

Beef ribs and sirloins, 19 " Mutton legs and shoulders, 24 " 

Geese, 19 " Ducks, 27 " 

Boiled mutton legs, . . 10 " 

" beef, 15 " 

" shoulder mutton, 28 " 

Boiling beef saves more than four per cent over roasting. If a leg of 
mutton is boiled it loses ten per cent ; if roasted, twenty-five per cent ! « 

The fatter meat is, the greater the loss ; it should be moderately fat, to 
make it tender ; but there is an unprofitable fatness. 

Eleven pounds of roast beef rib loses two pounds, and the bones one 
pound, so that of the eleven pounds bought, only seven pounds come to the 
table. Hence if roast rib-pieces cost in New-York, in April, 1864, twenty 
cents a pound at the butcher's stall, it is more than thirty-one cents a pound 
on the dinner-table. 

It is philosophically true that one pound of clear roast beef is more con- 
centrated than one pound of boiled beef, has less water in it, and hence 
may contain more nourishment ; but the more concentrated food is the more 
unwholesome it is, not only because it requires a greater digestive power to 
convert it into pure blood, but the sense of sufficiency at meals is induced 
to a considerable extent by the bulk of what^ is taken, and if we eat con- 
centrated food until there is bulk enough to remove the feeling of hunger, 
there is so much nutriment in it that nature can't extract it all in a perfect 
manner; hence there is not only too much nutriment for the wants 
of the system, but all of it is imperfectly prepared, and we really get 
less strength and less pure blood out of it, than if much less had been eaten, 
or it had been taken in a more bulky, or, if you please, in a more watery 
condition. This is the reason why dyspeptics and others eat a great deal, but 
they do not get strong. But if there is too much bulk, there is not enough 
nutriment, although a great deal is taken into the stomach. Porter and 
beer, for example, fill up the stomach, and seem to make persons fleshy, but 
there is but little nutriment and great bulk ; but great beer-drinkers are never 
strong, are puffy. 



In health no one ought to drink ice-water, for it has occasioned fata, 
inflammations of the stomach and bowels, and sometimes sudden death. , 
The temptation to drink it is very great in summer ; to use it at all with 
any safety the person should take but a single swallow at a time, take the 
glass from the lips for half a minute, and then another swallow, and so on. 
It will be found that in this way it becomes disagreeable after a few 

On the other hand, ice itself may be taken as freely as possible, not only 
without injury, but with the most striking advantage in dangerous forms of 
disease. If broken in sizes of a pea or bean, and swallowed as freely as 
practicable, without much chewing or crushing between the teeth, it will 
often be efficient in checking various kinds of diarrhoea, and has cured 
violent cases of Asiatic cholera. 

A kind of cushion of powdered ice kept to the entire scalp, has allayed 
violent inflammations' of the brain, and arrested fearful convulsions induced 
by too much blood there. 

In croup, water, as cold as ice can make it, applied freely to the throat, 
neck, and chest, with a sponge or cloth, very often affords an almost miracu- 
lous relief, and if this be followed by drinking copiously of the same ice- 
cold element, the wetted parts wiped dry, and the child be wrapped up well 
in the bed-clothes, it falls into a delightful and life-giving slumber. 

All inflammations, internal or external, are promptly subdued by the 
application of ice or ice-water, because it is converted into steam and 
rapidly conveys away the extra heat, and also diminishes the quantity of 
blood in the vessels of the part. 

' A piece of ice laid on the wrist will often arrest violent bleeding of the 

To drink any ice-cold liquid at meals retards digestion, chills the body, 
and has been known to induce the most dangerous internal congestions. 

Kefrigerators, constructed to have the ice above, are as philosophical as 
they are healthful, for the ice does not come in contact with the water or 
other contents, yet keeps them all nearly ice cold. 

If ice is put in milk or on butter, and these are not used at the time, they 
lose their freshness and become sour and stale, for the essential nature of 
both is changed, when once frozen and then thawed. 


Hints for the Travelling Season. 

At this season many persons contemplate travelling ; to do so with the largest 
amount of comfort and advantage, physical, social, and mental, the following sug- 
gestions are made : 

Take one fourth more money than your actual estimated expenses. 

Acquaint yourself with the geography of the route and region of travel. 

Have a good supply of small change, and have no bill or piece higher than ten 
dollars, that you may not take counterfeit change. 

So arrange as to have but a single article of luggage to look after. 

Dress substantially ; better to be too hot for two or three hours at noon, than 
to be too cool for the remainder of the twenty-four. 

Arrange, under all circumstances, to be at the place of starting fifteen or twenty 
minutes before the time, thus allowing for unavoidable or unanticipated detention 
on the way. 

Do not commence a day's travel before breakfast, even if that has to be eaten 
at daylight. Dinner, or supper, or both can be more healthfully dispensed with, 
than a good warm breakfast. 

Put your purse and watch in your vest-pocket, and all under your pillow, and 
you will not be likely to leave either. 

The most if not secure fastening of your chamber-door is a common bolt on the 
inside ; if there is none, lock the door, turn the key so that it can be drawn partly 
out, and put the wash-basin under it; thus, any attempt to use a jimmy or put in 
another key, will push it out, and cause a racket among the crockery, which will 
be pretty certain to rouse the sleeper and rout the robber. 

A sixpenny sandwich eaten leisurely in the cars, is better for you than a dollar 
dinner bolted at a " station." 

Take with you a month's supply of patience, and always think thirteen times 
before you reply once to any supposed rudeness or insult, or inattention. 

Do not suppose yourself specially and designedly neglected, if waiters at hotels 
do not bring what you call for in double quick time ; nothing so distinctly marks 
the well bred man as a quiet waiting on such occasions ; passion proves the puppy. 

Do not allow yourself to converse in a tone loud enough to be heard by a 
person two or three seats from you ; it is the mark of a boor if in a man, and of 
want of refinement and lady-like delicacy, if in a woman. A gentleman is not 
noisy ; ladies are serene. 

Comply cheerfully and gracefully with the customs of the conveyances in which 
you travel, and of the places where you stop. 

Eespect yourself by exhibiting the manners of a gentleman and a lady, if you 
wish to be treated as such, and then you will receive the respect of others. 

Travel is a great leveller ; take the position which others assign you from your 
conduct rather than from your pretensions. 

hall's jouenal of health. 


The Home Journal, for July second, under the head of 
"Checking Perspiration," says : "We clip the following from 
an Edinburgh exchange, and most timely. A suggestion to 
the wise is enough. The extract merits no small consideration." 
These are our sentiments precisely, and that is the reason we 
wrote it two or three years ago for this Jouenal, in the form of 
a Health Tract Number 58 ; we reproduce it in this number, 
with four others, as specially applicable to the season, and are 
almost as good as new. This is not the first time our articles 
have crossed the water twice, and come back to us with a for- 
eign name and paternity. So much the better, as it increases 
the size of our congregation to two continents instead of one. 

The Boston American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, 
and 13 Bible House, New- York, have sent us two beautiful 
books for " notice," " Progress ;" or, the Sequel to Jerry and 
Ms Friends, by Alice A. Dodge, 346 pp., and "Human Sor- 
rows," by the Countess Agenor De Gasparin, translated from 
advance sheets, by Mary L. Booth, with a notice of the work, 
by M. Laboulaye, 279 pp. There are eight chapters on " Op- 
pressions," "Mistakes," "Dejection," "Destruction," "Des- 
pair," "Noble Sorrows," and "Death." This is a book for 
every human creature, for sorrow is the lot of all, and all may 
find a well-spring of comfort in these pages. One chapter com- 
mences thus: "Souls enter life in pairs. On reaching the 
threshold of this world, they take different roads. Some- 
times they find each other ; these are privileged souls ; oftener 
they wander at random ; each flutter of their pinions separates 
them ; they traverse space fallen and solitary, then disappear ; 
this is the common lot, so say the poets. I know of a more 
fatal search, that of a man who has elbowed every body, and 
has never yet encountered himself." 

The most execrably printed newspaper that comes to our 
table is the State League, of Syracuse, New- York. We always 
lay it aside with regret, for the headings of its articles indicate 
that it. is edited with ability and industry. The publisher 
would, or ought to, make money by getting better paper, and 
proportionally increasing the subscription price. 

hall's journal of health. 

Maladies of the Mind. — These are times which try men's 
souls. The " uncertainty of riches," of property, and all 
values ; the terrible fact that a premature death or painful life- 
long maimings have entered almost every household in the 
nation, are well calculated to hang like a pall on the hearts of 
all. Under these circumstances, we direct the reader's atten- 
tion to an article written by a friend, entitled, " Christianity 
Social and Joyous." True religion is the best medicine for a 
sorrowing heart ; behind the seeming gloom of it there is a 
gladness ineffable, a cloudless sky of glorious sunshine, which 
scatters doubt, and fear, and despondencies, and so enlivens the 
soul as to be sufficient of itself in many cases to repel diseases 
from the body, and invite back physical health ; acting upon 
the same principle is the established fact, that the wounded sol- 
diers of a conquering army recover more rapidly and in larger 
numbers than do the vanquished. One reflection, one item of 
" faith," is of itself of priceless value to him who rests on the 
"sure foundation-stone ;" and it is this, "The Judge of all the 
earth will do right;" He will overrule all things in such a 
way as to work out the happiest results for the whole human 

Personal. — A "Washington telegram of May 26th, to the 
Associated Press, in New- York, says : " The Report on Agri- 
culture for the past year, presented to Congress to-day, will 
contain above forty essays, among which will be another of 
those sensible essays, by Dr. Hall, of New- York, so admirably 
designed to enhance the health, comfort and happiness of the 
rural population, to wit, in the article on ' Farmers Houses.' " 

Gray Hairs. — The newspapers say that the hair will return 
to its natural color, whether light or dark, if it is washed every 
morning with a mixture of one part of bay rum, three 
parts of olive oil, and one part brandy. Wish some of our 
readers would try it, a month or two, and report progress. 

"Glorying in the Goad," in the Atlantic Monthly for July, by 
Gail Hamilton, advocates the establishment of Agricultural 
Colleges ; and that citizens' sons should patronize them, and go 
to farming, and thus get back the constitutional vigor which 
their fathers brought with them when they came from the coun- 
try to the town ; a new and good idea. The lively ^and popu- 
lar authoress pays her respectful respects to our article on the 
Health of Farmers' Families, written for the reports of the Agri- 
cultural Department for 18H2, of which Congress ordered the 
publication of over a hundred thousand copies. The "Keport " 
was made up by the Hon. Isaac Newton, and has met with uni- 
versal commendation. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. XI.] SEPTEMBER, 1864. [No. 9. 



Too much honor can not be awarded to Messrs. Brace and Pease 
for their untiring efforts to elevate the children of the city poor 
from the conditions of ignorance and general demoralization in 
which so many of them lie enthralled. We every day hear inter- 
esting narratives of the good which is doing by these instru- 
mentalities, of intelligence quickened, virtuous resolutions en- 
forced, industrial aspirations promoted ; and we are told that the 
testimony of the farmers in the country, upon whose wholesome 
stock these youthful scions are sought to be engrafted, is often 
extremely encouraging. Messrs. Pease and Brace are indeed sure 
to be rewarded in the advancing success of their enterprise. 

But we are satisfied that there is a still more hopeless class among 
us than the children of the Five Points, and these are the children 


of our rich men. The former have this advantage, that they are 
born and nurtured under circumstances of so much infamy, as to 
make any change in their condition almost necessarily a change for 
the better and not for the worse. They begin at the very lowest 
step of the social ladder, and although they may in truth never 
mount, they yet may hardly be said ever to descend any lower than 
their original perch. No affable pimp is so foolish as to lavish his 
attentions upon the outcast and penniless ; nor does the unctuous 
blackleg deem it worth while to lubricate by the fatal saliva of his 
courtesies, a morsel which when swallowed must prove so purely 
sinewy and undigestible. Thus the baseness of our Five Points 
children is apt to remain [native, not acquired. They have any 
amount of " original sin " on hand, but their " actual transgressions" 
pale and die out before the lurid glow which characterizes those of 
our Fifth Avenue youth. 

Where, then, is the benevolent Mr. Pease or Mr. Brace whose 
heart is touched by the moral raggedness of our rich young men ? 
Where is the bold and wise philanthropist who shall probe this 
deadly and deepening ulcer, and tell us what soundness remains 
underneath ? The time is ripe, the urgency unprecedented. One 
can count, as he goes along our lordly thoroughfares, so many 
homes in which the father sits solitary, robbed of the sons who 
should have been the ornament and prop of his declining years ; or 
in which the sleepless heart of the mother counts the weary hours 
till morning, waiting in vain her prodigal's return ! And one can 
also count, on the other hand, as he goes along Broadway, so many 
princely houses where hell lies in ambush, and hecatombs of prom- 
ising youth are nightly offered up to the gigantic Moloch of Play ! 
We are informed, on good authority, that fifteen houses between 
Bleecker and Barclay streets in Broadway alone, are daily and 
nightly open for gambling, fitted up, many of them, with extreme 
luxury, rendered attractive by every artifice which can inflame the 
senses and captivate an imagination devoted to pleasure, and main- 
tained, some of them, as to the mere necessary expenditures, at an 
outlay of between twenty and thirty thousand dollars a year. Who 
support these glittering palaces of death ? Where, for instance, 
do the proprietors of the most luxurious of these hells - get the 
twenty or thirty thousand dollars per annum, which enable them 
to maintain the house they occupy between Prince street and Spring, 
and set a dinner-table and a supper-table, every day and night, which 
eclipse every gentleman's table in town, and which, nevertheless, are 
free to every gentleman's son in town ? They get them out of the 

The Children of the Rich. 

pockets of our business men. The industry and enterprise of our com- 
mercial classes are incessantly tapped, to fatten these bloated ulcers of 
vice and crime. For it is not the sons of our farmers and mechanics 
that are to be found in these haunts ; but only the sons of those 
who have large property, and expect to leave their children enough 
to maintain them without work. It is the children of our rich men 
who keep up the army of pimps, and swindlers, and blacklegs that 
infest the city. Find a young man who has no money, or who 
having money, has no desire to get rid of it unprofitably, and you 
find a soil upon whichrog uery cannot fasten. Who feed our pug- 
ilists ? Who in the long run pay the expenses of their idleness, 
and train them for their loathsome office ? It is, of course, our rich 
men. It is those who, having amassed a mint of money, carelessly 
and culpably drown the active or productive energies of their 
children in the love of purely passive enjoyment. 

The mud of our streets owes half its parentage to the dust of 
the earth, and half to the rains of heaven : so the vice and 
crime which disfigure society appear to grow out of the alliance 
of extreme wealth and extreme poverty. It is chiefly in the very 
lowest, or in the very highest stages of the social edifice, that we 
encounter intemperance, licentiousness, gambling, and the various 
forms of profligacy which still curse our civilization. We have all 
faith, indeed, that, as Henry C. Carey, and after him, Frederick 
Bastiat, have splendidly demonstrated, there exists a perpetual ten- 
dency in history toward the approximation of our social extremes, 
by the gradual elevation of both to a new social level ; but, in 
the meantime, how desirable would it be, to have this faith intel- 
ligently promoted by our own action ! How much y meantime, 
might our rich men do, by cutting off, as far as in them lies, the 
sources of the existing demoralization ! As the reader passes along 
Broadway, let him glance at the juvenile faces that, about noon-day, 
fill the porches and sitting-room windows of the great hotels ; and, 
if he be a father, let him ask himself how he would like to see a son 
of his own enrolled in that bleached and decrepit regiment. How 
still they sit, and how patiently they gaze upon the monotonous 
streets ! Are they palsied ? No : they smoke, they sneeze, they 
cough, they discharge, in fact, all the offices of automatic life. By- 
and-by, they will rise, and saunter towards the bar, perhaps, or they 
will go to the billiard-room, and chase the weary hours around the 
table till dinner-time, when night will, doubtless, galvanize them into 
some more feverish activity. You devoutly pray God to exempt 
your darling boy from such a fate as he grows up. But God's 


pity is infinite towards these poof faded flowers, and your blooming 
offspring can claim no exceptional regard from Him. By no coax- 
ing or adulation, can we persuade Him to remit eternal laws in our 
behalf; and if we bring up our children to covet a life of pleasure 
as a summum bonum, or to anticipate a career of inglorious or pas- 
sive enjoyment, not all the powers of heaven can prevent their fall- 
ing into the hands of the harpies who live by their destruction. Of 
course, it is entirely right, that the enterprise of our business-men 
should be richly rewarded ; that industry and fidelity to one's avo- 
cations should even be stimulated by the chance of attaining, at last, 
to abounding wealth. But, at the same time, let us all remember, 
that we belong to society before we belong to ourselves, and that we 
have no right, therefore, to overlook the paramount claims of 
society, for a moment, in the education of our children. The grand 
distinction of human life is, that it is pervaded by the sentiment of 
society, fellowship, equality ; and those, accordingly, in all ages, who 
have most amply illustrated it, have been marked by the most cor- 
dial subjection to this sentiment. We would have fathers remem- 
ber, that their children are primarily the children of society, and 
only secondarily theirs. And we repeat, that they have no right to 
overlook the paramount claims of society, in the education of their 
children. No man, even supposing him to have the wealth of Mr. 
Astor, has a right to bring up his children to a career of idleness. 
No man not a savage, has a right to educate his children with 
a view simply to the passive enjoyment of life. This is wholly 
to mistake the end and meaning of life. Life was never meant 
to be a mere pleasure, save to the 'brute. To higher natures, it 
has always* been, and always will be, a school, a discipline, a jour- 
ney, a march, a battle, a victory. The law is absolute and whole- 
some, growing out of the very divinity of man's source. No 
amount of fortune, accordingly, can exempt a man from its oper- 
ation. It leaves no one where it finds him. If it does not ele- 
vate him above the lambent stars, it makes him grovel in the 
dust of the earth. The alternative is infallible ; and, therefore, we 
say to our thoughtless rich men, that they had better, on every ac- 
count, study the methods of a wise depletion, and educate their 
children to industry, economy, usefulness. It were greatly better 
for society, because society would then have immense benefits un- 
sparingly rendered it ; and it were greatly better also for their 
sons, because then these latter would stand some chance of turn- 
ing out the men their fathers were before them, and would no 
longer be tempted to curse the parentage, whose fond and wicked 

Living Beyond One's Means. 

pride furnished them the means only of a boundless and inevitable 



We have once or twice, recently, alluded to a practice prevalent 
among business-men, of living beyond their means, and thus bring- 
ing upon themselves a failure, which was no fault of their mode of 
business, but only of their manner of living. It is not safe to look 
only at a man's store, to know his standing in business ; you must 
look also at his house. His splendid profits may entirely merge 
themselves in his splendid dwelling ; so that, if he should suddenly 
fail, his assets would be found to consist chiefly of carpets, mir- 
rors, frescoes, pictures, marbles, furniture, and a variety of similar 
articles, all belonging to the inside of a " brown-stone front." Now, 
if what is poured into the top of a pitcher runs out through a hole 
in the bottom, it will take continual pouring to keep it full ; a 
sudden stoppage will leave it empty and dry. We need hardly 
say, that it takes a large business to support a fine house ; and 
when the fine house taxes the business to its utmost, a small re- 
verse, which otherwise a man would hardly have felt, may now 
occasion his ruin. The foundation of a man's fortune is laid on two 
corner stones — one in his store, the other in his house. If he builds 
too heavily on either of these, he will have the whole roof down 
upon him. Many a man who has been known as the " architect of 
his own fortune," has built unwisely upon one or other of these 
foundations, and has, at last, been surprised with a worse fall than 
the tumbling of the State Arsenal ! , 

It is true, the line of difference between living within one's means, 
and living beyond them, may sometimes be difficult to draw, so as 
to give the greatest proper limit to free expenditure. For instance, 
a man may be able to keep a horse and buggy, and live within 
his means, who, if he were to keep two horses and a carriage, 
would be living beyond them. A man may keep a fine house in 
the city, and be well. able to afford it, who, as soon as he builds ano- 
ther in the country, is going farther than his money will follow. 
A man may give an ice-cream party, and not feel it, who, when he 
gives a fancy-dress ball, will suffer for it a month afterwards. A 
man may pick his teeth on the steps of the St. Nicholas, and be 
living frugally within his means, who, if he were once to pay for 


his dinner at that hotel, would not have a cent left for his supper ! 
When a man is conscious that he is straining a point for a splendid 
house, or a fast horse, or a grand soiree, or an extravagant table, 
he may be sure, that he is the man who is " living beyond his 
means !" 

The temptations to such extravagance, in such a city as this, are 
very great. In this respect, the improved architectural taste ex- 
hibited in our modern dwelling-houses, has exerted a favorable and 
also an unfavorable influence on the community — favorable, so far 
as the progress of art and the culture of the people are concerned; 
but unfavorable, in having incited a desire for ambitious display, in 
which men seek to irfdulge themselves beyond their means. What 
would have been called an elegant residence, twenty years ago, is 
now regarded as a mere common three-story house. Compare old, 
aristocratic Bleecker Street, with new, aristocratic Fifth Avenue ! 
The best houses in Bleecker Street — which were the finest that our 
fathers or elder brothers ever thought of building — are now mere 
respectable brick fronts — nothing more ! But the least pretentious 
houses in Fifth Avenue are solid brown stone, or solid white marble 
— nothing less ! This change is, on the whole, an improvement, in 
the increased beauty of the city ; yet it cannot be denied, that the 
rage for luxurious and ostentatious living, incited and fostered by 
the introduction of this new element into our private architecture, 
has never before been so great as now ! In fact, nine out of every 
ten opinions given in accounting for the late commercial crisis, 
alleged this general extravagance as the cause of the revulsion. 
When one-third of the merchants of a great city hang one-third of 
their fortunes upon the lace-mantles of their wives, merely to make 
a glitter by gas-light at a grand soiree, it is not at all surpris- 
ing, that the ghost of a mercantile crisis should be seen stalk- 
ing behind the guests after they leave, in the dead hours of the 
night ! The expense of a well-dressed wife or daughter, in the sim- 
ple article of jewelry, for a single evening, is oftentimes as much 
as would originally have bought the entire island of Manhattan, be- 
fore the time of Peter Stuyvesant ! When the " little bills " for 
these trifles are sent in, and paid, the Crisis may be imagined as 
bringing up the rear, like Banquo's Ghost ! 

We write a true epitaph, when we say that many a man's failure 
has resulted, not from losses in his business, but from losses to which 
he is blind, because they are hidden in parlor carpets, enameled 
furniture, and gilded cornices, or in pearl necklaces, topaz brooches, 
and diamond rings ! 

Living Beyond One's Means, 

We may allude, also, not only to the practice of living beyond 
one's means, but of doing business beyond one's means. When, 
for instance, a new firm, with four or five partners, starting with a 
capital not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, conduct their business 
in such a way, that their entire expenses, for the first year, will not 
be less than thirty thousand, we say that they are doing business 
beyond their means. If, during the first year, they have large pro- 
fits to increase their capital, they may come out unharmed. But 
suppose instead of profits they have losses ? Add ten thousand 
dollars of loss to thirty thousand of expenses, and deducting this 
from fifty thousand of original investment, what capital remains as 
the foundation for next year's business? The mere expense of 
carrying on the machinery of business, is the secret of many a man's 
failure! An ocean steamer cannot be sent across the Atlantic 
without the continual dropping of oil in her engines ; but if the 
engineer, in lubricating the valves and pistons, instead of using raw 
linseed, were to lavish upon rod and cylinder the costly ottar of 
roses, which is said to be worth more than its weight in gold, he 
might find at the end of his voyage that his oil had cost more than 
coal and cargo ! Now, when a merchant undertakes to oil the 
wheels of his business with the ottar of roses, he may suddenly find 
himself at the end of his voyage, before he is over the sea ! 

We do not mean to say thatu man whose fortune is large, should 
not live freely ; or that a man, whose business is large, should not 
conduct it in splendid and even princely style. Every man should 
be generous and free-handed to the extent of his means. Other- 
wise, what possible good can come from a great fortune ! For, if 
a man gains wealth, and uses it only selfishly ; if he clothes himself 
with it as with an golden armor, so that no man's hand may reach 
to his heart for help ; if he heaps up his possessions around him, 
merely as a wall behind which he is to sit a solitary miser, count- 
ing his hoards ; he might better never have laid one penny upon 
the top of another, and have gone through the world a beggar ! 
We advise no meanness of purse, while the purse is full ; but we 
condemn the pretence of fullness, when it is empty! We equally 
condemn the unthrifty recklessness and extravagance by which men 
are every day reducing themselves unconsciously from wealth to 
poverty, and too often, as a natural consequence, from integrity to 
dishonesty. If, when a man ruins his business, he injured only him- 
self, he would have a perfect right to do it, just as he would have a 
right to cut off his own fingers, if he pleased! But one man's 
failure is too often the cutting off of other men's hands ! When 


a great house falls, a hundred others tremble. When a large bank- 
ing institution in England failed a few years ago, a thousand poor 
laboring men, widows, and infirm persons, who had invested in it 
their little all, were ruined! ISTo man has a right to indulge in 
any extravagance which will injure his success in business, so long 
as such an injury to himself will be an injury to any one else. 

If it be true, that " economy leads to wealth," it must be equally 
true that extravagance leads to poverty ; and almost the greatest 
extravagance, to which business men are now tempted, is that of 
ostentatious display. Dr. Franklin said, that " the road to wealth 
is as plain as the road to market." If Poor Richard were to come 
again to point it out, he would likely advise that it be not carpeted 
with Brussels, except «at its extreme farther end ! 


To able writers and eminent publishers to supply families with a 
monthly reading differing from that of any other monthly publication known at 

this time a periodical not claiming to he religious, yet to be 

always on the side of sound morals and an evangelical Christianity. Ficti- 
tious reading to be almost entirely, if not altogether excluded. 

There is one chief reason why such a Monthly should be published, and 
should be patronized by all good men and true : 

The weekly and monthly publications which have by far the widest cir- 
culation in the country, and which are not professedly religious, largely 
abound in fictitious reading, and are written for, to a too great extent, by men 
whose principles are levelling and infidel — an infidelity not far from a prac- 
tical atheism. Some of these are men of mind, of genius, of science, and of 
a high culture, are splendid writers, and too often use their' power and 
opportunity in darting into the mind of their readers arrows barbed with 
a rankling poison, which, when once carried home to the heart of the young, 
at an opportune moment, remains there ever after, to fester, and worry, and 
unsettle, if not to destroy all religious belief. It is simply hoped that some 
families of the many who cannot afford two Monthlies, but will take one, 
may decide to take this in preference, as being at least safe, even if it does 
not give as much reading matter. Parents will not fail to observe that the 
generality of the Weeklies and Monthlies, not claiming to be religious, con- 
tain so much reading, and that very largely fictitious or utterly frivolous, 
that it requires nearly all the " spare time," so called, to read them ', and 
more, time is too often spent upon them which ought not to be spared from 
the necessary duties and avocations of life. It is truly believed, therefore, 
that those parents who would not for a world that a child of theirs should 
grow up to be an "infidel," will consult the present and future welfare of 
themselves and their offspring, by taking such a Monthly, in 
preference to such publications as those above referred to. 



If too much food is taken, the stomach can not convert it into a perfect 
blood material, hence no perfect blood is made, and that being mixed with 
the other blood in the body makes the whole mass of blood impure ; hence, 
after an over-hearty meal a person " feels bad all over." If the over-eating 
is habitual, there is always some uncomfortable symptom complained of. 
Such persons are never well, and although they may eat heartily, they do 
not get strong nor fill up in flesh ; it is because the stomach has been over- 
taxed and has not the power to extract the nourishment from the food. 

When persons do not get strong, although they eat a great deal, they will 
get stronger by eating one half less ; as a sickly servant in attempting to do 
a large amount of work, does none of it well, whereas, if the task were a 
light one, the whole of it would have been thoroughly done. 

When any uncomfortable feeling is experienced after eating, it is because 
some article does not "agree with the stomach," that is, can not be digested 
by it. This always arises from quality or quantity, generally the latter. 
In such cases take less and less until no discomfort is produced ; if no special 
change is observed, it is because the quality is unsuited to the condition of 
the stomach, or the general system does not require it. 

An article may not agree with the stomach to-day, but may agree with ft 
very well in a few days, weeks, or months afterward, because its distinctive 
elements may then be needed in the system. Most persons instinctively 
turn away from roast pork in midsummer — it would make them sick — but 
in winter time, when the thermometer is near zero, large quantities are eaten 
with a relish, and no specific discomfort follows. As a general rule, instinct 
is the best guide, and that which is most relished is the thing which should 
be eaten ; but if some discomfort invariably follows, it should be omitted, at 
least, until a change of air, season, or occupation. 

It is a physical and moral wrong to take a single mouthful, when really 
it is not wanted ; the motive being merely to "eat even," to eat it out of 
the way, or feeling that if it is not eaten it will be thrown away by the cook. 
If thus thrown away, some worm, or insect, or animal may get it ; if eaten 
by yourself, it only oppresses the system that much. 

The finer food is divided or cut up before swallowed, the sooner, the 
easier and more perfectly is it digested, for like ice, it is dissolved from with- 
out, inwards, and the smaller the pieces the sooner are they melted. 

" Bread and butter " and milk are the only two articles of food which 
have. all the elements of nutrition ; hence from childhood to extreme old age 
we are never tired of them. 



The young eat for three reasons: 1st. To grow; 2d. To keep warm ; 
3d. To repair waste. Adults eat for the last two purposes ; hence all food 
contains one of two elements, and some kinds both, called nitrogen and 
carbon. The nitrogen makes flesh, sometimes called muscle, and is the same 
as lean meat. Carbon makes the fat, and is that which keeps us warm. 
Sugar, starch, arrowroot, oil, butter, suet, and lard have no nitrogen ; there 
is nothing in them to make flesh out of ; all the nutriment they afford is 
carbon, the material for warmth. Infants and young children would soon 
die, would get so chilly as to freeze, as it were, unless they had something 
sweet in their food ; hence nature has implanted in them an unappeasable 
taste for sweet things. The thing the new-born infant needs first and 
always is warmth. Butter, oils, and starches abound also in the heat- pro- 
ducing elements, but they require strong powers of digestion, are applicable 
to grown-up persons and to the old ; hence as we grow old we like fat meats, 
oils and butter more. 

It is in obedience to these laws that Almighty beneficence and wisdom 
has imparted a relish for oils and fat meats in winter, because extra heat is 
needed. Greenlanders, whose country is always covered with ice and 
snow, consider butter and lard and tallow candles and the rankest oils the 
greatest luxuries conceivable. But rice, on which many of the inhabit- 
ants of warm countries chiefly live, is said to contain scarce one per cent 
of the fat or heat-producing element, while oils have ninety-six per cent 
of it. 

All know how buckwheat cakes are relished in winter ; but as spring 
comes on, we begin to lose our appetite for them. The cakes themselves 
contain fifty -four per cent of the fat or heat-producing element, and they 
are made more palatable by spreading butter on them, and adding to this 
molasses, each being almost entirely (ninety-six per cent,) heat-producing. 

But out-door workers eat meat and bread the year round, and never 
weary of it, because twenty-two per cent of them are flesh-forming, give 
that much power and strength to work. 



Some soils produce several hundred bushels of the white com- 
monly called the Irish potato, and there is such a general taste 
for them that they are likely to continue to be a very common 
article of diet, although not as valuable or any more healthful than 
many other qualities of food. Three fourths of the potato is water, 
so that of one hundred pounds only twenty-five pounds are nutri- 
ment ; the rest is waste. Almost the entire nutriment is contained 
within a quarter of an inch of the surface, immediately under the 
skin ; hence by peeling, the very best part of it, and nearly all that 
is valuable, is wasted. Only the outer skin should be removed, 
that which is disposed to peel off after boiling. 

It is said that potatoes grown in France are entirely free from 
disease by having been planted in June instead of April, so as to 
escape the alternations of heat and cold by the changeable weather 
of spring. 

The tendency of potatoes to sprout in the early spring is reported 
to be prevented in Scotland, and by so doing, their full edible 
qualities are preserved, and " mealy " potatoes can be had all sum- 
mer from the previous year's growth. The experiment costs but 
little, and is worthy of being tested by every one who doubts its 
efficacy. Obtain from a druggist one ounce of liquor of Ammonia, 
(hartshorn) to a pint of water ; let the potatoes be immersed in this 
mixture four or five days ; dry them. Their substance is thus con- 
solidated, and much of their moisture extracted without the slight- 
est injury for all table qualities, but their vegetative power is for- 
ever destroyed. If spread out after immersion, so as to be well 
dried, they will keep good for ten months. 

Baked potatoes are easily digested, requiring only two hours 
and a half, but one hour longer if boiled. If baked in the ashes 
and eaten with butter and salt, they are sweeter and more health- 
ful than by any other mode of preparation. The sprouts of pota- 
toes uncovered with earth contain solanum, a powerful poison, the 
potato becoming green, and are then unfit for even animals. To 
have mealy potatoes for the table, boil them until the fork easily 
penetrates ; pour off all the water ; cover the vessel with a cloth 
near the fire, until " steamed " dry. 



Without strength or warmth we die ; food imparts these, and is pro- 
portionally valuable ; hence it is "nutritious," that is, nourishes, sustains, 
supports life The elements of food which do this are called carbon, yielding 
warmth, and nitrogen, yielding strength or flesh. Butter, fat, and oil are 
almost wholly carbon — contain no nitrogen — can not make flesh or give 
strength ; on the other hand apricots, cherries, and peaches contain no car- 
bon. A man who fed on them exclusively would freeze to death, would 
die for want of the warming part of nutriment. Meats give both warmth 
and .strength, and so do most articles of food, but in varying proportions. 

For those who work, that food is cheapest which, dollar's worth for dol. 
lar's worth, aflords the most strength, the most power to labor. The in- 
vestigations and experiments of Baron Liebig and others seem to show 
that one bushel of oats at sixty-eight cents a bushel, yields five pounds of 
the muscle, flesh, or strength element, costing thirteen cents per pound, 
while the same amount of " muscle," in the now common acceptation of 
the term, derived from roast beef, at twenty -five cents per pound at the 
butcher's stall, would cost two dollars and six cents ! The Irish masses 
do not eat meat once a week, yet they work hard, live healthily, and when 
temperate, live long. The Scotch glory in oatmeal, and are a hardy race. 
One third of the human family live chiefly on rice. 

It would be as healthful as economical for the industrious poor of our 
land to live chiefly on cereals, as wheat, corn, oats, rye, and barley, and 
when they can afford it, have fruits and berries, raw, ripe, and perfect in 
their natural state, as desserts. 

Articles. Cost. 

Oats, $0 68 per bushel, 

Peas, dried, 2 00 " 

Beans, " 2 50 

Corn, 1 10 " 

Barley, 150 " 

Turnips, 50 " 

Flour, unbolted, 11 00 per barrel, 

Flour, fine, 12 00 " 

Potatoes, 1 50 per bushel, 

Meats, 8£ pounds, 25 per pound, 

Muscle Element. 

5 pounds, 

14 " 

" Muscle " cost 
per pound. 

13 cents. 

14 " 































2 06 




Some persons can be " smelled " a mile off, more or less ; it is a 
misfortune, and a source of very great mortification to the refined 
and sensitive. It may be " born " with some ; with others, if not 
all, it is the result of a diseased condition of the system, or of a 
neglect of personal cleanliness. There is a peculiar odor emanat- 
ing from the feet which is, perhaps, always the result of unclean- 
liness. If daily washings do not remove these odors, a very effi- 
cient wash is found in red oxide of lead, one part, to twenty-nine 
parts of the liquor of the sub-acetate of lead ; the first to be bruised 
in a porcelain mortar, gradually adding the latter ; apply a few 
drops once a week, oftener in summer. 

A specific odor escapes every one, and is peculiar to the indi- 
vidual ; the dog knows it, and by it follows his master through 
any crowd of human beings, and never makes a mistake. A man's 
organ of smell is not thus acutely developed ; still there are per- 
sons whose peculiar penetrating odor is readily recognized. This 
does not come from the " sweat " of the person, as no such odor 
issues from the hands, but from the arm-pits and other parts kept 
covered by the clothing, so that the air can not penetrate ; nor is 
the application of soap and water too frequently allowed. When 
the "sweat" remains in contact with the skin, it undergoes a 
chemical change, and it is this which disengages the peculiarly 
disagreeable odor, as to the feet particularly ; thus this chemical 
formation is a kind of fetid fat, which is absorbed into the pores 
of the leather, and there it is detained with fresh additions daily, 
for weeks and months, with increasing rancidity, as the smell of 
any old boot or shoe will demonstrate. Some persons wear stock- 
ings without change from the time they are first put on until they 
are worn full of holes. Very many do not wash their feet oftener 
than once a month ; only a few as often as once a week. The feet 
ought to be washed every night before going to bed, and no stock- 
ing, boot, or shoe should be put on a second time, until it has had 
a whole clay's sunning, at least by those who have an ambition to 
be and feel as sweet and clean as a dew-drop on the rose of summer, 
or put two tablespoons of the compound spirits of ammonia (harts- 
horn) in a basin of water, and wash the face, hands, arms, armpits, 
and feet with it. The skin is left fresh, clean, and sweet ; it is 
perfectly harmless, and costs but little. 



The feeling of discomfort which arises from hunger is referred 
by the mind to the stomach, although it is only the sensation pro- 
duced by the wants of the whole body, which make themselves 
felt there ; every part of the system needs nutriment, but if each 
individual part suffered with equal intensity, the whole nervous 
system would be so deranged as either to cause convulsions or 
such a general disturbance of the machinery of life, that it would 
not work at all. If the feeling of hunger is allowed to last too 
long as to the stomach, it loses the power of action and the man 
dies. It is thus with cough ; the cause of cough is in the lungs ; 
there is something there which nature wants away, and which is 
a hurtful intruder ; but the sensation which induces cough is re- 
ferred to the throat, and trying to repress cough, either by the 
force of the will or anodyne medicines, is as unphilosophical as 
useless, as fatal in the end as trying to repress hunger, without 
removing the cause of it, that is, without supplying the needed nu- 

When a person is really hungry, the system has sent certain 
materials to the stomach from which the liquid is manufactured 
which is necessary to the digestion of the food, and as soon as the 
food is swallowed, this liquid begins to act upon it, and the sense 
of hunger gradually subsides. But when the system has not used 
up all the nourishment which the previous meal had supplied, 
there is no sensation of hunger, there is no call for food, there is 
no appetite, which means a " seeking for," there is no need for 
eating, for nature never tells a lie ; no liquid has been prepared 
which induces the sensation of hunger, hence nothing to digest 
the food if conveyed into the stomach, and if food is eaten 
under such circumstances, there being nothing in the stomach to 
take hold of it and convert it into nutriment, it remains for hours 
causing discomfort, heaviness, and even convulsions. At length 
it begins to decompose, to "rot ;" wind is generated, and the most 
noisome eructations and other gaseous discharges are made. Se- 
dentary persons do not "get over" these Avicked impositions on 
nature for days and weeks sometimes. This is the philosophy of 
the folly, the brutality, the criminal waste, and the sin of " eating 
without an appetite." 



The following table of the digestibility of the most common 
articles of food prepared from standard authorities, is approxi- 
mately correct and is of very general practical interest : 


Prepara- Tim.e of 
tion. Digestion. 

H. M. 

Kice, Boiled, 1 00 

Pigs' feet, soused, " 1 00 

Tripe, soused, " 100 

Eggs, whipped, Raw, 1 30 

Trout, salmon, fresh, Boiled, 1 30 

Trout, salmon, fresh, Fried, 1 30 

Soup, barley, Boiled, 1 30 

Apples, sweet, mellow, Raw, 1 30 

Tenison steak, Broiled, 1 35 

Brains, animal, Boiled, 1 45 

Sago, " 1 45 

Tapioca, " 2 00 

Barley, " 2 00 

Milk, " 2 00 

Liver, beef's, fresh, Broiled, 2 00 

Eggs, fresh, Raw, 2 00 

Codfish, cured dry, Boiled, 2 00 

Apples, sour, mellow, Raw, 2 00 

Cabbage, with vinegar, " 2 00 

Milk, " 2 15 

Eggs, fresh, Roasted, 2 15 

Turkey, wild, " 2 18 

Turkey, domestic, Boiled, 2 25 

Gelatine, " 2 30 

Turkey, domestic, Roasted, 2 30 

Goose, wild, " 2 30 

Pig, sucking, " 2 30 

Lamb, fresh, Broiled, 2 30 

Hash, meat, and vegetables, .Warmed, 2 30 

Beans, pod, Boiled, 2 30 

Cake, sponge, Baked, 2 SO 

Parsnips, Boiled, 2 30 

Potatoes, Irish, Roasted, 2 30 

Cabbage, head, Raw, 2 30 

Spinal marrow, animal, Boiled, 2 40 

Chicken, full grown, Fricasseed, 2 45 

Custard, Baked, 2 45 

Beef, with salt only, Boiled, 2 45 

Apples, sour, hard, Raw, 2 50 

Oysters, fresh, " 2 55 

Eggs, fresh, Soft boiled, 3 00 

Bass, striped, fresh, Broiled, 3 00 

Beef, fresh, lean, rare, Roasted, 3 00 

Pork, recently salted, Stewed, 3 00 


Mutton, fresh, Broiled, 

Soup, Boiled, 

Chicken soup, " 

Aponeurosis, " 

Dumpling, apple, " 

Cake, corn, Baked, 

Oysters, fresh, .Roasted, 

Porksteak, Broiled, 

Mutton, fresh, Roasted, 

Bread, corn, Baked, 

Carrot, orange, Boiled, 

Sausage, fresh, Broiled, 

Flounder, fresh, Fried, 

Catfish, fresh, " 

Oysters, fresh, Stewed, 

Butter, Melted, 

Cheese, old, strong, Raw, 

Soup, mutton, • Boiled, 

Oyster soup, " 

Bread, wheat, fresh, Baked, 

Turnips, flat, Boiled, 

Potatoes, Irish, " 

Prepara- Time of 
tion. Digestion. 

H. M. 

3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 15 
3 15 
3 15 
3 15 
3 15 
3 30 
3 30 
3 30 
3 30 
3 30 

3 30 
3 03 
3 30 

3 30 
3 30 

Eggs, fresh, Hard boiled, 3 30 

Green corn and beans, Boiled, 3 45 

Beets, " 3 45 

Salmon, salted, " 4 00 

Beef, Fried, 4 00 

Veal, fresh, Broiled, 4 00 

Fowls, domestic, Roasted, 4 00 

Soup, beef, vegetables, and 

bread, ' Boiled, 4 00 

Heart, animal, Fried, 4 00 

Beef, old, hard, salted, Boiled, 4 15 

Soup, marrow-bones, " 415 

Cartilage, *« 415 

Pork, recently salted, " 4 so 

Veal, fresh, Fried, 4 30 

Ducks, wild, Roasted, 4 30 

Suet, mutton, Boiled, 4 SO 

Cabbage, " 430 

Pork, fat and lean, Roasted, 5 15 

Tendon, Boiled, 5 30 

Suet, beef, fresh, " 5 30 



The following table from authentic sources shows the ascertained per centage of nutriment in the 
common articles of table consumption. Boiled rice being the easiest of digestion, because the quick- 
est, is marked ten ; boiled cabbage is two ; roast pork, boiled tendon, and beef suet requiring five 
and a half hours to be digested, would be one, or the lowest grade of digestibility. One important 
practical bearing of the table is that the most nutritious food should be eaten, as boiled rice, when 
the bowels are loose ; but when constipated, that which has most waste should be eaten, as boiled 
turnips, because the more waste the greater is the accumulation of this waste in the lower bowel, 
which acts in proportion as it is distended by such accumulation. 

Kind of Food. Preparation. 

Almonds, Raw, 

Apples, " 

Apricots, " 

Barley, Boiled, 

Beans, dry, " 

Beef, Roast, 


Bread, Baked, 

Cabbage, Boiled, 

Carrots, " 

Cherries, Raw, 

Chickens, Fricasseed, 

Codfish, Boiled, 

Cucumbers, Raw, 

Eggs, Whipped, 

Flour, bolted, In bread, 

Flour, unbolted, " 

Gooseberries, Raw, 

Grapes, " 

Haddock, Boiled, 

Melons, Raw, 

Milk, " 

Mutton, Roast, 

Oatmeal, Baked, 

Oils, Raw, 

Peas, dry, Boiled, 

Peaches, Raw, 

Pears, " 

Plums, " 

Pork, Roast, 

Potatoes, Boiled, 

Rice, " 

Rye flour, Baked, 

Sole, Fried, 

Soup, barley, Boiled, 

Strawberries, Raw, 

Turnips, Boiled, 

Veal Fried, 

Venison, Broiled, 

Wheat bread, Baked, 

Per Cent of 



Time of 


H. At. 

Ease of 





Sweet and mellow. 











Fresh, lean, rare, broiled, di- 
gests in three hours. 






















































































Unbolted flour. 


On the first of March last the subscription price to the Journal was raised to one 
dollar and a half a year ; those who have sent their names since with but one dol- 
lar, are requested to send fifty cents in addition if they desire to have the Journal 
sent to them the remainder of the year. 

To Physicians. — Braithwaite's Retrospect is published twice a year, giving a full 
and succinct account of all that is new in medicine and surgery throughout the 
world for the preceding six months. $2.50 a year in advance, or $1.50 each. 
Wm. A. Townsend, 55 Walker street, New-York. Part 49, for July, 1864, 300 
pages 8vo, contains 124 articles, with a full and judicious synopsis and an extended 
alphabetical index of every subject treated. If any physician or surgeon takes but 
one medical publication, he should take the Retrospect, for it contains in a concen- 
trated form an amount of medical information equal to any other half-dozen publi- 

Harper's Weekly, $3 a year, and the Monthly at the same price, both for five 
dollars, maintain their popularity among all classes of readers. 

The Atlantic Monthly, $3 a year, Boston, has just entered a new volume. It 
has a corps of writers embracing the finest talent in the land, hence its increasing 
popularity. But we are constrained to say we do not consider it a true friend to 
the Christian religion ; it seems to be, but every now and then its best contributors 
give it a malignant stab — Holmes, Hawthorne, Emerson, and some others. We 
wish it were otherwise, for with that exception it is by far the most ably conducted 
literary monthly either in Great Britain or America. 

The following beautiful volumes are among the issues of the American Tract So- 
ciety, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible House, New- York: Trevor's Ancient 
Egypt, Walter Lightfoot's Pictures, New Stories from an Old Book, Progress, or 
the Sequel to Jerry and his Friend, by Alice A. Dodge, The Gospel among the Caf- 
firs, or the Story of Rev. Mr. Moffatt and his labors in South-Africa, a most inter- 
esting history, and as instructive as Trevor's Ancient Egypt. Then there is a beau- 
tiful 24mo, Stories for Little Ones, second series, containing over twenty narrations 
for young children. " Our Birds," by Mrs. Fanny J. Burge Smith, contains beau- 
tiful engravings of a dozen of the sweetest birds of the world, the jay, martin, 
woodpecker, oriole, bobolink, sparrow, mocking, humming, and cat-birds. Missions 
and Martyrs in Madagascar — no man can feel as he ought, until he reads this book, 
the inexpressible happiness of being permitted in peace and quietness to live in a 
land of religious liberty. " Christian Home Life," a book of examples and princi- 
ples, 13 chapters on Bible and Home Life, Piety at Home, Home Happiness, Teach, 
ing and Training, Formation of Character, Personal Habits, Social Habits, Child 
Piety, Family Worship, Sabbath at Home, Social Intercourse, Breaking Up of 
Home, The Eternal Home. These headings show the richness of the book. What 
thousands will want to read the "Autographs of Mrs. Sherwood," 441 pp. 12mo 
with extracts from Mr. Sherwood's journal during his imprisonment in France and 
residence in India, abridged from the London edition. 

Going Home. — Only eleven Revolutionary pensioners " still live." The twelfth 
was Rev. Daniel Waldo, just died, August, 1864, having lived nearly a hundred and 
two years. Within a year he has preached several times twice on the Sabbath ; 
his disease was a throat affection. 


The Family Treasure, monthly, $2, Pittsburgh, Pa., by David McKinney, D.D., 
and I. N. McKinney, is well worthy the patronage of all moral and religious fami- 
lies, and such as aim at a high moral culture. It is for the family, and is edited 
with sound judgment and a wise discrimination. Let every religious family try it 
a year. It is devoted to " Christian doctrine, science, history, biography, and evan- 
gelical literature." May it fill the want of page 178. 

Economical eating bids fair to be the rage now. We have a tract on that sub- 
ject in the present number. The white bean item is worthy of special note ; we 
have spoken in its praise. We generally aim to under-state ; but in the effort in 
this case we did not do the beans equal and impartial justice. We said they went 
farther than roast beef. This was after having made the trial at our own table ; 
our family of eight will consume four pounds of roast beef, butcher's weight, a day. 
We called for a pint of white beans, had them weighed, a little over one pound, 
paid seven cents for them, and had a dish of "pork and beans," so the cook said. 
It was so unusual a sight, our little Alice inquired with singular earnestness, opening 
her eyes to the dimensions of young saucers, and pointing to the dish: "Mother, 
what is that ?" In order to give the dish a fair chance, there was no other meat on 
the table. And we are bound to speak the praise- of beans in the way of economy ; 
this one pound certainly did go farther, costing but seven cents, than a four-pound 
roasting-piece of beef. The beans went a week. Therefore, beans "is" economi- 
cal, very. Quod erat dem. But for all that, the white beans can't hold a candle 
to the cheap bread we have lauded as unstintedly as Orange Judd of the American 
Agriculturist, which first gave publicity to the receipt. Our own tastes are not very 
acute; we had to ask the waiter this morning whether we were drinking coffee or 
tea ; ordinarily we know by casting our eye at the head of the table and noticing 
the shape of the beverage-holder ; but wifey being out of town, there was no urn 
on the table. But as to the famous corn-bread ; in order to make a fair experiment, 
we allowed no other kind to come on the table, so that wife, children, or servants 
had to eat that or none. Well, the result of the operation is, that the entire family 
suddenly lost all appetite for bread, and five pounds of corn-meal lasted eight per- 
sons seven days, by which time the experiments were ended, the show was over, 
the school out, and " as you were " is the order of the day, save and excepting the 
bulk of my purse, length and weight being now obsolete terms in that connection. 

p. s. — N. B. We stop the press to say, that since writing the foregoing the 
thought occurred that the family may have found some substitute for bread ; and 
on looking at the grocer's " pass-book," there are frequent items of " soda crack- 
ers." Hence, instead of feeding our family on corn-bread at five cents, or even 
home-made wheat bread at eight cents, we have been paying fifteen cents a pound 
for " soda crackers," eaten at lunch, when we are down-town. Wonder after all, 
if a good many " experiments " of world-wide publicity, are not about as truthful, 
practically, as ours with white beans and corn-meal. So our readers must remem- 
ber, that a thing may be literally true, but for all practical purposes false. Mean- 
while we will rest in the conclusion, that the virtuous and patriotic public will econ- 
omize, only when there is no beef or flour to be purchased, or they have no money 
to buy. 

Special attention is invited to the advertisement of those sterling and enter- 
prising business men, Messrs. Scott & Baldwin, of 505 Broadway. See their prin- 
ciples of doing business in our July number, and which have been copied in the 
magazines and newspapers for their excellence, and which ought to be practiced by 
every business man in the nation. 

Sweeping Conscription of every copy that could be found in the city, for the 
army, of our condensed edition of Soldier Health, 32 pp., five cents, six by mail. 
It is the most urgently demanded book yet written for the soldiers. Who will send 
in thirty dollars to hand over one thousand copies to the Christian Commission, or 
to supply a named regiment ? 


VOL. XI. OCTOBEE, 1864. No. 10. 

It is not known as generally as it ought to be, that consumption, 
that disease known as " common consumption of the lungs," called by 
many a " decline," begins with a regular hacking cough in the morn- 
ing, or on getting up. In fact it is so slight at first, that it scarcely 
amounts to a cough ; it is a mere " hem " or effort to clear the throat 
of something which seems to excite a little tickling sensation there, 
generally referred to the spot known as the hollow, at the bottom 
of the neck in front. The person does not imagine that it has any 
thing whatever to do with the lungs ; he insists upon it that it is only 
in the throat ; and for weeks and even months afterwards, when it has 
become a decided cough, as regular as the rising of the sun, he regards 
it as an affection of the throat merely, and repeats the saying a thou- 
sand times, as if to reassure himself and others of the truth of it ; and 
that if he could only get something to apply to the throat, and take 
away " that pesky tickling," he would have no cough, and would be as 
well as he ever was in his life; he strikes upon his chest triumphantly, and 
exclaims " all right, not the slightest pain or other inconvenience there, 
anyhow." To remove this tickling he has the fashionable remedy ap- 
plied ; a bit of sponge is dipped into a solution of the nitrate of silver, 
and passed down to the tickling spot, and lo it is gone ! To make the 
matter more sure, the applications are renewed daily or several times 
in the course of a week or two ; the physician is gratefully and liber- 
ally paid and he returns home with a heart so light and buoyant, he is 
ready to hug and kiss everybody he meets ; is quite as jubilant as an 
honest man, who by great and long continued exertions, has paid the 
last dollar of indebtedness he owes in the world. In about two years, 
on an average, the throat swabbed man dies of consumption ; because 
the nitrate of silver only destroys the sensibilities of the part by the 
greater wounding inflicted, when nature has recovered from the violence 
offered, the tickling returns, just the same as ever, and then there is 
the usual routine of syrups, cough drops, lozenges, trochees and the 
like, all of which contain opium, which like the nitrate of silver, only 
deadens the sensibilities of the parts, but for a short period, requiring 

192 HalVs Journal of Health. 

renewals every few hours ; then follow the more desperate (and as 
vain) efforts of going to the South, to a warmer climate, or Minnesota, 
to die in some miserable log cabin, away off in some cheerless prairie, or 
bleaker " thicket/' or in some more pretentious " water cure." Whole 
Hecatombs of the dead are piled up every year in this way from one 
mistaken idea. The cause of the tickling in the throat is tubercles in 
the lungs ; the throat is the point where we get the intelligence of 
their beginning existence. A tubercle is of the size of the tiniest crust 
of bread, which, when it " goes the wrong way," that is passes into the 
lungs, is a foreign matter there, and so is the tubercle : nature takes the 
alarm, and endeavors to get rid of it, by exciting a tickling in the 
throat, which brings about a cough, and this cough generally, as all 
have experienced, continues until the crumb is dislodged. Destroying the 
tickling feeling here, is to remove the kindly cough, intended to bring 
the offending crumb away. The time to " cure consumption," is when 
it has proceeded no farther than the morning cough ; the manner of 
doing it is to remove, to cause absorption of, or otherwise rendering the 
tubercle harmless, by developing the activities of the lungs, by correct- 
ing that "error of nutrition" which the most eminent physiologists of the 
age agree in regarding as the cause of tubercle ; and let the tickling 
and the throat and the cough alone, as the friendly sentinels of danger : 
when the tubercle is rendered harmless, the throat will be well, and the 
cough and tickling will disappear. Defective nutrition is to be correct- 
ed by keeping the system in the highest state of health possible ; in 
the breathing of large amounts of out door air ; in the consumption of 
nutritious food ; and the working out of all impure matters from the 
system by moderate, continuous, interesting and profitable activities ; 
all the while aiding nature, by such means as the scientific practitioner 
well understands, will keep the skin, liver, feet, and the whole diges- 
tive apparatus in the most perfect order, without which, the rendering 
of tubercles harmless, that is, the arrest of consumption, is absolutely 
and alwavs, utterly impossible. 


The scissoring editor who printed the following ought to be kicked 
and the lady writer ought to be kickter. 

"For a family of half a dozen persons, take six eggs, boil four of 
them hard, dissolve the yolks with vinegar sufficient, add about three 
teaspoons of mustard and mash as smooth as possible ; then 
add the two remaining eggs, (raw,) yolk and white, stir well ; then 
add salad oil to make altogether sauce sufficient to cover the tomatoes 

Tomatoes for Supper. 193 

well ; add plenty of salt and cayenne pepper, and beat thoroughly until 
it frosts. Skin and cut the tomatoes a fall fourth of an inch thick, 
and pour the sauce over, and you have a dish fit for a President." 

That is the whole story, and what a mess of eggs and mustard and 
salt and cayenne pepper, it is enough to sicken a horse or choak an 
elephant ; and then to call it a dish of tomatoes when not the slightest in. 
timation is given as to the amount of tomatoes to be used, whether a 
grain or a teaspoonful. And to think that any woman coiild relish 
such a lob- lolly ; why the veriest drunkards are the persons who revel 
in red pepper, vinegar and brimstone after a week's spree. And this 
recipe first saw the light of day, in print, when eggs were selling in 
New York at four cents a piece, and tomatoes at twenty-five cents a 
mouthful, for if you were to squeeze all the water out of a quart of 
tomatoes there would not be a tablespoonful left. If great big 
strappiug country girls who can stomach such a bowl of slosh want 
to make themselves useful, they will serve their day and generation a 
thousand times better by studying out some cheap method of making 
corn bread taste as good as pound cake ; of preparing as luscious a 
meal out of liver as from porter house steak. If any maid, miss or 
mistress can invent a plan for making as good a cup of coffee out of 
burnt bread crusts as from the best old government Java, or can make 
" catnip tea " without sugar, taste as well and exhilarate more than the 
best " store" article, such are the persons who merit the thanks and 
respect of the nation. How could the editor of the Germantown Tele- 
graph, which has been so well conducted for now these many years, have 
allowed such a jumble to mar his fair columns. The letter which brought 
it from his fair correspondent must have been gilt edged, rose-scented and 
handed in by a waiter in livery, just at the moment of his learning from 
another missive that a New Master Telegraph had just safely walked 
out upon the boards of this mundane sphere, and perhaps too, he had just 
heard from his paper maker that "stock" had fallen twenty-eight-and- 
a-half per cent. Some such streak of good luck must have come over 
him to have put him in the mood of sending up for .copy that squashy- 
article headed " Tomatoes for Supper." The fact is no body ought 
to have any supper except old women and babies. Whats the use of 
eating from morning till night. Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner ; Supper — 
Tea ; no wonder a hundred people died every day last week in New 
York City, every one of them ought to have had a " coroner's inquest." 
No doubt the just verdict would have been as to ninety-nine out of a 
hundred " died of a surfeit of food — or physic !" No, let the newspapers 
hold out inducements to correspondents to communicate information 

194 HalVs Journal of Health. 

how the cheapest articles of food can be made to taste the most lus- 
cious, and thus merit a wider patronage. 

It ought not to be forgotten by any one liable to shipwreck 
that thirst is quenched by soaking the clothing in salt water twice 
a day, or even oftner, and allowing them to dry upon the person. A 
noble and humane old sea captain, Kennedy, published this statement 
more than a hundred years ago ; yet it is very doubtful if two persons 
out of any company, taken promiscuously, are aware of so impor- 
tant a practical fact, to which the generous captain attributed the 
preservation of his own life and of six other persons. If sea water is 
drank, the salty portions of it are absorbed into the blood and fires it 
with a new and more raging thirst and a fierce delirium soon sets in. 
It would seem that the system imbibes the water, but excludes all the 
other constituents. It is known that wading in common water quench- 
es thirst with great rapidity. Persons while working in water seldom 
become thirsty. And it is further interesting to know, that however 
soaking wet the garment may become from rain or otherwise, it is 
impossible for the person to take cold if the precaution is taken to 
keep in motion with sufficient activity to keep off the feeling of chilli- 
ness, until the clothing is perfectly dried or facilities are afforded for a 
change ; but in changing the garments after a wetting, it is always 
safest and best, as an additional safeguard against taking cold, to 
drink a cup or two of some hot beverage before beginning to undress. 

Some persons cannot go to sleep for hours after going to bed ; others 
wake up in the night and toss and tumble until near morning, when 
they fall asleep from a kind of exhaustion, and do not wake up until 
the sun is high in the sky ; such habits can be broken up nine times 
out of ten in a week, by the exercise of a little force of character ; if 
the individual does not possess that, he is of no earthly account and the 
next time he goes to sleep he had better stay there. In nearly every 
case the discomfort of habitually restless nights arises from the per- 
son being so unfortunate as having nothing to do, or at least doing noth- 
ing, and endeavors to force more sleep on nature than she wants, and 
she never will be forced with impunity to do anything, she is as stub- 
born as a mule or a pig in a poke. The sedentary require less sleep 

Wa kef idness . 195 

than the active, those who live indoors less than those who are out 
in the glorious open air. Women require more sleep than men, other 
things being equal, the nervous system being more active in blowing up 
their husbands, studying how to marry off their daughters, setting 
traps for rich widowers, and gosling young gents whosa dads are mil- 
lionaires. Few persons after fifty can sleep longer than seven hours, 
unless they are hard out door workers ; healthy children under ten 
ought to have ten hours for sleep ; school girls from 12 to 18 ought to 
sleep at least nine hours. But from various causes there is a great 
difference in the amount of sleep required by different persons, hence 
each should observe for himself how much sleep he requires and arrange 
to give nature that much every night ; if unusual exertions are made 
any day, sleep longer the night following. If kept up several 
hours later than usual, on chance occasions, arrange not to be disturb- 
ed in any way next morning, and when nature wakes up, get up and 
do not sleep any during the day, but go to bed at the regular hour and 
the increased soundness of sleep for that night will make up for the 

If yoa cannot go to sleep when you first go to bed, give orders to be 
waked up at daylight, get up promptly, do not sleep a wink during the 
day, go to bed at your regular time, with directions to be waked up as 
before ; in a week you will find that you can go to sleep promptly, but 
then be careful to get up as soon as you wake in the mornings, thus 
you will soon find out how much sleep your system requires, and act 
accordingly ; always avoiding sleeping in the day time ; for if you re- 
quire seven hours sleep, and spend that much in sleep at night, what- 
ever time you spend in sleep during the day must be deducted from that 
seven hours, or you will soon become wakeful again. If you wake up 
in the night, either go to bed two or three hours later or when you 
wake, get up, even if it be but one o'clock in the morning, and do not 
sleep a moment until your regular hour for going to bed ; and if you 
go to bed regularly, get up as soon as you wake, and do not sleep in the 
day time, you will find out in less than a week how much sleep you 
require, then act accordingly. Nature loves regularity, and the four 
hours sleep from ten to two, is worth six hours after twelve o'clock. 
The great rule is, retire at a regular early hour and get up always as 
soon as you wake, if it is daylight . If persons have force of wi 11 enough 
to keep from going to sleep a second time, it is greatly better to remain 
in bed ten or fifteen minutes after waking up, to think about it, and enjoy 
the resting of that kind of feeling of pleasurable tiredness which comes 
over U3 on waking, especially if we have taken more exercise than usual 
the previous day, or have been kept up later., 

19G Hall's Journal of Health. 

On inquiry with a number of gentlemen, one ton of range coal is 
allowed for the cooking and washing purposes of the household for one 
month on an average during the year. This is double what it ought 
to be, and with coal costing at the time it is put into bins, including 
the necessary " kindling" of paper and wood, fifteen dollars a ton, 
amounts to ninety dollars a year. These statements are made as the 
result of experiments carried on under our own eye for the double 
pleasure of economizing and the greater one of knowing a thing per- 
sonally for ourself and of being able to communicate the knowledge to 
others, to clergymen for example who are almost always too scanti- 
ly paid and with whom one half the above amount is of very considera- 
ble importance. We obtained one of Fish's patent cooking lamps and 
have been using it for two seasons. A ton of coal was purchased on 
the 11th of June last; the next on the third of September, making two 
months and a half. Fire was regularly kindled and kept burning for 
three days in the week for cooking, washing, ironing and bread baking, 
to wit, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays; at other times the 
cooking for a family averaging ten persons was done with a gas 
lamp from Russell's establishment at 206 Pearl Street, New- York. 
The amount of gas used, for cooking purposes only, during that two 
months and a half, at $2.50 per thousand feet, was less than two dol- 
lars. The gas stove costs now $1.50, the largest size made being 
a No. four; it does all the cooking needed in a family, except baking 
bread, roasting meats and preparing pastries. Boiling water, boiling 
vegetables and frying meats can all go on at the same time. Bread 
can be toasted and buckwheat or batter or other thin cakes are easi- 
ly made. It might be arranged for a great part of the winter that 
the range should be lighted for cooking every day's dinner, and use the 
gas or kerosene stove for breakfast, and thus, instead of having the 
range red hot from day light until bed time it really need not burn 
longer than three hours, for who ever knew a servant who could cook 
or wash or even make a cup of coffee for breakfast without a red hot 
stove. The difference between burning coal under such circumstances 
three hours instead of sixteen, is not a small item. N. B. Since 
writing the above, we chanced to call in at Mr. Russell's establishment, 
and have been exceedingly gratified to find that he has gotten up a fam- 
ily cooking stove, heated by kerosene or gas, at a cost of ten or twelve 
dollars each, which will roast ten pounds of beef, bake bread, pies, 
pastries, &c, with the greatest facility. In these days of costly fuel, 
this stove is a public godsend. Kerosene at one dollar a gallon will 
heat this stove for all necessary cooking purposes, at four cents an 

Making a Fortune. 19? 

hoar. The Flat Iron Heater is kept in operation for less than three 
cents an hour, and costs eight dollars; saving the suffocating heat of 
midsummer, which citizens have to endure on ll ironing days." 

Some men can make money any where; they will get rich on a rock; 
others strive laboriously all their lives, succeed at nothing and die poor. 
The former have promptness, energy, system and forethought. 
Some get rich by trickery, meanness and habitual deceptions ; others 
by straightforward dealing and a generous remuneration and humane 
care of all whom they employ. These principles have found a striking 
illustration in the history of one of the handsomest retail stores on 
Broadway. At No.505 a few days ago, we saw a hundred happy looking 
girls at work; not in a damp musty basement; not in a ccbwebbed and 
stifling hot attic; not in some unsunned crib with bare brick walls and 
rough joists or rafters overhead, but in an elegant apartment on the 
ground floor; large, light and cheery; quietness, tidiness every where 
prevailing. Being well paid and well cared for, every girl is anxious 
to maintain her place ; and as the best means of doing so, does her 
work in the most thorough manner; to make assurance doubly sure, 
that lynxeyed embodiment of all that is tasteful and befitting, Mrs. E. 
Wintle , examines the work in detail as it progresses as well as after 
its completion, lest a thing might be allowed to " pass" sometimes when 
it ought not to, because of the " trouble " of undoing so much. Passing 
by mantillas, cloaks, dresses, and a thousand and one other things worn 
by ladies and children, there was one little item about gentlemen's 
underclothing which was characteristic of the whole establishment. If 
a stranger or citizen wants a shirt on an emergency all ready, or to be 
made, it is uniformly presented to him, elsewhere, as thick as a board 
with starch, with the express object of concealing the slaziness of the 
material. It glistens like the frozen snow and vies with it in white- 
ness ; you can hear its rattle and rustle, on handling, a hundred yards 
away, but on the very first washing its worthlessness is apparent at a 
glance ; the garment will scarcely bear half a dozen washings. Now all 
this contemptible skinning is done away with, at Scott & Baldwin's 
establishment ; their goods 'are "soft finished;" are scarcely starched at 
all ; nothing is done to conceal the quality of the article o ; you can see 
for yourself what it is at the first glance and are never disappointed in 
its wear. Our readers will not be disappointed to learn of the success 
of such a house, and it is a satisfactory confirmation of the truth of the 
time honored legend (although some, in these days of shoddy, have 
almost begun to question it) , that " Honesty is the Best Policy." 



Serious sickness, dyspepsia and a life long train of ills sometimes follow 
the use of flesh from poor, old, hard worked and diseased animals ; it is 
then oi some importance to know how to feed and fatten them properly, 
and to the best advantage,and to do this the first essential step is to know the 
relative value, the nutritiousness of various kinds of food, so that the meat 
when it appears on the table may be fat, healthy, tender and juicy. The fol_ 
lowing table is the result of carefully conducted experiments made and cor_ 
roborated by the experiments of eminent chemists and is therefore reliable, 
as being approximately correct in the main. One hundred pounds of good 
hay affords as much nourishment to cattle which feed upon it as, 


43 of Wheat 

44 Dried Peas, 



















64 Linseed oil cake, 


68 Acorns 

96 Bed clover hay 
105 Wheat bran, 
109 Eye bran, 
153 Pea straw, 
153 Pea chaff, 
167 Wheat or Oat chaff 346 Field beets, 
170 Eye or Barley " 355 Eye straw, 
175 Eaw potatoes, 504 Turnips. 



195 Boiled Potatoes 

220 Oat straw, 

262 Euta baga, 

275 Green corn, 

280 Carrots, 

339 Man Wurtzel, 

German chemists have found the relative value of food for cows giving 
milk to be as follows. One hundred pounds of good hay contains as much 
nourishment as : 

lbs. lbs. 

26 Peas, 250 Pea straw, 

25 Beans, 300 Barley straw, 

50 Oats, 300 Oat straw, 

60 Oil cake, 350 Siberian cabbage, 

80 Clover hay, 400 Eye straw, 

80 Vetches, 400 Wheat straw, 

200 Potatoes, 460 Beet root with leaves. 

The English give their cows weighing a thousand pounds, eight pounds 
of good hay, thrice a day in winter. A cow which was given 27 pounds of 
hay daily, yielded in four days one quart more of milk than when she con- 
sumed only 21 pounds of hay ; that is, the extra 24 pounds of hay in four 
days gave one quart of milk extra. While horses require eight per cent, of 
their weight good English hay a day, milch cows require only two-and- 
three- quarters per cent. A milch cow will not eat more than 25 or 30 
pounds of hay a day, and if more milk is desired, it must be obtained by 
giving her richer food, that containing more oil, albumen, &c. 



The horses of the Third Avenue Railroad Company of New York City 
travel twenty miles a day over almost a dead level of cobble stone 
pavement, and being checked and started every five minutes or oftner, it 
becomes a laborious service ; to keep them in good condition, and maintain 
their efficiency, has required a great deal of reflection, judgment and ob- 
servation. The regular daily rations of each animal are : Sound corn meal, 
17 lbs. ; good clean hay, mostly timothy, 13 lbs. The hay is chaffed in a 
cutting machine driven by horse-power, and wet and mixed with the meal, 
and fed in regular messes at regular times as nearly as the service will 
permit. — Of course there is no waste of food and no using good hay for bed- 
ding. That is made of rye straw, which may average about three pounds 
a day per horse. The feed boxes are carefully examined after feed, to see 
that all has been eaten, and to prevent any accumulation of sour or dam- 
aged food, and if a horse is " off his feed/' to remove him at once to the 
hospital. The stall and feed boxes are kept constantly as clean as brushes, 
brooms, and Croton water can make them. The company keep seven 
hundred horses. 

A family carriage horse, a " hack 7 ' for the neighbors also, five years old, 
keeps lively, healthy and fat by being fed thrice a day as follows : 

Morning a bushel basket of cut oat straw, four quarts of " shorts" mixed 
thoroughly after being moistened with water. 

Noon, same amount of straw and three quarts of shorts, clear. 
Night, a bushel basket of hay and straw, half and half, cut, mixed with 
four quart3 of shorts. He had in addition, the pairings of potatoes and 
apples and cabbage leaves from the family kitchen. This is believed to 
be a saving of one half, compared with the ordinary method of feeding 
horses. The London Omnibus Company feeds six thousand horses daily ; 
they found that horses fed with sixteen pounds of bruised oats, seven and 
a half pounds of cut hay, and two and a half pounds of cut straw, looked 
as well, and did as much work on their nineteen pounds o£food daily, as 
on twenty-six pounds a day, if the oats were not bruised and the hay and 
straw were not cut ; a diiference of three hundred dollars a day. It is 
perhaps most economical in this country to feed work horses with fine 
ground oat and corn meal, two-thirds of the former and one-third of the 
latter well mixed, the former contains the muscle forming principle, the 
power to labor, the latter the fat, the carbon, for warmth. 

But what has " Horse Flesh'' to do with human health? " Much every 
way." " On horseback" is one of the most healthful, graceful and manly 
of all forms of exercise. It is exhilarating to mind and body ; there is 
not a muscle in the human system which is not brought more or less into 
requisition, and the great danger is obviated, especially to invalids, of ex- 
haustive exercise, and of being over heated and thus made liable to fresh 
colds ; besides, it involves the breathing of a pure atmosphere all the time ; 
itself an all important element to health seekers ; and the difference be- 
tween riding or driving a sleek charger, and a bag of bones, is as wide as 
the poles asunder. A man en a poor horse feels as mean as if he had on 
a diity shirt, or a hole in his stocking, or as if he hadn't a dollar in his pock- 
et. . There is more health to the cabined, cribbed and confined daughters 
of citizens and farmers in one hour's daily horse-back riding, about sun rise, 
for nine months in the year, with gentlemen of refinement, courteous and 
joyous nature, than in all the drugs and " pathies" in the universe. Be- 
sides we owe it to the noblest of all animals to understand how to take 
the be3t care of him. 



The ultimate ingredients of all food are carbon to warm, and nitrogen 
to make flesh. Some have no carbon, others no nitrogen, some have both 
in varying proportions, all have water or waste from five to ninety per 
cent. The table below is the result of the researches of the ablest chem- 
ists of the age. The amount of solid matter in an article of food, does not 
mean that amount of nutriment, for a portion of it may be woody fibre or 
waste, or lime, chalk, iron or other mineral. The cypher indicates that not 

one per cent of the element is found ; na : not ascertained ; blanks mean no 
published or reliable statements have been made. The more water, the 
more waste, for even woody fibre and iron have their essential uses in 
the system. 

In 100 parts of, there Solid Water. Carbon. Nitrogen . 

is per centage of matter. 

Arabic gum 88 12 36 

Artichokes 28 80 9 

Apricots 25 75 / n.a. 

Arrow root 82 18 36 n.a. 

Almond oil 100 77 

Batter 83 17 66 n.a. 

Bread 68 32 31 n.a. 

Beans.., 87 14 38 n.a. 

Blood 20 80 10 3 

Beef fresh 25 75 10 8 

Beef tea 2 98 — n.a. 

Cabbage 8 92 — 

Carrots 12 88 — 

Cherries 25 75 ' — — - 

Cucumbers 3 97 — — 

Candy 90 10 43 

Egg white, of 20 80 — — 

Egg yolk 46 54 — — 

Fish average 20 80 , — — 

Figs 84 16 

Gooseberries 18 81 — — 

Hogs lard 100 79 

Isinglass 92 7 — — 

Leguminous seed^ 37 — 

Lentils. 84 16 37 — 

Manna — 40 — — 

Mutton suet 100 — 70 

Milk of cow 13 87 — — 

Milk of ass 8 92 — 

Milk of goat 13 86 — — 

Olive oil 100 — 77 — 

Oats 79 21, 40 2 

Oat meal 93 7 — — 

Oysters Is 87 36 — 

Peas 84 16 — 

Potatoes 24 76 11 

Peaches 20 80 — — 

Pears 16 84 — — 

Poultry 23 77 — ~ 

Rye 83 17 39 2 

Sugar average — — 42 

Starch average 84 16 36 -- 

Wheat 86 14 39 2 



In household economy a great mistake is often made in the oversight of 
the fact, that the same number or measure or weight of the same article 
does not always give the same amount of yield or nutriment. 

In every three tons of coal, stove, range, or grate, passing your door 
from different yards, and to the casual observer all looking exactly alike, 
there is a difference in their heat producing value up to as 'high as one- 
half. Some coals clinker badly, others contain a great many thin flat pieces, 
but when put in the fire turn white ; coal dealers call this " bone'' as it 
has something of the color of burnt bone, it has no coal in it, and is a clear 
loss. Good coal will not have three pieces of " bone ;; in a whole day's 
burning ; sometimes the grate is half full of these white pieces by bed- 

Eggs are of different sizes. In any basket of eggs, the twelve largest and 
smallest will make a difference of perhaps one-third or more. 

When we purchase apples by the bushel we get about the same number 
of pounds whether they be large or small, and so with potatoes, but there 
is more nourishment in the Mercer than in the Cusco variety, yet it is to 
the interest of the farmer to cultivate the " Cusco," even if he sold them at 
half price, because' planting each variety in the same soil one acre will 
yield ninety-one bushels of the Jersey Mercer, while two hundred and forty 
bushels of the Cusco potato was the product of the adjoining acre, 
tilled in the same manner, as reported by Mr. Williams at the Farmers' 
Club of the American Institute in New York City. 

A piece of " roast beef "in the process of cooking, looses fifteen per 
cent. ; if boiled it looses only eleven per cent. If a leg of mutton is roast- 
ed it looses twent}M3ve per cent, but only ten per cent, if boiled. So that 
if you want a " roast w for dinner, beef is cheaper than mutton at the same 
price per pound, although mutton is four per cent, more nutritious than 

Wood. — Very few persons are aware of the wide difference between the 
amount of heat yielded by the different qualities of wood, and as wood is 
sold by measurement, while its value for giving out warmth is determined 
by its weight, each kind being equally seasoned and dry, it is well to be 
posted as to these points. 

One cord of dry hickory wood will keep up a certain amount of heat 
for one hundred days, while a cord of pitch pine will last only thirty-five 
days, and a cord of white oak ninety-one days, a ton of Lehigh coal will 
last ninety-one days. " Charcoal is charcoal," all kinds are alike as to color, 
but a ton of pine charcoal lasts seventy-five days, maple a hundred and 
fourteen days, oak one hundred and sixty-six. In the light of these state- 
ments families may save a good many dollars every year. 



There is an undefined impression left on the minds of many in pass- 
ing a group of chubby looking children playing in the street or by the 
roadside, bare footed, bare headed and ragged, begrimed with dust or 
mud, that " dirt must be healthy .'' And when there is noticed around the 
cabins of the country poor or the shanties in the city outskirts a crowd of 
ragamuffin urchins of all sizes, like the regular gradations of a ladder, an- 
other notion is almost formed, in distinct words, that" poverty is healthy" 
as well as dirt, as the having a house full of children is taken as proof of 
vigorous constitutions on the part of the toiling parents. Taking New York 
City as a guide, the official reports for 1863 show that of every ten deaths, 
seven are foreign, although just half the population is foreign born ; and as 
a class, foreigners are the poorest and the filthiest of all American large 
seaboard cities ; of course there are notable exceptions. It is known that 
those who live on their daily wages average eleven years less of life than 
those who are well to do. So that poverty is as far from being healthful, 
as it is from being agreeable. Of 1000 children dying under one year old, 
nearly three-forths were born of foreign parents ; two-thirds of all the 
children dying on the day of their birth were of foreign parentage. Of 
those dying from one to five years old, three-forths were born of poor peo- 
ple. Of nine children. Queen Victoria lost none. The constitutions 
of Royal pairs may not be as vigorous as those of two young laborers, 
but exemption from exhausting toil, and their ability to command 
roomy residences, well ventilated chambers, and the strictest personal 
cleanliness from earliest infancy, more than counterbalances other un- 
favoring circumstances. So far then from poverty and filth being ele- 
ments of health and long life, they are the very reverse; they directly in- 
duce premature death as to grown up persons, and sow the seeds of fatal 
diseases in innocent childhood. During the first week of August, 1864, in 
New York City 444 children died ; of which, 404 were of foreign parentage^ 
and only forty were born of native parents ; that is, ninety per cent of the 
children dying in New York, nine out of ten are from the abodes of pov- 
erty and untidiness. 



Is a disease of the blood, it is an effort of nature to push out 
of the system, through the skin, that which if retained would 
work mischief, hence any external application calculated to 
heal it up or drive it in, is unnatural, unwise and mischievous 
under all circumstances. There are states of the system in 
which a hasty " healing up " may be followed by long, painful 
and dangerous attacks of illness ; on precisely the same princi- 
ple that the " striking in " of measles or any other " rash " en- 
dangers life: Hence incalculable mischief is often caused by 
heeding newspaper articles, such as the following : " Petrol- 
eum, crude or refined, applied thrice a day to the part affec t 
•ed with Salt Rheum, is an effectual and speedy cure." This is 
called a " simple " remedy, because all are familiar with the 
article: The Salt Eheum may disappear under such applica- 
tions, but how many in a short time afterwards are attacked 
with violent diseases can never be known, and no inquiries are 
made to that effect. There is only one safe general rule as to 
breakings out on the skin, and that is consult the family physi- 
cian at once. The next best plan is, keep warm in bed in a 
cool; well ventilated room, drinking warm teas into which has 
been broken the crust of cold wheaten bread. This is the 
safest, the best and most efficient course of treatment for all 
" breakings out" on the skin. All external applications are 
uncertain, worthless or injurious, as far as skin affections are 
concerned, except so far as they tend to keep the skin soft, 
moist and natural. Nothing does these things so uniformly 
and so well as lukewarm water, or milk and water, half and 
half. A little grease from a candlestick was advised to be ap- 
plied to a little pimple on the child of Judge N., our neighbor, 
it began at once to inflame and death ensued in twenty-four 


We have been publishing the Journal of Health for these many years, and yet 
some of its readers have written to us from time to time, to know if we practised 
medicine. With such facilities as our monthly offers us for proclaiming our own 
praises, many a patientless doctor may have exclaimed in astonishment, " why don't 
you let the people know that you do give medical advice " ? "We did not wish to en- 
gage in the general practice of medicine ; we served our apprenticeship at that in the 
glorious sunshine of early youth ; and naturally, when about turning the down hill of 
life, we wanted to take things easy, have a quiet mind and undisturbed nights ; for 
the older we grow, the more we need quietude, evenness of life; rest for the body, 
calmness for the mind ; this is the plan for any man who has reached fifty years to 
pave the way for a serene, cheery and healthful old age. How earnestly we wish 
that more men and women who have lived useful, should heed the idea 
so as to add another twenty-five years of good doing to the first fifty, instead of 
" giving out " at fifty-three or four or five as that lovely and lamented man, the good 
Dr. James "W. Alexander under whose teachings we sat; and the Eev. E. S. 
Cook and many others. For twenty years we have given advice only to those 
who have sought it by letter or personally at our office. Within an hour we found 
the following letter on our office table among a goodly package from friends, kin- 
dred, patients and others. 

" Dr. "W. "W. Hall, Dear sir, I called on you for advice on the eighth of January 
last and was under your care for six weeks ensuing, I am happy to say that my 
health has very much improved. I have not been in so good health for four years, 
as during the last six months. I have adhered to your directions as to diet, as 
closely as possible, and it has accomplished all that you promised me. My greatest 
trouble was with my LIVER. You gave me pills to act on that organ, and they 
were of great benefit to me. When I ceased taking them, I had one left. In June 
last, I had an attack of CATARRH, with slight soreness in the throat. I took 
the remaining pill and it cured me. About two weeks ago, I was attacked with 
CANKER in my mouth, it became very troublesome, and I have sought relief 
elsewhere in vain. For the last ten days I have been troubled very much with 
the CATARRH; there has been a constant discharge of THIN WATERY 
MATTER. I can breathe through my nose but a small part of the time. My 
tongue is coated with a THICK YELLOW MATTER when I wake in the morn- 
ing, and sometimes it lasts during the day. I sleep well ; before I was attacked 
with the canker, I was feeling better than for a long time and was gaining flesh. 
I have eaten but very little meat this summer, have not seemed to relish it. I 
eat loosening food, plenty of fruit and vegetables ; have eaten a great deal of oat 
meal porridge. I have no cough, and have a grand appetite. My trouble seems 
to be SORE MOUTH and CATARRH. I used to have a great deal of PAIN 
IN MY SIDE, but that has left me entirely. I think that a pill or two like those 
you gave me before would do me good." 

Reply. — New- York, Sept. 8, 1864. — " Enclosed are five pills. The cause of the 
CANKER is in the LIYER and the pills will remove it. The dollar sent pays for 
the pills and another dollar will pay for the advice not to take them! Make them 
last as long as you can. I send them to keep, rather than to take. Have them 
by you for an emergency for SICK HEADACHE; FOUL TONGUE; ERUCTA- 
OF STRENG-TH and some other kindred symptoms which educated physici- 
ans know are one in origin. Although a pill removes CONSTIPATION, it also 
arrests LOOSENESS of the bowels until nature gathers force for a natural and 
healthful action. One pill ought usually to last a month or two or more. They 
should never be taken oftner than once a week, and nothing is needed to carry 
them off. I have never known them to take the patient off. Your own experi- 

ence proves their ability to remove the ailments for which they are usually given. 
As the last five pills lasted you eight months, besides curing you of the things of 
which you complained, endeavor to make these second five last you as many 
years, as the need for them usually is at greater intervals, until they can be dis- 
pensed with altogether. One is usually taken on going to bed, and persons go 
about their business the next day without loss of time , but printed directions 
accompany them. You are not to give them to your friends. To those who have 
been my patients I furnish them as above, but strangers requiring advice for the 
first time, must send the usual fee of five dollars for the pills and the specific 
directions which each case requires. 

" Surgical Tracts for the People," by H. A. Daniels, M. D., contains useful and 
interesting information in reference to all diseases of a surgical character such as 
deformities of the eye, nose, face, inflamed eyes, catarrh, piles, fistula, and various 
other ailments of the neighboring organs. Sent post paid by forwarding Twenty- 
Five cents to P. 0. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New- York. 

Epilepsy. — This intractable and unfortunate malady is said to be successfully 
treated in London by the alternate application of heat and cold to the spinal 
column; cannot some of our enterprising and accomplished American surgeons 
take up the practice ? 

Catarrh affecting the nose or head and oftener indicated by offensive dischar- 
ges very mortifying to the patient, have been successfully treated by Dr. H. A 
Daniels, by a very ingenious, safe and effective mode of applying appropriate reme- 
dies to the parts affected ; the cure is reported to have been accomplished in a very 
short time and to have been permanent; this will be good news to persons who 
have been long troubled in this manner. His office is at 10-J Union Square, New- 
York City. 

Farm and Garden. — -A greenback well invested, is the expenditure of it in 
securing the American Agriculturist for the coming year. This is the opinion of 
Orange Judd, of fourteen hundred editors, and over one hundred thousand actual 
subscribers to that admirably conducted monthly publication, or from now to the 
end of 1865, fifteen numbers, for $1.15, if sent during October 1864. 

"The Sea axd Land," published monthly for our gallant Jack Tars, at 50 cents 
a year, issued monthly at 52 John Street, New- York, by Rev'd Frank Jackson, a 
gentleman whom we believe to merit the confidence and generous patronage of 
every naval officer, of every ship owner, and of every man who is a friend to sea- 
men and who desires their elevation and happiness. 

We wish to know if the Presbyterian Church, Old School, has any place in 
New- York where their Tracts and Sunday School books are sold, and if their es- 
tablishment is " closed up " for want of patronage. There are a good many per- 
sons who read this Journal who would prefer to have their publications, and we 
for one don't know whether they are doing anything now or not. If they are, and 
will give us information in writing, or send us a list of their books, or some speci- 
mens of handiwork, we will report in the November number. But we certainly are 
sorry to see their indifference towards having their issues made known through 
every channel which could convey the knowledge of them to large numbers of read- 
ers. Are the officers paid by the day, like our street sweepers and government 
employees, of whom so many care but for one thing — to get their salaries promptly 
and to the uttermost farthing. Wake up you old rip-van- winkles ! the fields [are 
white, the time is short, and you will soon be "wanted," above or below, can't say 

The Editor of Hall's Journal of Health will be found daily at the Publication office 
No. 12 Union Square, New- York, east side opposite the Monument, near Fourteenth 
Street. Office hours from 10 to 2 daily, and often at other hours. Address all let 
ters to « dr. W. W. Hall, New-York. " 

206 BaWs Journal of Health. 


la these days of war, people say that every thing rises except the 
cream on milk served us every day from elegantly painted milk carts 
" illustrated " with cows having large, long and bushy tails, as a proof 
that said milkman never feeds swill on his premises. Now as 
cow tails will rot off when fed on swill, and are kept until they fall 
down dead, after the last milking of an hour before, in their miserable, 
dark, filthy and noisome stalls, it " stands to reason," that a cart which 
has painted on it a fine, healthy farm house cow, with as grand a tail 
as any body could wish to see, cant possibly sell swill milk ; because 
the cow on the cart pannel has a tail, whoever "don't see" that, has 
got no sight at all and ought to get a set of glass eyes or a pair of leath- 
ern spectacles. But there are exceptions to all general rules ; cream 
does not only rise now but always has risen on the milk served by the 
Rockland County and New Jersey Milk Association at 146 East 10th 
Street and corner of Broadway and 37th Street, under the energetic 
and watchful superintendence of Mr. S. W. Canfield, General Agent 
for the Company. 

Patriotism. — Every intelligent patriot and respectable citizen ought 
to patronize "The Citizen," published weekly at 813 Broadway, by an 
association of gentlemen, at three dollars a year. Its first great object 
is to reduce the taxes, which ought and can be done by the simple plan 
of electing men to fill all the city offices who are known and acknow- 
ledged by all parties to be men of tried honesty, whether they be rich 
or poor or of whatever political party ; the first questions to be pro- 
posed to every candidate are, 


The poor of New York are the class most deeply interested in hav- 
ing good men and true to administer the city government, for let such 
bear in mind always that they are the men who really pay the taxes, 
for if a house owner is taxed three dollars instead of one, on a hundred, 
as to the valuation of his house, he adds the two dollars to his rent, 
and those who rent have to pay it. And it is the large hearted men of 
the city who sympathize truly and practically with the poor in the 
great burdens now imposed upon them, who are endeavoring to diffuse 
inormation, through " The Citizen," which is calculated to enlighten all 
classes on this most important and practical subject. 

A report of the sanitary condition of the city during 1863 has been 
sent to us by F. J. A. Boole, Esq., the most energetic, thorough and 
efficient city inspector we have had in mauy years, and as such, he 
merits the confidence, respect and support of every good citizen. 


Notices. 207 

Central Park.— We are indebted to the courtesy of George M . 
Yan Nort, Esq., for the 1th Annual report of the Board of Commis- 
sioners, up to January 1st, 1864. The Central Park of 844 acres, has 
cost the city seven and three-quarter millions of dollars. There are 
completed six miles of road for horseback riding ; seven of carriage 
driving, and twenty of walks. The Park was begun in 1859. The 
skating pond, for rowing in summer, is twenty acres in extent, four feet 
deep. The smaller pond near 59 th street is four acres. New reser- 
voir 106 acres, thirty-six feet deep, costing one-and-a-half millions of- 
dollars, and holds a thousand million gallons of water, constructed in 
three years. Skating begins about Christmas and ends in February. 
There were 19 skating days the first winter, 38 the second, 27 the third, 
50 the fourth and eleven last year up to December 31, 1863. The 
art of skating was first practised in St. James Park, London, two hun- 
dred years ago, to 27th December 1862; the " runners" then were 
bones attached to the feet. The music days in the Park are from nine 
to twenty days. Ho wing on the 20 acre pond is the great amusement 
for summer at thirty cents for half an hour for one or two persons, and 
ten cents additional for each one in addition ; the circuit of the lake, 
a distance of two miles is accomplished in half an hour ; for moonlight 
of a summer evening it is lovely ; and then the water fountain and the 
cassino for ice cream, &c, on your way home, at moderate charge, or 
coffee, or a good supper, hot on the spot. Daring 1863 177,000 
vehicles entered the Park, 16,000 equestrians and over half a million on 
foot. The average Sunday attendance at the park is fifteen thousand, 
most in August, next in May. The greatest number visit the Park 
from 3 to 4 P. M., a third of a million in a year ; from 4 to 5 next ; 
less than 2000, (of ail the four-and-a-half millions) before 6 A. M. f and 
about as many from 10 to 11 P. M. The largest number of Pedestrians 
who visited the Park during any one day was on Christmas of 1863, 
being over 94,000, and only a hundred and six December 17, 1863. 
The largest number of vehicles for one day was June 27th, near 10,000 
A quarter of a million of trees and shrubs have been planted. The 
Park was laid out by a native of Hartford, Connecticut. The city 
does not pay a dollar of the interest on the money expended on the 
Park because the land adjoining the Park has increased enough ^in 
value to make the assessment more than pay the interest ; that 
is, the men pay the interest on the Park debt whose lands adjoin it 
and which on that account have increased so much in value. Fifth 
and Eighth Avenues front the Park ; not a house has been built on 
Fifth Avenue opposite the Park south of 70th Street, nor can a lot of 

208 I/ r /".? Journal of Health. 

twenty feet front, running back 100 feet be purchased for less than 
twelve or fifteen thousand dollars ; that section is designed to be the 
" west end" of the great metropolis of the nation. Every person who 
wishes to entertain friends who may visit the Park together, should 
impress the above statements indellibly on the memory ; they are just 
the items which every intelligent stranger feels an interest in knowing. 

Taxation. — One among other benefits of increased taxes is that 
in New York City a million of cigars were made daily by two thou- 
sand workmen with wages averaging two dollars a day; since the tax, 
the manufacture returns show a decrease of one half. Another benefit 
is that high taxes compel economy, habitual economy, a virtue which 
influences the whole character. The world over, the economical are 
industrious, thrifty and trustworthy, and what many may not have 
observed, economical persons are very apt to be tidy, tasteful and 
cleanly ; it saves work to repair clothing, tools or anything else ; it saves 
work to keep the clothing clean, as a noble hearted little fellow once 
said to a bystander who had witnessed another boy throwing mud on 
his clean and well patched trowsers,"why don't you throw mud on him." 

11 Then there would be two suits of clothes to wash." Notice that 
answer, you thoughtless dowdy and "mussy" daughters, girls and 
young ladies who take no pains to preserve your clothing from being 
soiled, on the ground that the " servants are paid to work." Among 
the first duties of a young wife is to learn how to save in housekeeping, 
while her generous husband is trying to lay up at his workshop, his 
store, or his banking house. And when a youth begins to "save," to 
lay up money, he is "saved" from a life of idleness, and crime. 

" The Church and the Rebellion ; " ' A consideration of the Rebel 
lion against the Government of the United States, and the agency of 
the Church, North and South, in relation thereto.' ByR. L. Stanton, 
D. D., Professor in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Danville, 
Ky. Dedicated to the young men of the United States of every creed 
in religion and every party in politics, Published by Derby and Miller, 
New York, 592 pp., $2.00. — Dr. Stanton is an able scholar, a logical 
writer and a fearless controversialist. He utters his sentiments in lan- 
guage at once clear, concise and forcible. You always know the 
side he takes. The book contains valuable historical and documentary 
evidence which will make it a standard and reliable work of reference- 
The main points are four : 

1st. The Rebellion is the Work of Traitors. 

2nd. Slavery is the cause of the Rebellion. 

3rd . The leading Southern clergy are responsible for the war . 

Notices. 209 

4thc That a glorious future awaits us in an undivided country in 
which " The sun shall no more rise upon a master nor set upon a slave." 

The language of the book is often sublime. The last subjects are 
God reigns, The Patriot's Reward and the Traitors Doom. The last 
sentence — " Then let the memory of the wicked rot " ! ! 

Gymnastics. — Clerks, sedentary persons and families, can obtain the 
highest advantages of gymnastic training at Mrs. Plumb's well ordered 
establishment in 14th Street, New- York. 

University of Michigan. — Its catalogue for 1864 shows the insti- 
tution at Ann Arbor to be in a very prosperous condition. The only 
charges for instruction are Ten Dollars admission fee and five dollars 
per annum thereafter. Board in private families from two to three 
dollars a week. A notice able feature is the establishment of a chair 
of Physiology and Hygiene to which A. B. Palmer, A. M., M. D. 
formerly Prof, of same in the Berkshire Medical College at Pittsfield, 
Mass., has been elected and has entered on the duties of his office. 
It seems then at long last, it is beginning to be felt of some importance 
to teach the young how to take care of their health, before it is irrecov- 
erably ruined. Prof. P. besides his acknowledged ability, brings a 
characteristic enthusiasm, energy and thoroughness into the discharge 
of his very important duties in the introduction of sanitary science as a 
distinct branch, into colleges and seminaries of learning. 



so&a&sstG 4S© bay g€a##£ 



Second Boor from Fifth 

The Misses Bucknall having for many years conducted a Boarding and 
Day School for Young Ladies, their method of instruction is the result of much 
successful experience. They are assisted by Professors of eminent talent, and 
every facility is afforded for acquiring a substantial, critical, and symmetrical 

"These ladies," says the Rev. Dr. Irenaeus Prime, editor of the New- York 
Observer, are thorough, earnest, and accomplished teachers, and give their pupils 
a sound, practical, and finished education ;" and the editor of this journal adds, 
from his own personal knowledge, that some of the most eminent men in the 
country, who have patronized this well-conducted School, give the like cordial 
testimony in its praise. 

The Academie Year begins with. September and closes in June. Pupils are admitted at 

any time. 



All food contains nitrogen, the element which supplies " muscle," flesh, strength, or carbon- 
giving warmth ; some articles contain both in various proportions. The colder the weather, the 
more carbonized food do we require. Pure alcohol is almost wholly carbon, and all alcoholic drinks 
are proportionately so, beer having only five per cent, of alcohol ; but having no nitrogen, they 
can not add a single particle of flesh to the system, and consequently not one particle of strength 
of power to labor. A man feels stronger after taking a drink of spirits, but it is not added 
strength ; it is only strength preternaturally drawn in advance upon the store on hand for current 
use ; the nervous system having been stimulated to make that draught by the influence which the 
alcohol had upon it, but when the system comes to use the strength naturally prepared for it, and 
finds it has been already appropriated, it " sinks " under the disappointment, so to speak, to a 
depth proportioned to the strength or quantity of the alcohol used. The sinking experienced in deli- 
rium tremens is precisely of this nature, and is almost too horrible to be borne. All know that when 
the liquor " dies " within a man, he i3 as weak and powerless as a new-born infant, and this comes 
upon him suddenly. On the other hand, food and drink which contain nitrogen, give flesh, create the 
power to labor, and the strength which is thus added is for current use, is substantial and enduring. 
Hence alcohol is not a true tonic, has no really valuable medicinal or curative virtue in any malady 
known to man. The most that it can do under any circumstances is to give time for nature or for 
real remedies to bring their influence to bear on the system. From the following table it will be 
inferred that aliment containing the largest amount of carbon should be used in winter ; but cool- 
ing food, that which contains little or no carbon, such as fruits and berries, should be taken in 
summer ; bread and butter, and the grains containing quite as much carbon as the system re- 
quires ; hence nature craves berries and fruits in summer, and turns away from fat meats and 
oily dishes. 




























Oats, . 



Rye Bread, 


Peas, dry, 












Names. Carbon. 


Turnips, 3 

Turnips, dried, 43 

Artichokes, 9 

Blood, 10 

Milk, 10 

Lean meat, 13 

Mixed, 22 

Soup, 75 




Gooseberries, 1 

Apples, 45 

Beef, roast, 58 

Veal, roast, 52 

Venison, , 53 






Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless: for whatever begets pleasurable and 

harmless feelings, promotes Health; and whatever induces 

disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


VOL. XI.] NOVEMBER, 1884. [Ho. 11. 


1. In an ordinary campaign, sickness disables or destroys three 
times as many as the sword. 

2. On a march, from April to November, the entire clothing should 
be a colored flannel shirt, with a loosely-buttoned collar, cotton drawers, 
woollen pantaloons, shoes and stockings, and a light-colored felt hat, 
with broad brim to protect the neck, eyes, and face from the glare of 
the sun and from the rain, and a substantial but not heavy coat when 
off duty. 

3. Sun-stroke may be prevented by wearing a silk handkerchief in 
the hat, a few green leaves, a dampened sponge, or a white linen hood 
hat-cover, extending like a cap over the neck and shoulders, 

4. Colored blankets are best, and if lined with brown drilling the 
warmth and durability are doubled, while the protection against damp- 
ness from lying on the ground, is almost complete. 

5. Never lie or sit down on the grass or bare earth for a moment ; 
rather use your hat — a handkerchief even, is a great protection. The 
warmer you are, the greater need for this precaution, as a damp vapor 
is immediately generated, to be absorbed by the clothing, and to cool 
you off too rapidly. 

6. While marching, or on other active duty, the more thirsty you 
are, the more essential is it to safety of life itself, to rinse out the mouth 
two or three times, and then take a swallow of water at a time, with 
short intervals. A brave French general, on a forced march, fell dead 
on the instant, by drinking largely of cold water, when snow was on 
the ground. 

1 . Abundant sleep is essential to bodily efficiency, and to that alert- 
ness of mind which is all-important in an engagement ; and few things 
more certainly and more effectually prevent sound sleep than eating 
heartily after sun-down, especially after a heavy march or desperate bat- 

8. Nothing is more certain to secure endurance and capability of 
long-continued effort, than the avoidance of every thing as a drink ex- 

212 HalVs Journal of Health. 

cept cold water, not excluding coffee at breakfast. Drink even cold 
water very slowly, and as little as possible, until the afternoon ; a fruit 
stone or pebble held around in the mouth, moderates thirst. 

9 . After any sort of exhausting effort, a cup of coffee, hot or cold, 
is an admirable sustainer of the strength, until nature begins to recover 

10. Unless after a long abstinence or great fatigue, do not eat very 
heartily just before a great undertaking ; because the nervous power is 
irresistibly drawn to the stomach to manage the food eaten, thus draw- 
ing off that supply which the brain anjl muscles so much need. 

11. If persons will drink brandy, it is incomparably safer to do so 
after an effort than before ; for it can give only a transient strength, 
lasting but a few minutes ; but as it can never be known how long any 
given effort is to be kept in continuance, and if longer than the few 
minutes, the body becomes more feeble than it would have been without 
the stimulus, it is clear that its use before an effort is always hazardous, 
and is always unwise. 

12. Never go to sleep, especially after a great effort, even in hot 
weather, without some covering over you. 

13. Under all circumstances, rather than lie down on the bare ground, 
lie in the hollow of two logs placed together, or across several smaller 
pieces of wood, laid side by side ; or sit on your hat, leaning against 
a tree. A nap of ten or fifteen minutes in that position will refresh you 
more than an hour on the bare earth, with the additional advantage of 
perfect safety. 

14. A cut is less dangerous than a bullet-wound, and heals more 

15. If from any wound the blood spirts out in jets, instead of a 
steady stream, you will die in a few minutes unless it is remedied ; be- 
cause an artery has been divided, and that takes the blood direct from 
the fountain of life. To stop this instantly, tie a handkerchief or other 
cloth very loosely BETWEEN ! ! the wound and the heart ; put a 
stick, bayonet, or ramrod between the skin and the handkerchief, and 
twist it around until the bleeding ceases, and keep it thus until the 
surgeon arrives. 

16. If the blood flows' in a slow, regular stream, a vein has been 
pierced,and the handkerchief must be on the other side of the wound from 
the heart ; that is, below the wound.' 

IT. A bullet through the abdomen (belly or stomach) is more cer- 
tainly fatal than if aimed at the head or heart ; for in tne latter cases 
the ball is often glanced off by the bone, or follows round it under the 
skin ; but when it enters the stomach or bowels, from any direction, 
death is inevitable under almost all circumstances, but is scarcely ever 
instantaneous. Generally the person lives a day or two with perfect 
clearness of intellect, often not suffering greatly. The practical bear- 
ing of this statement in reference to the great future is clear. 

1 8. Let the whole beard grow, but not longer than some three inch- 
es. This strengthens and thickens its growth, and thus makes a more 
perfect protection for the lungs against dust, and of the throat against 
winds and cold in the winter, while in summer a greater perspiration 
of the skin is induced, with an increase of evaporation j hence, greater 

Soldier Health. 213 

coolness of the parts on the outside, while the throat is less feverish, 
thirsty and dry. 

19. Avoid fats and fat meats in summer and in all warm days. 

20. Whenever possible, take a plunge into any lake or runni?:g 
stream every morning, as soon as you get up ; if none at hand, endea- 
vor to wash the body all over as soon as you leave your bed, for per- 
sonal cleanliness acts like a charm against all diseases, always either 
warding them off altogether, or greatly mitigating their severity and 
shortening their duration. Let every sort of bath be completed within 
five miuutes. 

21. Keep the hair of the head closely cut, say within an inch and a 
half of the scalp in every part, repeated on the first of each month, and 
wash the whole scalp plentifully in cold water every morning. 

22. Wear woollen stockings and easy-fitting, thick-soled shoes, keep- 
ing the toe and finger-nails always cut moderately close. 

23. It is more important to wash the feet well every night, than to 
wash the face and hands of mornings ; because it aids to keep the skin 
and nails soft, and to prevent chafings, blisters, and corns, all of which 
greatly interfere with a soldier's duty. 

24. The most universally safe position, after all stunnings, hurts, and 
wounds, is that of being placed on the back, the head being elevated 
three or four inches only ; aiding more than any one thing else can do, 
to equalize and restore the proper circulation of the blood. 

25. The more weary you are after a march or other work, the more 
easily will you take cold, if you remain still after it is over, unless, the 
moment you cease motion, you throw a coat or blanket over your 
shoulders. This precaution should be taken in the warmest weather, 
especially if there is even a slight air stirring. 

26. The greatest physical kindness you can show a severely- wounded 
comrade is first to place him on his back, and then run with all your 
might for some water to drink ; not a second ought to be lost. If 
no vessel is at hand take your hat ; if no hat, off with your shirt, wring 
it out once, tie the arms in a knot, as also the lower end, thus making 
a bag, open at the neck only. A fleet person can convey a bucketful 
half a mile in this way. I've seen a dying man clutch at a single drop of 
water from the fingers' end with the voraciousness of a famished tiger. 

21. If wet to the skin by rain or by swimming rivers, keep in motion 
until the cloths are dried, and no harm will result. 

28. Whenever it is possible, do, by all means, when you have to use 
water for cooking or drinking from ponds or sluggish streams, boil it 
well, and when cool, shake it, or stir it, so that the oxygen of the air 
shall get to it, which greatly improves it for drinking. This boiling 
arrests the process of fermentation which arises from the presence of 
organic and inorganic impurities, thus tending to prevent cholera and 
all bowel diseases. If there is no time for boiling, at least strain it 
through a cloth, even if you have to use a shirt or trowser-leg. 

29. Twelve men are hit in battle, dressed in red, where there are 
only five, dressed in a bluish gray, a difference of more than two to one ; 
green, seven ; brown six. 

30. Water can be made almost ice cool in the hottest weather, by 
closely enveloping a filled canteen, or other vessel, with woollen cloth 
kept plentifully wetted and exposed. 

214 HaWs Journal of Health. 

31. While on amarch, lie down the moment you halt for rest; every 
minute spent in that position refreshes more than five minutes standing 
or loitering about. 

32. A daily evacuatiou of the bowels is indispensible to bodily health, 
vigor, and endurance ; this is promoted in many cases, by stirring" a 
table-spoonful of corn (Indian) meal in a glass of water, and drinking 
it on rising in the morning. 

33. Loose Bowels, namely, acting more than once a day, with a 
feeling of debility afterward, is the first step toward cholera ; the best 
remedy is instant and perfect quietude of body, eating nothing but boil- 
ed rice with or without boiled milk ; in more decided cases, a woollen 
flannel, fourteen feet long and fourteen inches wide, with two thick- 
nesses in front, should be bound tightly around the abdomen, especially 
if marching is a necessity. 

34. If the soldier takes his quota of hot coffee or a warm breakfast 
as soon as he gets up in the mornings, summer and winter, it will have 
a preventive influence against the general diseases of the camp, such as 
fevers, loose bowels, and bloody flux, which is incalculable ; it is believ- 
ed by eminent medical men that a rigid attention to this suggestion 
would diminish the army mortality from sickness at least thirty per cent. 

35. Whenever it is practicable, sleep with your feet to the camp-fire. 

36. NO soldier should at any time have less than two pair of woolen 
sock3 ; those made by knitting-needles are greatly the best. 

37. On a march have as little to carry as possible, every ounce 
becomes an appreciable burden in a half-day's tramp. 

38. The instant you are burned or scalded place the part in cold 
water, this gives perfect relief in a second, then get some flour and 
cover the burnt part completely, and let it remain until it gets well 

39. Thirst. — While on a march courageously resist thirst, especially 
in the early part of the day ; for the more you drink the weaker will 
you become. 

40. Water. — The East-Indians believe that they ward off the cholera 
which prevails in flat localities, where the water must be obtained from 
ponds, stagnant lakes, and sluggish streams, by boiling what is wanted 
for drinking purposes over night, and letting it stand in the open air 
until next morning, so as to reabsorb the freshness, the oxygen, which 
the process of boiling has driven off. This is most especially needed in 
warm weather. 

41. Blankets. — A small India-rubber blanket is a very great protec- 
tion to the health, to lay on the ground or throw over the shoulders 
during a storm, or on resting after getting into a beat, but unless vul- 
canized (if not, it becomes very sticky on being held close to the fire 
or in a very hot sun for a few moments) it has no endurance and is 

42. Fatal forms of fever, loose bowels, and bloody discharges are 
often occasioned by a sudden check of perspiration from chilly winds 
or cold night air ; so when perspiring even a little, either keep in 
moderate motion, go to a fire, or put on an additional coat or blanket. 

43. Ardent Spirits. — It is beyond dispute, that always and every 
where, those who drink most of liquors in any shape, beer, brandy, whis- 
key, or rum, soonest give out, soonest get sick, and are the slowest to 

Soldier Health. 215 

recover. A very eminent English physician has lately communicated 
the fact, that out of one thousand members of the " Sick Clubs of Pres- 
ton," who merely used, but did not abuse, spirituous liquors, twenty- 
three were laid aside by sickness every year for an average time of 
fifty- three days, while of an equal number who never touched liquor, 
there were only thirteen sick, averaging but twenty-three days ; the 
number sick, the rapidity of recovery, the time lost, and the expense 
all being more than one half, or fifty per cent.Jn favor of those who 
never used ardent spirits. Water quenches thirst better, if not very 
cold, especially if but a few swallows are taken at one time. Tea and 
coffee are better at meals for the soldier than water, but they should not 
be drank between meals ; only in sips on a march, or under great exer- 
tions. The safest beverage in hot weather is molasses and water. 

44. Eating. — Let it be at regular times as far a possible. That 
soldier is many-fold the safest from disablement, and a great variety of 
dieases, who will use three precautions in his eating : First. Let no 
bit of solid food go into the mouth larger than half the last joint of the 
little finger. Second. Chew it slowly and well. Third, Swallow not 
one atom between meals unless under very uncommon and urgent cir- 
cumstances, so as to give the stomach time to rest, and gain strength 
to work up the succeeding meal. As often as possible, let there be at 
least five hours' interval between your eatings. 

45. Flannel. — Wear it all over, in all weathers, except to use cot- 
ton drawers during the summer months, if you have them. Wash 
your flannels once a week if possible. When not, hang them up, also 
all your clothing, in the mid-day sun, whenever there is a chance to do 
so. Dry clothing is a great preservative of health. A single damp 
garment has sent many a person to the grave in a few days, and made 
others invalids for a lifetime. 

46. Sleep as often and as much as you can ; it is a great invigorator. 
Five minutes' sleep will refresh, invigorate, and strengthen more than 
any glass of liquor. It is better far to sleep too warm than even a 
little too cool. 

41. The Three Plenties, of pure air on high ground ; of boiled or 
rnnuing water ; and of bright-blazing fires, are the angels of health in 
any encampment. 

48. Feet. — Thick-soled shoes, moderately loose, are best on a march, 
and it would be a great protection to the feet against chafings, etc., to 
rub a few drops of any kind of mild oil into the skin of the soles before 
a march. 

49. A bullet-wound usually gives no external bleeding, and it is almost 
always safest to let it remain in the body, as it rarely does harm by so 

50. When a spent ball strikes the body, a wonderfully slight resist- 
ance turns it from its course, and prevents its being fatal — a bone, a 
tendon, or even a loose skin. A ball once entered under the chin, 
glanced around the neck, and came out near the place of entrance. A 
ball striking a rib has glanced off, and made half the circuit of the body. 
A ball once struck the abdomen in front, passed around, and came out 
at the back. A ball has pierced the skull-bone, but n^t having strength 
enough to enter the covering of the brain, which is of a tough leathery 
nature, no serious harm was done. 

216 HaWs Journal of Health. 

51. The " wind" of a ball, as it is called sometimes, can not possi- 
bly kill a man. 

52. A bullet in the body seldom does much harm. Great effort to 
get it out mayjnake a case fatal which otherwise would have recovered. 

53. A man need not necessarily die if a bullet lodges in the brain. 

54. A bullet may pass entirely through the lungs without destroying 
life, as in the case of General Shields in the Mexican war, and he'was 
living twelve years later. Lieutenant : General Winfield Scott received 
a ball in his shoulder at the battle of Molino del Rey, and it remained 
cnextracted for several years. 

55. Bullet wounds in the abdomen are nearly always fatal, while the 
majority of those in the chest recover. 

56. A bullet may lodge in the heart itself without causing death, 
for several days, as in the case of Bill Poole, the pugilist. 

5 1. Bowels. — The very moment you experience any uncomfortable 
sensation about the bowels, bind around them tightly a piece of woolen 
cloth of any kind, to support them and keep them warm. It is a great 

58. Sun and Air. — Keep in the open air as much as possible, but do 
not stand a moment in the hot sun if it can be avoided. 

59. To have been "to the wars" is a life-long honor, increasing 
with advancing years, while to have died in the defence of your coun- 
try, will be the boast and the glory of your children's children. 

To any army is disease ; it destroys three times as many as the sword . 
Knowing this, Miss Florence Nightingale abandoned all the advan- 
tages which culture, position, and an ample fortune gave her, for the 
purpose of devoting her whole attention to the preservation of her 
country's troops in the Crimean campaign. She found that the soldiers 
were dying from disease at a rate far more fearful than the most terrible 
devastations of the cholera in any civilized country ; and before the 
war was over, there were fewer deaths from disease than among the 
most favored troops at home in England. 

The three chief army diseases are, Fever, Diarrhea, Dysentery. 
A seasonable and possible care on the part of each soldier can effectu- 
ally prevent three-forths of the cases of these diseases. All that is 
needed for such encouraging results is, that each man should understand 
what these diseases are, what causes them, and how he may avoid these 
causes. All this can be told without using a single medical term, in a 
manner which the most unlettered person can understand, and without 
the necessity of taking a single solitary grain or drop of any medicine 
whatever. And more, these diseases can be prevented in the vast ma- 
jority of cases, with the means which a soldier has within his own pow- 
er in a forest, on a prairie, or on a sand-bank. 

Fever, of the ordinary kinds which prevail in camps, is preceded or 
accompanied in almost every instance by Constipation of the bowels, 
that is, by their failing to act once in each twenty-four hours. No man 
can possibly be well for a single week, who fails to go to stool every 
day. For a few days he may feel well, but before a week is ended he 
will most certainly be complaining in some way. Constipation and 

Soldier Health. 217 

Costiveness are essentially the same thing, and seldom can exist for a 
single week at a time, without endangering life in many and health in all. 

Diarrhea is when the bowels act too often, from two to twenty 
times in twenty-four hours. But it is not actual diarrhea unless a man 
feels after a passage as if he would like to sit down, feels weak, feels 
as if he would like never to get up again. The passages are large, and 
thin almost as water, there is no pain, no blood, and each passage gives 
relief, with an increasing disposition to sit or lie down ; every human 
desire.every human ambition is comprised in the one privilege, to be able 
to lie down and rest ; it seems to be a luxury to every muscle in the 
whole body, and there are upward of five hundred of them. 

Dysentery, or Bloody flux, on the other hand, is something between 
Costiveness and Diarrhea, something between a too infrequent and a 
too frequent action of the bowels, for it is a great and frequent desire 
to discharge something, but can not, except a little blood. The desire 
is intense and sudden, with a feeling as if it would give perfect relief, but 
when the effort is made, it produces a sensation which the ancients ex- 
pressed by " Tormina " or torment. 

Costiveness is less than one stool a day. 

Diarrhea is more than one stool a day. 

Dysentery is a constant desire, and yet an inability to stool. 

Costiveness gives hard, bally, and scant stools. 

Diarrhea gives thin, frequent, and copious stools. 

Dysenterv gives a frequent but unavailing desire to stool. See page 
214, No. 33. 

Costiveness may, or may not, give pain. 

Diarrhea gives grateful relief. 

Dysentery gives intense suffering, always and under all circumstances. 

Costiveness may have a little blood. 

Diarrhea never has any. 

Dysentery always has blood ; unless it has blood at almost every 
discharge, it can not be dysentery at all. 

Costiveness unchecked, leads to a thousand different forms of disease, 
generally lasting a long time. 

Diarrhea unchecked, leads to cholera and a speedy death. 

Dvsentery unchecked, leads to inflammation, and a death certain and 
painful, ending in mortification of the bowels. 

But, as costiveness precedes fever, diarrhea, and dysentery, it is 
clear that if removed as soon as discovered, the chances for a soldier's 
exemption from every disease are incalculably increased. Hence the 
man who makes it his study and his care, his duty and his pleasure, to 
guard against constipation, or promptly remove it when by chance it 
occurs, not only avoids the risk of the ailments named, but acquires a 
vigor of health which repels a thousand ill influences, repels a thousand 
attacks from the causes of all other diseases ; while if he was not en- 
tirely well when he entered the army, he will be pretty soon. 

Gunners may avoid more or less permanent deafness by putting into 
their ears before an action a bit of wool or cotton dipped into a mixture 
of forty grains of belladonna with one ounce of glycerine — keep it in 
until next morning. 

218 Halls Journal of Health. 

Directions to Army-Surgeons on the Field of Battle. 

The following, taken from Mr. G. J. Guthrie's pamphlet on the 
Hospital Brigade, is copied from the London Lancet. Mr. Guthrie 
was Surgeon-General to the British forces during the Crimean war, and 
consequently speaks from extensive opportunities of observation : 

1. Water being of the utmost importance to wounded men, care 
should be taken, when before the enemy, not only that the barrels attach- 
ed to the conveyance-carts are properly filled with good water, but that 
skins for holding water, or such other means as are [commonly used in 
the country for carrying it, should be procured and duly filled. 

2. Bandages or rollers, applied on the field of battle, are, in general, 
so many things wasted, as they become dirty and stiff, and are usually 
cut away and destroyed, without having been really useful ; they are 
therefore not forthcoming when required, and would be of no use. 

3. Simple gun-shot wounds require nothing more for the first two or 
three days than the application of a piece of wet or oiled linen, fastened 
on with a strip of sticking-plaster, or, if possible, kept constantly wet 
and cold with water. When cold disagrees, warm water should be 
substituted. ' 

4. Wounds made by swords, sabers, or other sharp-cutting instruments, 
are to be treated principally by position. Thus, a cut down to the bone, 
across the thick part of the arm, immediately below the shoulder, is to 
be treated by raising the arm to or above a right angle with the body, 
in which position it is to be retained, however inconvenient it may be. 
Ligatures may be inserted, but through the skin only. If the throat 
be cut across in front, any great vessels should be tied, and oozing 
stopped by a sponge. After a few hours, when oozing is arrested, the 
sponge should be removed, and the head brought down toward the 
ches<", and retained in that position without ligatures ; if this is done 
too soon, the sufferer may possibiy be suffocated by the infiltration of 
blood into the areolar tissue of the parts adjacent. 

5. If the cavity of the chest is opened into by a sword or lance, it is 
of the utmost importance that the wound in the skin shculd be effect- 
ively closed, and this can only be done by sewing it up as a tailor or 
a lady would sew up a seam, skin only being included ; a compress of 
lint e-tiould be applied over the stitches, fastened on by sticking-plaster. 
The patient is then to be placed on the wounded side, that the lung, 
may fall down, if it can, upon or apply itself to the wounded part, and 
adhere to it, by which happy and hoped-for accident life will in all pro- 
bability be preserved. If the lung should be seen protruding in the 
wound, it should not be returned beyound the level of the ribs, but be 
covered over by the external parts. 

6. It is advisable to encourage previously the discharge of blood 
from the cavity of the chest, if any have fallen into it ; but if thw bleed- 
ing from within should continue, so as to place the life of the sufferer 
in danger, the external wound should be closed, and events awaited. 

1. When it is doubtful whether the bleeding proceeds from the cavity of 
the chest or from the intercostal artery , (a surgical bug-bear,) an incision 
through the skin and external intercostal muscle will expose the artery 
clooe to the edge of the rib, having the internal intercostal muscle be- 

Soldier Health. 219 

hind it. The vessel thus exposed may be trd, or the end pinched by 
the forceps, until it ceases to bleed. Tying a string round the ribs is 
a destructive piece of cruelty ; and the plugs, etc., formerly recommend- 
ed, may be considered as surgical incongruities. 

8. A gun-shot wound in the chest can not close by adhesion, and 
must remain open. The positiou of the sufferer should therefore be 
that which is most comfortable to him. A small hole penetrating the 
cavity is more dangerous than u large one, and the wound is less dan- 
gerous if the ball goes through the body. The wounds should be ex- 
amined, and enlarged if necessary, in order to remove all extraneous 
substances, even if they should be seen to stick on the surface of the 
lungs ; the opening should be covered with soft oiled or wet lint — a 
bandage when agreeable. The ear of the surgeon and the stethoscope 
are invaluable aids, and ought always to be in use ; indeed, no injury 
of the chest can be scientifically treated without them. 

9 Incised and gun-shot wounds of the abdomen are to be treated in 
nearly a eimilar manner ; the position in both being that which is most 
agreeable to the patient, the parts being relaxed. 

10. In wounds of the bladder, an elastic catheter is generally neces- 
sary. If it cannot be passed, an opening should be made in the per- 
inaenm for the evacuation of the urine, with as little delay a possible. 

11. In gun-shot fractures of the skull, the loose broken pieces of 
bone, and all extraneous substances, are to be removed as soon as pos- 
sible, and depressed fractures of bone are to be raised. A deep cut, 
made by a heavy sword, through the bone into the brain, generally 
causes a'considerable depression of the inner table of the bone,' whilst 
the outer may appear to be merely divided. 

12. An arm is rarely to be amputated, except from the effects of a 
cannon-shot. The head of the bone is to be sawn off, if necessary. 
The elbow-joint is to be cut out, if destroyed, and the sufferer, in either 
case, may have a very useful arm. 

13. Iua case of gun-shot fracture of the upper arm, in which the 
bone is much splintered, incisions are to be made for the removal of all 
the broken pieces which it is feasible to take away ; the elbow is to be 
supported ; the fore-arm is to be treated in a similar manner ; the 
splints used should be solid. 

14. The hand is never to be amputated unless all or nearly all its 
parts are destroyed. Different bones of it and of the wrist are to be 
removed when irrecoverably injured, with or without the metacarpal 
bones and fingers, or the thumb ; but a thumb and one finger should 
always be preserved when possible. 

15. The head of the thighbone should be sawn off when broken by 
a musket-ball. Amputation at the hip-joint should only be done when 
the fracture extends some distance into the shaft, or the limb is des- 
troyed by cannon-shot. 

16. The knee-joint should be cutout when irrecoverably injured ;but 
the limb is not to be amputated until it can not be avoided. 

17. A gun-shot fracture of the middle of the thigh, attended by 
great splintering, is a case for amputation. In less difficult cases, the 
splinters should be removed by incisions, particularly when they can be 
made on the upper and outer side of the thigh. The limb should be 

220 HalVs Journal of Health. 

placed on a straight, firm splint. A broken thigh does not admit of 
much, and sometimes of no extension, with an unadvisible increase of 
suffering. An inch or two of shortening in the thigh does not so ma- 
terially interfere with progressions as to make the sufferer regret having 
escaped amputation. 

18. A leg injured below the knee should rarely be amputated in the 
first instance, unless from the effects of a cannon-shot. The splinters 
of bone are all to be immediately removed by saw or forceps, after due 
incisions. The limb should be placed in iron splints, and hung on a 
permanent frame, as affording the greatest comfort and probable chance 
of ultimate success. 

19. An ankle-joint is to be cut out unless the tendons around are too 
much injured, and so are the tarsal and metatarsal bones and toes. In- 
cisions have hitherto been too little employed in the early treatment 
of these injuries of the foot, for the removal of extraneous substances. 

20. A wound of the principal artery of the thigh, in addition to a 
gun shot fracture, renders immediate amputation necessary. In no 
other part of the body is amputation to be done in the first instance for 
such injury. Ligatures are to be placed on the wounded artery, one 
above, the other below the wound, and events awaited. 

21. The occurrence of mortification in any of these cases will be 
known by the change of color in the skin. It will rarely occur in the 
upper extremity, but will frequently do so in the lower. When about 
to take place, the color of the skin of the foot changes from the natural 
flesh color to a tallowy or mottled white. Amputation should be per- 
formed immediately above the fractured part. The mortification is yet 

22. When this discoloration has not been observed, and the part 
shrinks, or gangrene has set in with more marked appearances, but yet 
seems to have stopped at the ankle, delay is, perhaps, admissible ; but 
if it should again spread, or its cessation be doubtful, amputation should 
take place forthwith, although under less favorable circumstances. 
The mortification is becoming or has become constitutional. 

23. Bleeding, to the loss of life, is not a common occurrence in gun- 
shot wounds, although many do bleed considerably, seldom, however, 
requiring the application of a tourniquet as a matter of necessity, al- 
though frequently as one of precaution. 

24. When the great artery of the thigh is wounded, (not torn 
across,) the bone being uninjured, the sufferer will probably bleed to 
death, unless aid be afforded, by making compression above and on the 
bleeding part. A long but not broad stone tied sharply on with a hand- 
kerchief, will often suffice until assistance can be obtained, when both 
ends of the divided or wounded artery are to be secured by ligatures. 

25. The upper end of the great artery of the thigh bleeds scarlet 
blood ; the lower end dark venous-colored blood ; and this is not de- 
parted from in a case of accidental injury, unless there have been previ- 
ous disease in the limb. A knowledge of this fact or circumstance, 
which continues for several days, will prevent a mistake at the moment 
of injury, and at a subsequent period, if secondary hemorrage should 
occur. If in the upper extremity both ends of the principal artery 
bleed scarlet blood, from the free collateral circulation, and from the 
anastomoses in the hand. 

Soldier Health. 221 

26. From this cause, mortification rarely takes place after a wound 
of the principal artery of the arm, or even of the arm-pit. Jt frequently 
follows a wound of the principal artery in the upper, middle, or even 
lower parts of the thigh, rendering amputation necessary. 

27. It is a great question, when the bone is uninjured, where and at 
what part the amputation should be performed. Mortification of the 
foot and leg, from such a wound, is disposed to stop a little below the 
knee, if it should not destroy the sufferer ; and the operation, if done in 
the first instance, as soon as the tallowy or mottled appearance of the 
foot is observed, should be done at that part ; the wound of the artery 
and the operation of securing the vessel above and below the wound 
being left unheeded. By this proceeding, when successful, the knee- 
joint is saved, whilst an amputation above the middle of the thigh is 
always very doubtful in its results. 

28. When mortification has taken place from any cause, and has 
been arrested below the knee, and the dead parts show some sign of 
separation, it is usual to amputate above the knee. But not doing it, 
but by gradually separating and removing the dead parts, under the 
use of disinfecting medicaments and fresh air, a good stump may be ul- 
timately made, the knee-joint and life being preserved, which latter is 
frequently lost, after amputation, under such circumstances. 

29 Hospital gangrene, when it unfortunately occurs, should be con- 
sidered to be contagious and infectious, and is to be treated locally by 
destructive remedies, such as nitric acid, and the bivouacking or en- 
camping of the remainder of the wounded, if it can be effected, or their 
removal to the open air. 

30. Poultices have been very often applied in gun-shot wounds, from 
laziness, or to cover neglect, and should be used as seldom as possible. 
- 31. Chloroform may be administered in all cases of amputation of 
the upper extremity and below the knee, and in all minor operations ; 
which cases may also be deferred, without disadvantage, until the more 
serious operations are performed. 

32. Amputations of the upper and middle parts of the thigh are to 
be done as soon as possible after the receipt of the injury. The ad- 
ministration of chloroform in them, when there is much prostration, is 
doubtful, and must be attended to, and observed with great care — the 
question whether it should or should not be administered in such cases 
being undecided. 

No surgeon is truly fit for his place, however scientific and skillful, 
who has not the tact to encourage and sympathize with the sick and 
wounded soldier ; a word, a look, a gesture may so wake up the nerv- 
ous activities, and the moral sentiments of hope, ambition, determina- 
tion, or patriotism, that the system will rise superior to disease and 
cast it off in an hour ; when, on the other hand, a want of sympathy 
on the part of the medical attendant, a mere mechanical or routine at- 
tention to the objects in hand, would have allowed the invalid to pass 
into the grave. There is no incompatibility between firmness and kind- 
ness ; and that surgeon is most a man who makes the wisest combina- 
tion of these two prime qualities of the intellect and of the heart. 
Each soldier is at this juncture a part of his country's hope, and, al- 
though but a unit in himself, he merits, in a disablement brought upon 

222 HaWs Journal of Health. 

hini in the discharge of his duty to the nation, a consideration and a 
tenderness in the hour of his suffering, which a man will always give, 
and which is withheld only by the brute. 

To show how inevitably a soldier's gratitude wells upward toward 
those who minister to his wants it is only necessary to recall the beau- 
tiful fact that when Florence Nightingale passed along the halls of the 
Crimean hospitals, the men' who could not go to greet her would crawl 
to the side of their beds and kiss her shadow as she passed. 

There are many things which a wounded soldier may do for himself, 
and many others which one who is well may do for his comrade which 
will prevent an immense amount of suffering and may save life itself, by 
gaining time or by keeping things in statu quo, from progressing, until 
a surgeon can be had. Hence, to know these things beforehand is to 
make one a life-saver. 

Very red blood, sparkling, bright, thin, is from the arteries, and the 
man will soon die if it flows fast, because it is the life of the body and 
flows directly from the heart. If the wound is on the back of the 
hand, or face or scalp, or on any part of the body where there is not 
much more than skin and bone, press the thumb tighter and tighter 
above the wound, that is, between the wound and the heart, and con- 
tinue the compression until the blood ceases to flow and until the sur- 
geon arrives. If a limb is bleeding, or a part where there i3 more flesh, 
tie a knot in the centre of a handkerchief, and let that knot rest over 
the bleeding vessel above the wound, then bring the ends of the hand- 
kerchief around the limb, and tie it as tight as possible ; if the artery 
is a very large one, there is not time for this, or it might not be era- 
cient, the handkerchief must be tied loosely around the limb, above the 
wound, a stick put in between the skin and the handkerchief, and twist- 
ed around until the bleeding ceases, as named on page 212. Or, if 
you can see the orifice of a bleeding artery, make a hook of a needle by 
heating it red hot, cool it, then hook it into the artery, draw it out, or 
it may be drawn out with a pair of tweezers, pincers, or tongs, then tie 
a string tightly around the end of the bleeding vessel and let it remain 
until the surgeon arrives. Profuse bleedings about the head or face, 
or other bony parts, may be arrested if from small blood-vessels or 
mere flesh wounds, by compresses of linen or cotton kept wet with cold 
water, or by lint, or by cobwebs. Never apply any thing to a wound 
which irritates, but wash it with something that is soothing and heal- 
ing, such as castile soap. If a bone is broken, keep still, bind up the 
parts, and apply cold water most freely until the surgeon arrives. 

Poisonous Bites, Stings, etc. — If there is no sore about the mouth 
or lips, suck it out and spit it out, for some minutes in succession, or, 
better still, wash the part most freely with spirits of hartshorn, because 
that is an alkali, and the bites and stings of reptiles and insects are 
acid, hence are nullified by the strong alkali. If there is no hartshorn 
at hand, make an alkali by wetting fresh woodashes with water and 
apply it to the wound as a poultice, renewing it every half-hour until 
relieved. Strong alkaline washes instantly applied are believed a per- 
fect preventive of serious harm from all bites and stings, except from a 
mad dog or other rabid creature. Insects are removed from the nose 
and ears by spirting in water from the mouth ; sweet oil with a syr- 
inge is as good, if at hand. 

Soldier Health. 223 


Stimulants and Tonics. — Chew a pinch or two of green tea when 
exhausted, or when on guard, or when on special hard duty, and re- 
peat every half hour, more or less ; it enlivens without the subsequent 
debility of spirits. Cayenne Pepper, called " capsicum," acts similarly; 
a pinch at a time will modify that excessive weariness or sleepiness, and 
is far more powerful than tea, in all its good effects ; while its conve- 
nience for carriage in point of bulk, renders it the most valuable sub- 
stance that a soldier can carry, as to nourishment, thirst, or invigor- 
ating powers. A single pinch in a cup of u flat" water will make it 
quite palatable. A third of a tea-spoonful taken at meals, morning, 
noon /and night, with the food or drink, not only invigorates digestion, 
but is a great antagonizer of dyspeptic and all bowel complaints in 

Stockings. — The feet will be blistered by a six hours' march in cot- 
ton stockings ; wear woolen, rubbing the soles with tallow or soap, \i 
you can, when a heavy march is in prospect. 

Food. — One pound of sugar mixed with three pounds of ground wheat 
or corn (with the bran) called u Pinole? is one of the most nutricious 
and healthy articles of food in the world for an army, and is easily 
carried. Jerked beef is next, made by cutting fresh beef in strips, and 
drying them in the sun, with as little salt as possible ; it will keep good 
a year. 

Amiy Beverages. — Col. Dawes, an experienced East-Indian officer, 
says that coffee aud tea should take the place of liquors, and that every 
man should have some as soon as he gets up in the morning, and also 
at suu-down. During the Crimean war, it was found that when the 
soldiers obtained warm coffee, they sustained fatigue and were com- 
paratively healthy ; but when they were in the trenches, and could not 
get warm tea or coffee, they were subject to dysentery or bloody flux. 

Swallowing Poison. — Stir in a glass of water a heaping teaspoon- 
ful each of salt and kitchen mustard, and drink it instantly — this will 
empty the stomach in a minute. To antagonize any poison that may 
be left, swallow the whites of two or three eggs ; then drink a cup or 
two of very strong coffee, or as much sweet milk or cream, if impossible 
to get coffee. 

Poisoned Yines.— Apply a paste made of gunpowder, or sulphur, 
with milk ; renew night and morning, until cured. Live on gruel, 
soups, rice, and other mild food, having the bowels to act twice a day. 

Signs of Death. — Bury no man unless his head is off, or the abdo- 
men begins to turn green or dark, the only sure signs, but always sure, 
of actual death. • 

To Stop Bleeding. — Four or five drops of Perchlorid of Iron will 
check completely the flow of blood from all except the largest arteries; 
half a teaspoonful will arrest even their bleeding. Each non-commis- 
sioned officer should have two ounces of this in a flat tin bottle, wound 
around with a little cotton batting, on a bit of which the liquid could 
be dropped for application.- 

224 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Obedience is not servility, it is a high duty ; it is not cowardly, but 
proudly honorable in a soldier. If your officer speaks sharply, it is 
neither to insult nor to browbeat j it is to wake up attention, instant 
and implicit. 

For every wounded soldier taken to the hospital in the Crimean war, 
twelve were taken on account of disease ; disease which could be avoid- 
ed in more than half the cases by such care as the soldier can take of 
himself, as directed in these pages. Of the 15,000 lives lost in the 
Mexican war, only 1548 were from battle. The United States Sana- 
tive Commission report that 104 soldiers became sick to each 1000 in 
the present war. 

Shirts. — A distinguished British Army Surgeon says : More than 
one half of all army diseases in warm countries are owing to the expo- 
sure of the abdomen to changes of temperature. Shirts should reach 
the thigh. 

Inner Clothing. — Every garment which touches a soldier's skin 
should be woolen in all seasons, most important in the warmest weath- 
er. It is impossible to over-estimate the value of this one item to the 
health of an army. 

Limestone-Water. — One teaspoonful of vinegar, in a pint of such 
water, will antagonize all its ill effects on the bowels of those unaccus- 
tomed to it. 

Dirty Water. — As much powdered alum as will rest on a dime, 
stirred in a pail of water, will clarify it in five minutes. 

Saving Life. — In the first seven months of the Crimean campaign , 
the soldiers died at the rate of 60 out of a 100 per annum, while for 
the hist five months of the war not so many soldiers died of disease as 
at home, owing to a more systematic and rigid attention to five things: 
1st. Selecting healthful camps ; 2d. Enforcing strict cleanliness ; 3d. 
Avoiding unnecessary exposure ; 4th. Proper preparation of healthful 
food ; 5th. Judicious nursing. 

A True Soldier is considered one of the highest types of a man. 
But that officer merits not the name or the title he bears, who does 
not make the comfort and health of his men a subject of unceasing 
thought, and of the most indefatigable effort. f 

Camp-Grounds. — An elevation is a hundred-fold better than a flat or 
a hollow ; open ground better than among trees ; better for health, 
safer from surprise, and stronger for attack and defense, even if it is 
calculated to stay but a few hours. Let the tent face the south, the 
top serened with brushwood, and if practicable with a floor of boards 
three inches above £he ground, and a ditch around • the tent six or 
eight inches deep. 

Drinking Water improperly has killed thousands of soldiers. If 
possible avoid drinking anything on a march. If you must drink, the 
colder the water the less will it satisfy thirst. J^* Half a glass of 
water drank in sips, swallowing each sip, with a few seconds interval, 
will more effectually satisfy thirst, and that without any danger, than 
a quart taken in the usual manner at one draught. It is greatly safest, 
while marching, to rinse the mouth only, but do that to the utmost ex- 

Soldier Health. 225 

tent desired, spirting out the water as soon as it becomes warm. 
Chewing even a stick or pebble moderates thirst. 

Mittens, for cold weather, should have a thumb and one finger, the 
other three fingers together, so as to use the trigger handily. 

Bowel Affections are said to be cured, it* at all curable, by drink- 
ing from one half to four half pints of a tea made of the iuner bark of the 
sweet-gum tree, boiled until of the taste and color of strong coffee, with 
or without sugar, cold or hot. The tree abounds southward. 

Cromwell's Discharged Soldiers. — Immorality and irreligion are 
among the great evils of war. Knowing this, every Christian should 
be most diligent,not only in prayer for the soldiers,and in furnishing them 
with religious privileges in the camp, but in cherishing a strong and en- 
lightened public religious sentiment. Public sentiment is a powerful 
stimulant to moral principle, as well as to patriotic feeling. It hence 
becomes the whole Christian community to frown upon Sabbath-day 
parades and displays. A country sometimes suffers immensely after a 
war is over, from the murders, robberies, thefts, and other depredations 
and immoralities of its own discharged soldiers. The principles and 
habits of the camp follow, or rather accompany, the men through life. 
In this aspect of the case, it becomes not only Christians who feel for 
men's immortal welfare, but it becoms all who have personal interests 
at stake, all who have properties or families to preserve, to see to the 
character of the camp. Cromwell kept up religion iu his army. He 
had chaplains, prayers, Sabbaths, preaching, Bibles, psalm-books, and 
withal the bravest men that ever went into battle. And after their 
return to private life, history, in recording their heroic deeds, bears 
this testimony to their moral worth : Fifty thousand men, accustomed 
to the profession of arms, were at once thrown on the world. In a 
few months there remained not a track indicating that the most for- 
midable army in the world had been absorbed into the mass of the com- 
munity. The royalists themselves confessed that in every department 
of honest industry, the discarded warrior prospered beyond other men, 
that none was charged with any theft or robbery, that none was 
heard to ask an alms, and that, if a baker, a mason, or a wagoner at- 
tracted notice by his diligence and sobriety, he was in all probability 
one of Oliver's old soldiers. 

Observance of the Sabbath — General Order No. T. — The Major- 
General Commanding desires and requests that in future there may be 
a more perfect respect for the Sabbath on the part of his command. 
We are fighting in a holy cause, and should endeavor to deserve the 
benign favor of the Creator. Unless in a case of an attack by the 
enemy, or some other extreme military necessity, it is commended to 
commanding office^ that all work shall be suspended on the Sabbath ; 
that no unnecessary movements shall be made on that day; that the 
men shall, as far as possible, be permitted to rest from their labors ; 
that they shall attend divine service after the customary Sunday morn- 
ing inspections, and that officers and men alike use their influence to 
insure the utmost decorum and quiet on that day. The General com- 
manding regards this as no idle form. One day's rest in seven is ne- 
cessary for man and animals. More than this, the observance of the 
holy day of the God of mercy and of battles is our sacred duty. 

Washington, Sept. 6th, 1861. 



bqarbin)® aro bay mnQ)Q)h 




Second Door from Fifth Avenue. 

The Misses Bucknall having for many years conducted a Boarding and Day 
School for Young Ladies, their method of instruction is the result of "much suc- 
cessful experience. They are assisted by Professors of eminent talent, and every 
facility is afforded for acquiring a substantial, critical, and symmetrical education. 

"These Ladies," says the Kev. Dr. Irenseus Prime, editor of the New-York Ob- 
server, "are thorough, earnest, and accomplished teachers, and give their pupils a 
sound, practical, and finished education j" and the editor of this journal adds, from 
his own personal knowledge, that some of the most eminent men in the country, , 
who have patronized this well-conducted School, give the like cordial testimony in. 
its praise. 

The Academic Tear begins with September and closes in Juno. Pupils are 
admitted at any time. 

Photographic Magnifier — This instrument is safely sent post paid, by mail, 
for one dollar. Those more elaborately made, three dollars ; its use is to magnify 
the smallest Cartes de Visites so as to bring out all the features and characteristic 
expressions of the face with the most gratifying and beautiful distinctness. It 
certainly affords the purest and sweetest satisfaction to contemplate the pho- 
tographs of those we love through one of these magnifiers, a satisfaction of which 
we never grow weary ; it is also adapted to looking at stereoscopic views, bring- 
ing the double picture into one, and causing it to stand out in bold relief on the 
same principles as the instruments which cost from five to fifty dollars. Address 
P. C. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New York. 

Surgical Diseases. — Dr. H. A. Daniels, 10J Union Square, New York City, 
confines his practice more particularly to those diseases where the efforts of an 
expert are especially required, such as diseases and deformities of the eyes, ears, 
nose, face, the removal of tumors, piles, fistula, strictures and diseases of wo- 
men and children. 

Dodge's Tincture. — This is used for the removal of vermin which infest domes- 
tic animals, horses, cattle and neglected children. If it is poured along the back 
of a horse and rubbed in with the hand, every parasite is killed or disappears in a 
few hours. A second application is never necessary, it also cleanses the scalp and 
invigorates the growth of the hair, when such a thing is possible; it contains no 
od, no offensive odor, no mercury; it is in every way cleanly and agreeable, and is 
as innocious to the hair or scalp or person as warm water, yet in five minutes 
after its application every parasite is dead. The Government has ordered a thou- 
sand dollars worth at a time, to use on the cavalry horses. It is the cleanliest, 
safest and most thoroughly efficient remedy of the kind ever offered to the public. 
Clothing which would otherwise have been burned, is rid of every insect by one 
single application with a sponge. Small, bottles, enough for three persons, are 
sold for twenty-five cents each, but these cannot be sent by mail. Pint tin cans 
are sent by express for one dollar and a half. P. C. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New 

Good Eating. — One of the most delightful, healthful and generally useful table 
articles which has lately come to our notice, is Condensed Cider or Apple Jelly 
made at Lima, Indiana, by Messrs. Cory & Sons. It was put up in I860 without 
a particle of sugar or other admixture. As an article for convalescents from fevers 
and other diseases, it has that mild, cooling, acid flavor which is so perfectly grate- 
ful to the sick. These gentlemen have sent large quantities gratuitously to our 
suffering soldiers, and we purpose giving other facts when communicated to us. 


THE $0UJtEH'$ Alt. 

It was a cheerleae autumn day ; the rain was falling in torrents ; every thing was saturated 
»rith water ; and as my wife passed among the sick and wounded and dying and dead soldiers, she 
bent over the wretched pallet of one, and asked him if he needed any thing. " Nothing, Madam, 
I thank you." 

" Do you want any thing to read — any books, or papers, or magazines ?"• 

Reaching his poor, sunburnt, scrawny hand from under the bed-clothing, he laid it on 
a book, and directing her attention to it, said : " This is all the reading I want." 

It was a well-worn Bible. Happy man ! A stranger, far from home, sick, in rags, appai-ently 
" not far " from the grave, he had no wants which his Bible could not supply. There were dark 
clouds in the sky above ; his Bible was sunshine to him. 

He knew nobody ; nobody knew him ; he was literally " a pilgrim and a stranger ;" but he 
had an acquaintance in his Bible, and as he read it, his eyes fell upon old familiar names, which 
carried his mind back to the village-church, to the " family worship " of his childhood, and he 
read of David and of Jonathan, of Moses and of Elias, of Peter and of Paul, but most of all, of 
Jesus of Nazareth, the Friend of sinners and the Saviour of man. 

Weak and wan as he was, he asked for no wine to sustain him, no delicacies, prepared by 
tender hands, to nourish him into life again ; for he had " meat to eat" which those around him 
" knew not of." He read in his Bible morning, noon, and night ; and he found oat that as often as 
he read it, he felt nourished and comforted. It was a dish of which he never became tired ; for 
although apparently the same, he found something new in it every day ; some sweetness that he 
had not tasted before. No wonder, then, that he found every want supplied in the soiled hook 
which he earefully kept always in reach. 

Some soldiers, in tents and under other forms of shelter, were writing letters, turning over the 
leaves of magazines, or reading newspapers ; but this soldier's Bible supplied all the reading he 
wanted. In it he found " things both new and old ;" he found them reliable ; to-day brought no 
contradiction of what he read yesterday. The messages which he received were telegraphed from 
heaven, and he had heard the " Operator " there say over and over again, as to his messages : " If 
it were not so, I would have told you." Happy soldier ! Blessed book ! Doubtless he would feel 
a full acccrd with him who wrote : 

" This little book I'd rather own 

Than all the gold and gems 
That e'er in monarch's coffers shone, 

Or all their diadems. 
Yes ! were the seas one chrysolite, 

The earth one golden ball, 
And diamonds too the stars of night, 

This book were worth them all." 

Reader, you will be sick one day ; it may be a long sickness ; you may be far from home, far 
from friends, far from medical aid. Let me tell you there is a " balm " in the Bible ; a medica- 
ment, a cordial, of a nature so searching, of a power so all-pervading,'that there is " no sorrow 
which it can not heal," no suffering which it can not soothe, no pain which it can not mitigate. 
It helped the soldier to live above his sufferings ; it will help you to do the same. It met all his 
v. ant3 ; it will meet yours. There was a fullness in it to him ; that fullness it will be to you, and in 
an hour, too, when no human drug can avail, when the most skillful physician in the land is pow- 
erless to ease a single agony, and when the most that the best friends on earth can do for you, is 
to gaze at your suffering in sorrowing helplessness. Make the Bible then your companion, your 
c unselor ; keep it always in easy and convenient reach, as the soldier did ; and learn like him to 
be satisfied in its fullness, and like him, to find in it a safe Guide, a Friend in need, and an ablg 



There are three kinds of loose bowels, technically called " diarrhea," or a " flow- 
ing through" of water, bile, or blood. If it is water, it is diarrhea proper; if it is 
bile, it is bilious diarrhea : if it is blood, it is dysentery. Simple diarrhea is a thin, 
light-colored discharge from the bowels, occurring five, ten, or twenty times in 
twenty-four hours ; if let alone it becomes Asiatic cholera in certain states of the 
atmosphere. Its great characteristic is the extraordinary debilitating effect which 
speedily pervades the whole body ; the patient feels, when he sits down, as if it 
would be a happiness just to be allowed to remain there. Absolute quietude is an 
elysium to him. Instinct calls for the most perfect rest possible, and thus points 
out the most certain and appropriate of all modes of cure, which is absolute and 
continuous rest on a bed, in a cool, clean, well-aired room, until the passages 
assume the consistency of mason's mortar, and not oftener than twice in twenty- 
four hours. In health the bowels are incessantly moving, not unlike worms in a 
carrion ; hence the ancients designated it as the " vermicular action," vermis 
meaning a worm. If there is not activity enough, we have constipation, or torpid, 
sleepy action ; when this action is excessive, it is diarrhea. Every step a man takes 
has a tendency to set the bowels in motion ; hence one of the most certain and fre- 
quent and efficient cures of constipation, when the bowels act but once in two or 
three or more days, is to be moving about on the feet almost all the time. If then 
motion tends to increase the activity of the bowels, when that activity is too great, 
instinct, alike with reason, dictates as perfect quietude as possible. If the symp- 
toms do not abate by simply resting on a bed, a greater quietude of the vermicular 
motion is compelled by simply binding a strip of woolen flannel, about fourteen 
inches wide, tightly around the abdomen or "stomach," so as to be double in front, 
the effect of which is to give the bowels less room to move about in ; affords re- 
markable strength to the whole body, and keeps the surface warm, soft, and moist. 
As the disease is a too great flow of fluids through the system, drinking fluids of any 
description only aggravates the malady. Yet, as the thirst is sometimes excessive, 
lumps of ice may be chewed and swallowed in as large pieces as possible, to any 
extent desired. No food should be eaten except rice, parched like coffee, boiled as 
usual, served, and eaten with an equal bulk of boiled milk. This maybe varied by 
boiling a pint of flour in a linen bag, in milk, for an hour or two, skin off the out- 
side, dry it, grate it in boiled milk, make it palatable with salt or sugar, and eat as 
much as desired every fifth hour during the day, eating and drinking nothing else. 
This treatment will cure nine cases out of ten, if adopted promptly within forty- 
eight hours ; if not, call in a physician. 



Or "Asiatic Cholera," as first known in this country in 1832 and '33, is chiefly a 
disease prevailing in warm weather, or rather in a warm atmosphere, for it can be 
created at any season, and in the coldest latitudes, by combining the proper degrees 
of the three essential requisites, to wit, moisture, vegetable decay, and a regular 
heat, exceeding eighty degrees. The great and distinguishing feature of cholera 
is a copious, frequent, and painless discharge from the bowels of a substance almost 
as thin as water, with a whitish tinge, as if rice had been washed in it, or as if a 
little milk had been dropped in it. "When this occurs the patient soon begins to 
perspire profusely, the skin assumes a leaden hue and shrivels up, the nails become 
blue, insufferable cramps come on, and the victim's death occurs in a few hours 
with the most perfect calmness, in the fullest possession of all the faculties, and 
absolute freedom from every pain. 

Three things ought to be known, in reference to cholera, by every human being : 

First : The writer has never known a case in which it was not preceded, for one, 
two, or more days, by the bowels acting twice, or oftener, in every twenty-four 
hours; universally styled u the premonitory symptoms." 

Second: A cure is impossible under any conceivable circumstances, without 
absolute quietude of body, on a bed, for days together ; the time of confinement 
being shortened, in proportion to the promptitude with which the quietude is 
Becured, after the first action of the bowels has taken place, which gives a feeling 
of tiredness, and, on sitting down, a sensation of rest and satisfaction. 

Third : When the patient ceases to urinate he begins to die, and its resumption 
is a certain index of recovering health, always and infallibly. * 

One of the usual attendants of an attack of cholera is an unconquerable tendency 
to vomit. The very instant any thing reaches the stomach, even if it is but cold 
water, it is ejected ; the mildest food meets the same fate in such cases, much less 
will' medicine find a lodgment, except one, and that it is impossible to vomit up if 
it once reaches its destination ; that medicine has no taste, it is small in bulk, will 
retain its virtues for a quarter of a century, as the writer knows by personal ex- 
perience and repeated observation. Unless it is in the very last stages, it is 
believed capable of arresting the disease in nine cases out of ten — a pill made up 
of ten grains of calomel with a little gum-water ; if the symptoms do not abate in 
two hours, double the dose, and let it work itself off; do nothing else, but let the 
patient be quiet and eat all the ice he can possibly want. 



Is literally a " difficulty among the intestines;" it is a discharge of blood from the 
bowels, accompanied with what has been aptly called " an atrocious pain.'" You 
feel as if you would be relieved by an evacuation, but when the attempt is made, 
there is a fruitless straining, termed tenesmus, and nothing comes of it, unless it be 
blood. The rectum, or last foot of the lower bowel, is the main seat of dysentery, 
which is commonly called "bloody flux." It should be always considered a dan- 
gerous disease. At first the discharges are odorless ; but as the parts come more 
under the influence of the disease, they become disorganized, rotten, and insuffer- 
ably offensive. Dysentery most abounds in hot, dry weather, and is oftenest caused 
by bad air, a sudden check of perspiration, or by whatever makes the skin of the 
body cold. In fact, dysentery may be considered an exaggerated or aggravated 
diarrhea — the latter is water, the former, blood. The great distinguishing features 
of dystentery are bloody passages, with a frequent, fruitless, and painful effort to 
stool. It is one of those diseases which are very apt to go on to a fatal termina- 
tion, if let alone ; a disease which is often made more speedily fatal by being 
ignorantly tampered with ; and whether blood is passed from the bladder or the 
bowels, a skillful physician should be called in as promptly as possible, as promptly, 
indeed, as if it were an attack of cholera ; but while he is coming, there are 
several things which may be safely, done for the comfort of the sufferer, if not for 
his cure. The patient should not sit up a moment ; should keep as quiet as possi- 
ble ; should eat absolutely nothing but boiled rice, or flour-porridge, and swallow 
bits of ice to the complete quenching of the thirst. A little cold flaxseed-tea may 
be swallowed from time to time. A favorite prescription of some of the old phy- 
sicians of a past generation, and which is now said to be in vogue in Russia for 
several forms of diarrhea and dysentery is the use of raw meat — thus, take fresh 
beef, free from fat, scrape it into a pulp with a knife, season it with salt to make 
'it more palatable, or with sugar for children, to whom begin with one teaspoonful 
three times a day, gradually increasing the amount as they become fond of it. 
Adults may use it by spreading it between two slices of stale bread. Its merit 
consists in its being easily digested, very nutritious, of small bulk, and readily 
assimilated to the system. It is well known that children having the summer com- 
plaint will ravenously eat, or rather chew or grind between their gums, a piece of 
the rind of bacon or ham, to which is attached half an inch of fat, and begin to 
jmprove in a few hours. The whites of forty eggs " whipped," and then sweetened 
with white sugar, and drank largely through the day, without any other food, is an 
admirable remedy in these ailments. Or for dysentery or protracted diarrhea take 
half a teacup of vinegar, with as much salt as it will take up, leaving a little excess 
of salt at the bottom, add boiling water until the cup is two thirds full, remove the 
ecum, let it cool, and take one tablespoonful three times a day until relieved. It 
bag aot failed of cure in many hundred trials. 



Is always an effort of nature to save herself from impending disease ; hence it ia 
a curative process, and should not be interfered with. The passages in dysentery 
are bloody and painful always ; in simple diarrhea they are always thin, almost 
watery, always large and light colored. In cholera, which is aggravated diarrhea, 
the passages are infallibly painless ; on the other hand, bilious diarrhea is known 
by the passages being colored either dark, green, or yellow, often with a burning, 
griping, or other ill feeling before the passages come on. Bilious diarrhea ought 
never to be checked, except by medical advice, because it is an effort of nature to 
rid the system of that which would destrby it, if allowed to remain within it. Life 
has been destroyed thousands of times by failing to distinguish a bilious diarrhea 
from common diarrhea, simply by not noticing the color of the discharges, and 
thinking that nothing more is necessary than to " check it ;" and that whatever 
does this the quickest is the best remedy. Opium, and paregoric, and laudanum, 
and morphine are resorted to with a fatal recklessness ; they arrest, but they do 
not cure ; they hide, cover over, but do not eradicate ; but that is not the worst 
of it, they often send the disease to the brain, especially in children, to result in 
certain death in a short time. In most cases, all that is necessary in bilious diarrhea 
is to take nothing, keep still, keep warm in bed, and do not eat an atom of any 
thing, except when really hungry. There is but a step between bilious diarrhea 
and bilious or cramp colic, these last ending in death often within a few hours. 
The difference between them is only this — nature forces the bile out of the system 
in bilious diarrhea ; in bilious colic she has not strength to do it, and in this latter 
case, unless speedily and efficiently aided, death, painful, agonizing and speedy, is 
the result. 

Bilious diarrhea is often preceded by costiveness, and is generally brought on by ' 
bad air or by chilling the skin, either by cooling it off too soon after exercise, or 
by remaining in water or damp garments for a long time ; the effect in either case is 
the same, to wit, to close the pores of the skin and drive the matters back and 
inward, which would otherwise have escaped beneficially from the body. A sud- 
den burst of passion or other shock or great mental emotion may bring on an attack 
of bilious diarrhea. Those, therefore, who have observed themselves to be subject 
to attacks of bilious diarrhea, may easily postpone them indefinitely by arranging 
to have the bowels act freely once every twenty-four hours, by cultivating an equable 
frame of mind, and by habitually avoiding every thing which causes a chilly feeling 
to the skin ; for he is not the greatest man who can the most readily cure diseases 
in others, but he who i3 most successful in preventing them in his own person. 


Bruchitis & Kin- 
dred Diseases. 

Asthma, Common 
" Perpetual 
1 Causes & Nature 
" Symptoms & Treat. 

Bronchitis, what is 
" Nature & Cause 
" Symp. & Treat. 

Srandy & Throat disease 

Clerical Health 



" Cause of 


" How diseased 
" Many cases of 

Dangerous Delays 

" Exposures 

I>isease Prevented 
Debilitating Indulgences 


Frail and Feeble 
Food, Tables of 

Heart, Contents 
" Disease of 
How remain Cured 
High Livera 

Inhalation, Medicated 
Inflammation described 

Lawyers, Cases of 
Lungs described 
" Contents 
Lake Shore, situation 
Life, average duration 

Mistaken Patients 
Merchants' Cases 

Nitrate of Silver 

Over Feeding 
Oxygen Breathing 
Overtasking Brain 


Prairie Situation 


fate ni Medicines 



Smoking, Bainful e Tect s 
Shortness of Breath 
Sea Shore 
Sea Voyages 
Spitting Blood 

throat Ail 

" What is it 

u Symp*~— « 
' Cause* 
** Philosopv^, 
« History f 

Ifobacco, effects of 

foasil Cutting 

" UnweU » 

Voice Organs described 



Apjt fe, Nature's 
Arkansas Hunter 
Air and Exercise 
Alcoholic Effects 

Bad Colds 
Brandy Drinking 

Consumption Described 
" Delusive 
" Not painless 
'« Causes of 
u Symptoms 
" Localities 
** Liabilities 
" Nature of 
** Curable 
** Commencing 
M Seeds deposited 
" Is it catching ? 

Cough, Nature of 
" Causes of 
" Effects of 

Cluster Doctrine 

Cheesy Particles 


Earliest Symptoms 
Exercise essential 

" Various forms of 

" Sinking in water 

Great Mistake 



Horseback Exercise 

Impure Air 

" Effects of 
Lacing Tight 

Night Sweats 
Nitrate of Silver 

Occupation in 
Out Door Activities 
Over Exercise 


Porter Drinking 

Respirator, Best 

Spitting Blood 
Shori Breath 
Sea Voyages 
Sea Shore 
Safe Treatment 
Southern Climate 

Throat Ail, distinguished 
from Consump. 
« From Bronchitis 
Tickling Cough 

Health & Disease 




Anal Itching 



Apples Curative 

Bowels Regulated 

Bad Breath 

Baths and Battling 




Binding Food 

Constitutions Restored 



Children, Health of 


Chills at Meals 


Clothing Changes 




Cooling off Slowly 

Chest Developed 

Clerical Rules 

Choosing Physicisie 

Cracked Wheat 

Corn Bread 

Drinking at 








Feet Cold 

First Things 



Horseback Exercise 

Inverted Toe Nails 

Late Dinners 

Morbid Appetite 



Pleurisy and Pneumonia 

Public Speakers 



Summer Complaint 
Spring Diseases 



" Sleep. 


Air, Deadly 

" Breathing Bod 

" State of 

«« Of Crowded 

" Taints 

" Noxious 

" Bath 

" Country 

«' Hills 

« Sea Shore 

" Close Rooms 

11 Of Chambers 

" And Thought 

Black Hole of Calcutta 
Bodily Emanations 
Bad Habits 
Breath of Life 

Crowding, effects of 
Convulsions, Children's 
Capacity of Lungs 
Charcoal Fumes 
Chambers, Vitiated 
Chemical Affinities 

Deadly Emanations 


Electrical Influences 
Excessive Child-bearing 
as depriving of sleep, to 

Griscom's Ventilation 
Gas Burning 

Human Effluvia 
Houses and Cottages 
House Plans 

" Warming 
i " " by steam 

" " by open fire plao. 

Indulgence, over 

" Measure of 

Invisible Impurities 
Marriage a safeguard 
Nocturnal Ems 
Nursing at Night 

Pure Chambers 
Physiology Books 

" " Their bad effeotl 
Papered Rooms 
Pernicious Instruments 
Population Control 
Ruined Youth 

Second Naps 
Sleep of Children 
Sleeping with others 
" Old with young 
" Strong with feeble 
*« with Consumptive^ 
" with Children 
" Weil 
" How learned 

Youth's Habits 
11 " Howremedfad 
&c. Ac. 

The above books are sold at the prices annexed, at 40 Irving Place, NEW-YORK. If 
ordered by mail, send 25 cts. for postage. Address simply, " Dr. W. W. Hall, New- York." 
Hall's Journal of Health, $1.50 a year; bound vols. $1.25 each; postage 25 cts. additional 


VOL. XI.] DECEMBER, 1864. [No. 12. 

" Killed with hard study," is the verdict often rendered as to many 
young men, who die while pursuing their studies, or soon after 
entering their profession ; the same is said of many literary men. 
Multitudes of clergymen, who are never well, have the reputation of 
having been brought into this condition by overwork, by having to 
study so hard. Many a man of a great mind and of eminent usefulness 
is a martyr to some form of human suffering, to some malady, which, in 
the slow progress of years, is permanently undermining the constitution 
and eating into the very vitals. 

Great business men , who have large interests on their minds all the 
time, are sometimes sent by writers to the insane asvlum, as in a subse- 
quent article in this number on " Health, Happiness and Gold," as a 
result of excessive mental application to one great absorbing idea. It 
is a rare thing to find any man eminent for his talents, who is not 
either a drunkard practically, or a sufferer from some physical malady. 
Hugh Miller was the victim of dyspeptia ; the tortures of which, finally 
crazed his brain, and led him to suicide. The most eloquent man that 
ever lived in any age or nation, on astronomical subjects, and whose 
indomitable energy and tenacity of purpose, are illustrated in some of 
the pages following, as an encouragement to those of our young read- 
ers who are ambitious that the world should be benefited by their 
having lived in it, was for many of the last years of his life the helpless 
sufferer from dispeptic horrors, enough to drive any mind mad, less 
great than his. 

Great students have great appetites. Hard study makes a healthy 
man as hungry as hard work. The employment of the brain, hard 
thinking, exhausts a man's strength as certainly and completely as any 
form of bodily labor. Girls and boys and young men at school , academy, 
or college, are always ready to eat something, and can eat almost any- 
thing, for a while after they have entered upon their studies. 

Whether a man kills himself with whiskey, or tobacco, or food, the 
crime is the same. A man is equally a suicide, whether by drinking, . 
smoking or gluttony. Excessive smoking, excessive drinking, excess- 
ive eating, are the results of an abandonment to an animal appetite, to 
an animal indulgence, such indulgence is beastly, it is ignoble, it is piti- 
ful. Pitiful and sorrowing is it to contemplate the spectacle of a 

234 Hall's Journal of Health. 

magnificent mind going out in premature darkness, in consequence of its 
low indulgence of the animal propensities. Our eminent men in law, 
physic and divinity, in finance and politics, and on the editorial chair, 
when they are disabled or die prematurely, or pass their last days be- 
hind the iron bars of an asylum, are the victims, in almost all cases, not 
of hard study but of hard drinking, eating or other form of over indul- 
gence, whether in opium, spirits or tobacco, and the disgraceful fact 
ought to be more generally understood than it is. The process is as 
follows. Study is a fascination. It has been said of the great New- 
ton, that he had often to be reminded that it was the dinner hour. 
Writers of prose, poetry and music are conscious that many times the 
call to dinner has been an unwelcome one, and that if they had been un- 
usually interested in the investigation of a subject,the mind leaves it most 
reluctantly, if indeed at all ; food is eaten without any perceived taste, 
is swallowed without satisfaction, and no sooner is the "process" of 
dining, over, than the student hastens to his writing or his book, to 
pursue the chase of ideas, and revels in these, with all the abandon of 
his nature; the result is, that the nervous energy which ought to have 
gone to the stomach to be expended in withdrawing nutriment from 
the food, and supplying a pure blood to feed the system and repair its 
wastes, is expended on the brain ; the food is thus allowed to remain 
in the stomach insufficiently acted on, is imperfectly digested ; the 
stomach robbed of its due proportion of nervous energy, endeavors to 
get through its work, but for want of power, of strength, does it imper- 
fectly ; all the work is done after a fashion, but none of it is well done; 
none of the materials for making good blood are perfect materials, 
hence the blood itself is imperfect, is impure, is thick ; does not flow 
through the channels of the system with life like activity ; but passes 
along slowly, sluggishly ; and in process of time, congests, dams up, 
scarcely flows at all, and finally stagnates, ceases to flow altogether, 
and death ends the history. But it is curious to know that the blood 
thus stagnates in different parts of the system, in different persons, ac- 
cording as some one part of such system has been rendered weak, either 
from hereditary influences, or by accidental circumstances. 

If the lungs have been rendered the weakest part from too close con- 
finement to the study and a want of active out-door exercise, the stag- 
nation induces hemmorrhage ; coming upon a man sometimes with the 
surprise of a clap of thunder under a clear sky. 

If the brain has been rendered weak by its share of nervous energy 
having been sent habitually to an overloaded stomach, or to over-work- 
ed tnuscles, the blood dams up there, and there is paralysis or appo- 
plexy ; which is quite a common ending to late dinners, and to those 

Great Men Great Sufferers. • 235 

who feed on oysters, lobsters and turtle soup at eleven o'clock at night. 

If the throat has boen rendered weak by the injudicious or excessive 
use of the voice, and going out into the cold air, or riding against the 
wind, before the parts have cooled and rested, the congestion begins 
there, causing smarting, burning, pricking or some kind of clogging up 
of the throat, or voice organs, to end in a permanent disablement of 
the voice, in an ulceration of the parts and death by starvation, from 
an inability to swallow food ; or, passing down to the lungs, fell con- 
sumption winds up the sad history. 

If the lower bowels have become weakened by sitting habitually on 
warm cushions ; or by having allowed habits of constipation (that is 
want of a daily action of the bowels) to grow upon the system, the 
congestion begins there, inducing piles ; or the more perilous fistula ; 
which, if uncured by the surgeon's knife, at an expense of several hun- 
dred dollars, induces the deplorable condition, where the urine and 
excrements come away by driblets all the time : and the grown man 
must be " diapered" for the remainder of his life. 

Students and sedentary persons become the victims of constipation, 
in nearly all cases as follows : When interested in a composition or an 
investigation or having an appointment, nature may give one of her 
calls, but the urgency of the matter in hand induces the deferment of 
that call for five minutes, or half an hour or longer ; nature thus 
baffled, ceases to urge again, for several hours ; her habit of regularity 
has been broken into ; the next day her call is later, and later ; finally 
passes to the second or third day ; sometimes only once or twice a 
week, and the health is ruined forever ; thus, if nature is not instantly 
obeyed when her instinct indicates that something should be passed out 
of the system as an incumbrance, as rubbish in a house, or workshop, 
she begins to dispose of it in another direction, by setting up a heat in 
the parts ; this heat causes the more watery particles of the matter, 
above referred to, to be reabsorbed and sent to the blood, to render it 
more thick, and impure, a'nd to increase the original malady ; to add 
fuel to the flame. The blood is not only rendered impure, but part of 
the matter which ought to have gone down into the privy, has been 
circulated through the syatem again and goes to the mouth and lips 
and tongue ; goes all over the body ; no wonder that habitually 
constipated persons have ailments all over the body, have an " odor " 
about them, which heralds their approach when a mile away, more or 
less 1 Therefore, the great man owes his sufferings more to hard eat- 
ing, than to hard study ; more to the filthy habit of postponing nature's 
calls, than to over* work; and hence merits our contempt, more than oar 



Of all the plans ever devised for heating our dwellings, that 
which combines in the highest degree the important qualities of 
healthfulness, chearfulness, and comfort, the Low-down Grate of T. 
S. Dixon, of Philadelphia, has no equal ; and however the house 
may be heated in general, the family-room and the parlor of every 
man who consults the deepest enjoyment of his wife, children, and 
friends, will have the broad, blazing hearthfal of glowing coals 
which Dixon's Grate alone affords. It burns wood, coke, soft and 
hard coal, as may be desired, giving out more heat without burn- 
ing any more fuel than a common grate ; giving no more dust than 
a common wood-fire, nor half as much ; in real truth, not more than 
a furnace in the cellar sends through the register in our own 
house, not as much when properly managed. 

The Maryland School Journal, published monthly at Hagers- 
town, Maryland, for one dollar a year, is edited with great judg- 
ment ; every page is full of practical articles, calculated to instruct 
and make happy any family which follows them ; every true lover 
of the noble old State of Maryland ought to order a copy for his 
household for 1865. 

A Sermon, delivered by the Rev. D wight K. Bartlett, at Hart- 
ford, Ct., in reference to the times, has been published at the 
urgent request of gentlemen in Albany, New- York. Mr.. Bartlett is 
an Old-School Presbyterian clergyman, and although he has been 
preaching but two or three years, this Sermon shows that he is a 
rising man, and is destined to occupy a high position. He has 
already refused offers from some of the best pulpits of his native 
State of New- York. 

(feom the "independent.") 

The decease of two prominent mercantile-men, in the prime of 
life, in circumstances of ease, if not of opulence, and quite recently 
in the enjoyment of robust health, surrounded by every condition, 
in the business and family relations, which could render life desira- 
ble and promise a happy continuance of it. calls for some comment 
at our hands. 

How is it that so many of our successful merchants are cut short 
in their earthly career, just at the period when it would seem that 
they had acquired all the requisites to make a deep mark upon the 
body social in which they lived ? We recall two more instances, 
both partners in a large retailing dry-goods establishment in the city, 
the largest and probably the most successful one ever known here ; 
they both died not long since, at the age of fifty, each in the pos- 


session of a large fortune, and, to all appearances, endowed with 
superior means of enjoying it. 

Is it not too clearly manifested, in the premature deaths of these 
and numerous others in like circumstances, that there is something 
radically wrong in the habits and methods of life practiced by our 
mercantile men ? Is there not too much tension of the nervous 
system, too much taxation of the brain ? — in short, is there not 
entirely too much grasping for rapid accumulations ? The latter 
is, undoubtedly, the cause of the other developments. Of what 
avail is it to acquire a large fortune", if one of the most probable 
consequences of it is the prostration of mental and physical power, 
and sheer inability to enjoy life in any form? How much better 
would it be if our business men, of superior capacity and resources, 
were to content themselves with aiming for a smaller fortune, and 
risking less to obtain it. These things are great or small relatively. 
!N"ot many years ago, fifty thousand dollars would have been reck- 
oned a competency ; but what is now considered a generous for- 
tune ? How many well established merchants now contemplate 
retiring from active business with less than half-a-million, and how 
many expect ever to retire while they are making money ? 

TVe do not advocate ever retiring from labor ) on the contrary, 
we know that constant employment is absolutely necessary for the 
happiness, and also for the health of every human being. We only 
mean to say that when a large fortune, or even a competency, has 
been acquired, that then the mind, strength, and energies of a busi- 
ness man, a part of the time at least, should change the current 
from self to the world, seeking the elevation and welfare of others 
less fortunate. At such a period the ordinary risks of business 
should be curtailed, so that the brain can be left more free for 
benevolent action. 

A gentleman residing in the ulterior of our State, a farmer and 
president of a bank, called on us a few days since. He presented 
the vigorous appearance of a man in full health — his age might be 
fifty or thereabout. He had left New York city with what would 
be considered a very moderate competency, but which he thought 
sufficient, at the age of forty ; and, to judge from appearances, he 
seems to possess everything that an intelligent and cultivated gen- 
tleman needs to make life enjoyable — namely, a family, a farm, a 
competency, and agreeable occupation. He is just now on the 
point of making his second European tour. In conversation upon 
the recent suicide of Mr. Leupp, he remarked that he wondered 
that there were not more cases of the sort, for that the business 


men lie saw everywhere in this city appeared to him like a crowd 
of lunatics. And yet he is a business man, needing healthful ex- 
citement, hut finding it in rational pursuits, study, and proper phy- 
sical and mental exercise. Oh, when will our business men learn 
wisdom, and understand the laws of their physical being! What 
an example they are exhibiting, in multitudes of mstances, of a 
blind idolatry of wealth and power, regardless of consequences ! 
How many more cases of premature death shall we have to record 
from heart disease, from paralysis, from sudden insanity, caused by 
undue and phrensied devotion- to what is called business ? Friends, 
neighbors, felloW-toilers for. earthly dross, let us pause and consider 
if we are not also in this category, and &sk ourselves if we are not 
paying too dearly for our toys, even though they assume the form 
and dimensions of a colossal Golden Calf. 



Investing in champagne at $2 a bottle — an acre of good Govern- 
ment land costs $1.25. 

Investing in tobacco and cigars, daily, one year, $50 — seven barrels 
of good flour will cost $49. 

Investing in " drinks" one year, $100 — $100 will pay for ten daily 
and fifteen monthly periodicals. 

Investing in theatrical amusements one year, $200 — $200 will pur- 
chase an excellent library. 

Investing in a fast horse, $500 — 400 acres of good wild land costs 

Investing in a yacht, including bettings and drinkings for the 

season, $5000— $5000 will buy a good improved country farm. 

Panics, hard times, loss of time, red faces, bad temper, poor 

health, ruin of character, misery, starvation, death,' and a terrible 

future may be avoided by looking at the above square in the face. 
Reader, put on your spectacles, take a look, and tell us what you 

think on the subject ; and, if a father, ask your boys what they 


A majority of " financiers," in making calculations for the future, 

watch the importations, exports of specie, the ups and downs of 

stocks, and the movements of the Wall-street Bulls and Bears. 

All that is very well, but let them at the same time estimate the 

loss of gold in the maelstrom of extravagance. 



Some husbands are more plague than profit, and makd vastly 
more work than they do ; but mine is one to brag about. When 
I was married, to my shame be it spoken, I had never made a loaf 
of bread or a pie. I had no idea of saving time or saving work. 
But I had a husband who had love enough for me to bear with my 
simplicity, and not scold when the bread was burned and the pies 
not fit to eat. Going into the kitchen one morning, he saw me 
baking buckwheat cakes, and greasing the griddle with a piece of 
pork on the end. of a fork. He said nothing, but went into the 
wood-house, and soon returned with a smoothly- whittled stick, 
about six inches long, through the split end of which he had passed 
a folded strip of white cloth, and then wound it around the end 
and tied it with a bit of string. So I had a contrivance which 
could be dipped in melted grease, and put it smoothly over the 

One day he saw me scouring knives with -a piece of cloth. 
" Dear me !" said he, " you will surely cut your fingers." So he 
contrived a machine by nailing a broad piece of cork to a spool for 
a handle, sinking the head of the nail into the cork so far that it 
should not touch the knife. This lifts the hand from the knife and 
does not cramp the fingers. 

I used to call him occasionally to thwack over the heavy mat- 
tress and straw bed for me. " What a nuisance !" he exclaimed, 
and so replaced them by a spring mattress. Of all the nice things 
for beds, this is the best. It is always in place, requires no shaking 
up, and it takes only three minutes to replace the bed-clothes, and 
the bed is made. It always looks round and inviting, and gently 
yields to the weight of the sleeper. 

He saw the dish-towels hanging helter-skelter around the kitch- 
en stove, and forthwith made the most convenient hanging-frame, 
over the wood-box, where it can take up no room and is near the 
stove. Here the towels hang smoothly and are always hi place. 

I fretted because my refrigerator had no shelves, and I could 
not make room enough for all the meat, butter, and milk. So he 
made two racks, and fitted ventilated shelves from the one to the 
other. The shelves are ventilated by being bored thick with auger- 
holes, and can be removed for scrubbing. 

He is troubled to see me sew, sew,«and stitch, stitch, and makes 


sewing-machines the constant topic of conversation. He reads to 
me every advertisement and every letter from women who praise 
them in the papers. If he could make one, I should be in posses- 
sion of one immediately ; but as he cannot, I must wait till " the 
ship comes in." These are some of the ways by which he lightens 
the labor of the house. Would more husbands were like him. 
Perhaps, another time, I shall tell you how he contrives his own 
garden tools, and saves time and money by his ingenuity. 


In the history of the Cincinnati Observatory is one of the most 
remarkable instances on record of how much one man may ac- 
complish without money and without means, simply by the force 
of the will when directed towards a laudable and possible enter- 
prise. Had Professor Mitchell, who has the finest astronomical 
mind in the country, done less than he did do, the largest and 
best refracting telescope in the world but one would not have been 
placed on one of the hills of the Far West. Let his own simple un- 
varnished narration, as taken from his monthly Sidereal Messenger, 
be a lesson to all young men who want to achieve a great name : 

On the 9th November, 1843, the corner-stone of the observatory 
was laid by John Quincy Adams, in the presence of a vast multi- 
tude, with appropriate ceremonies, and followed by the delivery of 
an address replete with beauty and eloquence. The season was too 
far advanced to permit any thing to be done towards the- erection 
of the building during the Fall; and, indeed, it was not the inten- 
tion of the Board of Directors to proceed with the building until 
every dollar required in the payment for the great telescope should 
have been remitted to Europe. At the time of laying the corner- 
stone but $3000 out of $9500 had been paid. This was the amount 
required in the contract to be paid on signing, and the remaining 
sum became due on finishing the instrument. 

The contract having been made conditionally in July, 1842, it 
was believed that the great refractor would be shipped for the 
United States in June, 1844, and to meet our engagements the sum 
of $6500 must be raised. 

This amount was subscribed, but in consequence of commercial 
difficulties, all efforts hitherto made to collect it had been unavail- 
ing, and in February, 1844, the Board of Control solicited the 
Director of the Observatory to become the general agent of the 
society, and to collect all old subscriptions, and obtain such new ones 
as might be necessary to make up the requisite sum. The accounts 
in the hands of the previous collector were accordingly turned over to 


me, and a systematic effort was made to close them up. A regular 
journal was kept of each day's work, noting the number of hours 
employed, the persons visited, those actually found, the sums col- 
lected, the promises to pay, the positive repudiations, the due bills 
taken, payable in cash and trade, and the day on which I was 
requested to call again. These intervals extended from a week or 
ten days to four months. The hour was in general fixed, and when 
the day rolled round, and the hour arrived, the agent of the society 
presented himself, and referred to the memoranda. In many cases 
another and another time was appointed, until, in some instances, 
almost as many calls were made as there were dollars due. By 
systematic perseverance, at the end of some forty days the sum of. 
$3000 was paid over to the treasurer as the amount collected from 
old subscribers. Nearly $2000 of due bills had been taken, paya- 
ble in carpenter's work, painting, dry goods, boots and shoes, hats 
and caps, plastering and bricklaying, blacksmith's work, paints and 
oils, groceries, pork barrels, flour, bacon and lard, hardware, iron, 
nails, etc., in short, in every variety of trade materials and work- 
manship. The due bills in cash brought about $500 in the course 
of the next thirty days, and a further sum of $3000 was re- 
quired for the last remittance to Europe. It was determined to 
raise this amount in large sums from wealthy and liberal citizens 
who had already become members of our society. The list first 
made out, and the sums placed opposite the names of each person 
is now in my possession. On paper the exact amount was made up 
in the simplest and most expeditious manner ; eight names had the 
sum of $200 opposite them, ten names were marked $100 each, and 
the remaining ones $50 each. Such was the singular accuracy in 
the calculation, that when the theory was reduced to practice, it 
failed in but one solitary instance. One person, upon whom we 
had relied for $200, declined absolutely, and his place was filled by 

J called on one of the eight individuals marked at $200, and, 
after a few moments' conversation, he told me that in case $100 
would be of any use to me, he would gladly subscribe that 
amount. I showed him my list, and finding his name among those 
reckoned at $200, he remarked that he would not mar so beautiful 
a scheme for the sum of $100, and accordingly entered his name 
in its appropriate place. 

At a meeting held in May, by the Board of Control, the treas- 
urer reported that the entire amount was now in the treasury 
with the exception of $150. The Board adjourned, to meet on 
the same day of the following week, when the deficiency was re- 
duced by the agent to $25, and on the same day an. order was 
.passed to remit the entire amount to the Barings & Brothers, of 
London, to be paid to the manufacturer, on the order of "W. J. 
Lamont, of Munich, to be given on the packing of the instrument. 
The last $25 was obtained and placed in the treasurer's hands 
immediately on the adjournment of the Board. Thus was com- 
pleted, as it was supposed, by far the most difficult part of the en- 
terprise. All the cash means of the society had now been exhausted ; 


about $11,000 dollars had been raised) and to extend the effort yet 
further, under the circumstances, seemed to be quite impossible. 
Up to. this time nothing had been done towards the building, and 
after paying for the instrument, not one dollar remained in 
cash to commence the erection of a building which must cost, at 
the lowest estimate, $5000 or $6000. Some $2000 or $3000 had 
been subscribed, payable in work and materials. Owing to a slight 
change in the plan of the building, the foundation walls already laid 
in the Fall of 1843 were taken up. and relaid. Finding it quite 
impossible to induce any master-workman to take the contract for 
the building, with the many contingencies by which our affairs 
were surrounded, I determined to hire workmen by the day, and 
superintend the erection of the building personally. In attempt- 
ing to contract for the delivery of brick on the summit of Mount 
Adams, such an enormous price was demanded for the hauling, in 
consequence of the steepness of the hill, that all idea of a brick 
building was at once abandoned, and it was determined to build 
of limestone, an abundance of which could be found on the grounds 
of the quarry. Having matured my plans, securing the occasional 
assistance of a carpenter, about the beginning of June, 1844, I 
hired two masons, one of whom was to receive an extra sum for 
hiring the hands, keeping their time, and acting as the master- 
workman. One tender to these workmen constituted the entire 
force with which I commenced the erection of the building, which, 
if prosecuted in the same humble manner, would have required 
about twenty years for its completion. And yet our title-bond 
required that the building should be finished in the following June, 
or a forfeiture of the title by which we hold the present beautiful 
site must follow. My master-mason seemed quite confounded 
when told that he must commence work with such a force. In 
the outset difficulties were thick and obstinate. Exorbitant charges 
were made for delivering lime. I at once commenced the build- 
ing of a lime-kiln, and in a few days had the satisfaction of seeing 
it well filled, and on fire. True, rt caved in once or twice, with 
other little accidents, but a full supply of lime was obtained, and 
at a cheap rate. Sand was the next item, for which the most ex- 
travagant charges were made. I found this so ruinous that an 
effort was made, and finally I obtained permission, to open a sand- 
pit, which had long been closed for fear of caving down a house, 
on the side of the hill above, by further excavation. 

An absolute refusal was at first given, but systematic persever- 
ance again succeeded, and the pit was re-opened. The distance 
was comparatively short, but the price of mere hauling was so 
great that I was forced to purchase horses, and in not a few in- 
stances to fill the carts with my own hands, and actually drive , 
them to the top of the hill, thus demonstrating practically how 
many loads could be fairly made in a day. Another difficulty 
yet remained ; no water could be found nearer than the foot of the 
hill, half a mile distant, and to haul the water so great a distance 
would have cost a large sum. I selected one of the deepest ravines 
on the hill-top, and throwing a dam across, while it was actually 


raining, I bad the pleasure of seeing it fill rapidly from the bill- 
sides, and in this way an abundant supply was obtained for the 
mixing of mortar, at a very moderate expense of hauling. 

Thus prepared, the building was commenced, with two masons 
and one tender during the first week ; at the close of the week I 
had raised sufficient funds to pay off my hands, and directed the 
foreman to employ for the following week two additional masons 
and a tender ; to supply this force with material, several hands were 
required in the quarry, in the lime-kiln, and in the sand-pit, all of 
whom were hired by the day, to be paid half cash, and the balance 
in trade. During all this time I may remark that I was discharging 
my duties as Professor of Mathematics and Philosophy in the Cincin- 
nati College, and teaching five hours in each day. Before eight 
o'clock in the morning, I had visited all my workmen in the build- 
ing, in the lime-kiln, sand-pit and stone quarry. At that hour my 
duties in the college commenced, and closed at one. By two 
o'clock, P. M., I was again with my workmen, or engaged in rais- 
ing the means of paying them on Saturday night. The third week 
the number of hands was again doubled ; the fourth week produced 
a like increase, until finally not less than fifty day laborers were 
actually engaged in the erection of the Cincinnati Observatory. 
Each Saturday night exhausted all my funds, but I commenced the 
next week in the full confidence that industry and perseverance 
would work out their legitimate results. To raise the cash means 
required was the great difficulty. I have frequently made four 
or five trades to turn my due bills, payable in trade, into cash. I 
have not imfrequently gone to individuals and sold them their own 
due bills payable in merchandise, for cash, by making a discount, 
The i;>ork merchants paid me cash for my due bills, payable in bar- 
rels and lard kegs, and in this way I managed to obtain sufficient 
cash means to prosecute the work vigorously during the months of 
July and August, and in September I had the satisfaction to seethe 
building up and covered, without having incurred one dollar of 
debt. At one period, I presume one hundred hands were employed 
at the same time in the prosecution of the work. More than fifty 
hands on the hill, and as many in the city, in the various workshops, 
paying their subscription by work for different parts of the build- 
ing. The doors were in the hands of one carpenter, the window 
frames in those of another ; a third was employed on the sash ; a 
painter took them from the joiner, and in turn delivered them to 
a glazier, while a carpenter paid his stock by hanging them, with 
weights purchased by stock, and with cords obtained in the same 
way. Many locks were furnished by our own townsmen in pay- 
ment of their subscriptions. Lumber, sawing, flooring, roofing, 
painting, mantels, steps, hearths, hardware, lathing, doors, windows, 
glass, and painting were in like manner obtained. At the begin- 
ning of each week my master carpenter generally gave me a bill 
of lumber and materials wanted during the week. In case they 
had not been already subscribed, the stock book was resorted to, 
and there was no relaxing of effort until the necessary articles were 
obtained. If a tier of joists were wanted, the saw mills were visited, 


and in some instances the joists for the same floor came from two 
or three different mills. 

On covering the building, the great crowd of hands employed as 
masons, tenders, lime burners, quarry men, sand and water men, 
Were paid off and discharged, and it now seemed that the heavy 
pressure was passed, and that we might again breathe free, after 
the responsibility of such heavy weekly payments was removed. 


Me. Editoe : — I like the name of your monthly. It stands as a 
protest against a certain innovation which should be exterminated, 
for we are in danger soon of having no firesides ! It is the fashion 
up here in the country to build houses without fire-places, and to 
such an extent is this carried, that, in order to be fashionable, many 
have taken down the chimneys and removed their fire-places, just 
putting a chimney on the top! But 'what right has a house to a 
chimney on its top, if it have not a fire-place in its body ? This is 
carrying false colors — it is telling a lie with brick and mortar ! 
And how can there be a fireside without a fire-place ? Do you say 
the stove or the furnace will supply the deficiency ? Never ! 
They are gloomy and cheerless in comparison with the great big 
fire-place and the roaring fire of the olden times ! -Besides, there 
is no ventilation in these country farm-houses without fire-places,, 
There is a want of pure air — a superabundance of steam and bad 
breath ! Hence the health must suffer. As editor of a health- 
journal, I hope you will protest against this innovation. The man 
who builds a house without a fire-place is mad, or has some evil 
design against his family, for he is dooming his household to miser- 
able ill-health, as well as robbing them of the cheerful fireside, 
where parents and children, brothers and sisters, friends and kin- 
dred, may meet with thankfulness and joy, while the cheerful fire 
blazes on the hearth ! 

Alas ! we have no hearths now ! Hence, family ties are weak- 
ened, and that blissful word, home, awakens not the joy that once 
it did ? I speak of the country, and if your readers would see 
a right old-fashioned fire-place, and a roaring fire after the old-time 
fashion, let them visit my father's ( - kitchen ! There he may see 
them ; for my mother would as soon tolerate a locomotive in her 
kitchen as a stove, and a house without a fire-place would be 

miltT)n's domestic habi rs. 

deemed by her unfit for any thing but a barn, and in this opinion 
I think she would be right ! 

.If your Journax of He alth will save to us some of our firesides, 
and make them cheerful and happy, I shall be glad. Your read- 
ers, however, must remember that to be happy they must be 
good. W. J. M. 




At his meals he never took much wine or any other fermented 
liquor, and he was not fastidious in his food ; yet his taste seems to 
have been delicate and refined, like his other senses, and he had a 
preference for such viands as were of an agreeable flavor. In his 
early years he used to sit up late at his studies, and perhaps he 
continued this practice while his sight was good ; but in his latter 
years he retired every night at 9 o'clock, and lay till 4 in summer, 
and 5 in winter, and, if not disposed then to rise, he had some one 
to sit at his bedside and read to him. When he rose he had a 
chapter of the Hebrew Bible read to him, and then, with of course 
the intervention of breakfast, studied till 12. He then dined, took 
some exercise for an hour — generally in a chair, in which he used 
to swing himself — and afterward played on the organ or the bass- 
viol, and either sang himself or made his wife sing, who, as he said, 
had a good voice but no ear. He then resumed his studies till 6, 
from which hour till 8 he conversed with those who came to visit 
him. He finally took a light supper, smoked a pipe of tobacco, 
and drank a glass of water, after which he retired to rest. . . . 
Like many other poets, Milton found the stillness, warmth, and 
recumbency of bed favorable to composition ; and his wife said 
that before rising of a morning he often dictated to her twenty or 
thirty verses. A favorite position of his when dictating his verses, 
we are told, was that of sitting with one of his legs over an arm of 
his chair. His wife related that he used to compose chiefly in the 
winter, which account is confirmed by the following passage in his 
life by Phillips : " There is a remarkable passage in the composi- 
tion of Paradise Lost which I have a particular occasion to remem- 
ber : for, whereas I had the perusal of it from the very beginning, 
for some weeks, as I went from time to time to visit him, in a 
parcel of ten, twenty, or thirty verses at a time, which, being 
written by whatever hand came next, might possibly want correc- 
tion as to the orthography and pointing ; having, as the summer 


came on, not been shown any for a considerable while, and desir- 
ing to know the reason thereof, was answered that ' his veins never 
happily flowed but from the autumnal equinox to the vernal, and 
that whatever he attempted (at other times) was never to his satis- 
faction, though he courted his fancy never so much ;' so that in all 
the years he was about this poem, he may be said to have spent 
but half his time therein. Milton's conversation is stated to have 
been of a very agreeable nature. His daughter Deborah said that 
he was ' delightful company, the life of the conversation, and that 
on account of a flow of subject, and an unaffected cheerfulness and 
civility.' Richardson, to whom we are indebted for the preserva- 
tion of this testimony, adds that ' he had a gravity in his temper, 
not melancholy — or not till the latter part of his life — not sour, not 
morose nor ill-natured, but a certain severity of mind ; a mind not 
condescending to little things.' " 



In 1796 I heard the farmer referred to narrate the following 
incident : " When the British army had possession of New York, 
and Washington with the American army was encamped near 
West Point, I went out one morning at sunrise to bring home 
the cows ; on passing a clump of brushwood I heard a moaning 
sound, as from a person in distress. On nearing the spot I heard 
the words of a man at prayer. I listened from behind a tree. 
When he came forth I found it was Washington." This farmer 
was a member of the Society of Friends, who, being opposed to 
war under any pretext, were lukewarm, and in some cases opposed 
the Revolution. This man was himself a Tory. Having seen the 
General enter the camp, he went to his own house and said to his 
wife : " Martha ! we must not oppose this war any longer. This 
morning I heard the man George Washington send up a prayer 
to Heaven for his country, and I know it will be heard." 

This Friend dwelt between the lines of the two armies, and sub- 
sequently gave Washington many items concerning the movements 
of the enemy which rendered good service to the American cause.- 
From this incident it may be inferred that Washington rose with 
the sun to pray for his country, fought for her at meridian, and 
watched for her at midnight. 



We always suspect errors in domestic training, when we find 
children preferring all other places to home. Parents should throw 
around the home circle a magnetism to be found nowhere else, A 
pleasant and loved home is one of the most powerful restraints from 
vice, and keeps alive within the heart pure thoughts and generous 
aspirations. We find some good thoughts on this point in Life 

" A child may as easily be led to associate pleasure with home 
ideas as to think of it in connection with the home of his playmates. 
Certainly, if allowed to- do so, he can as readily connect happiness 
with parents, brothers, and sisters, as with those of other kin. And 
the child will do so unless happiness and pleasure, when he calls for 
them under the parental roof, respond c Not at home !' All home 
pictures should be bright ones. The domestic hearth should be 
clean and joyous. 

" If home life is well ordered, the children having, according to 
age, work-time, play-time, books, games, and household sympathies, 
they will love home, and find pleasure there. 

" Give the little ones slates and pencils, and encourage their at- 
tempts to make pictures. Drawing will amuse them when noisy 
plays have lost their zest, or are unseasonable ; and the art will be 
useful to them in all the business of after life. Have them read to 
each other stories and paragraphs of your selection, and save the 
funny things and the pleasant ones you see in papers and books, to 
read to them at your leisure. You cannot imagine how much it 
will please them, and how it will bind them to you. But choose 
well for them, "for the impression made on their minds now will 
last when the hills crumble. Have them sing together, and sing 
with them, teaching them songs and hymns. Let them sing all 
day, like the birds, at all proper times. Have them mutually in- 
terested in the same things, amusements, and occupations ; having 
specified times for each so that their habits will be orderly. Let 
them work together — knitting and sewing — both boys and girls. 
They enjoy it equally unless the boys are taught that it is unmanly 
to understand girls' work. They should know how to do it, and 
practically, too, as thereby they may avoid much discomfort in fu- 
ture fife. Let them work together in the garden — boys and girls 
— both need out-of-door work. Together let them enjoy their 
games, riddles, etc. ; all their plays, books, and work, while the 


parents' eyes direct and sympathize, and their voices blend in lov 
ing accord. Have the children do some little things, daily, for 
your personal comfort ; let them see that it gives you pleasure, and 
that you depend on them for the service. This will attach them 
to you more strongly ; and if they feel responsibility, even in mat- 
ters of themselves trivial, and are sure of your sympathy, their 
affections and joys will cluster around the home hearth. 

" Children like to be useful — it makes them happy. So give them 
work-time as well as play-time. But in any case, and in all cases, 
give them sympathy. Express love for them." 

Moke than building showy mansion, 

More than dress and fine array, 
More than domes or lofty steeples, 

More than station, power, and sway, 
Make your home both neat and tasteful, 

Bright and pleasant, always fair, 
Where each heart shall rest contented, 

Grateful for each beauty there. 

More than lofty, swelling titles, 

More than fashion's luring glare, 
More than mammon's gilded honors, 

More than thought can well compare, 
See that home is made attractive 

By surroundings pure and bright, 
Trees arranged with taste and order, 

Flowers, with all their sweet delight. 

Seek to make your home most lovely : 

Let it be a smiling spot, 
Where, in sweet contentment resting, 

Care and sorrow are forgot ; 
Where the flowers and trees are waving 

Birds will sing their sweetest songs, 
Where the purest thoughts will linger, 

Confidence and love belongs. 

Make your home a little Eden ; 

Imitate her smiling bowers ; 
Let a neat and simple cottage 

Stand among bright trees and flowers. 


Tliere, what fragrance and what brightness 

Will each blooming rose display, 
Here a simple vine-clad arbor 

Brightens through each summer day. 

There each heart will rest contented, 

Seldom wishing far to roam, 
Or, if 'roaming, still will cherish 

Mem'ries of that pleasant home ; 
Such a home makes man the better, 

Pure and lasting its control ; 
Home with pure and bright surroundings 

Leaves its impress on the soul. AnOjS. 



The indifference and even contempt with which the marriage tie 
is too often treated in the United States, is producing its natural 
fruit. The manner in which it is protected ih England furnishes an 
example, in some respects, which we might advantageously follow 
— especially as it relates to the rites of what is absurdly called the 
solemnization of marriage by our petty magistrates, without the 
possibility of their knowing whether the parties are not already 
guilty of bigamy. Our popular journals, which are fond of gather- 
ing up all the details of crim. con., divorce, and elopement, bear a 
sad testimony to the little resp'ect paid to conjugal obligations. 
" Wife-murder " is now an established heading in the tragic column 
of our city papers. , 

The different modes of marriage allowed in Engla*nd and Wales 
are as follows : 

1. According to the rites of the Established Church. 

2. In registered places of worship, belonging to the Dissenting 
bodies, Roman Catholics, etc. 

3. In the District Register's office. 

4. Among the Quakers and Jews, according to their respective 
" usages." 

Under each of these heads, there are certain forms required. In 
the Church of England, tbere maybe granted : 1. A special license, 
which can be granted only by the Archbishop of- Canterbury, and 
which permits the marriage "at any convenient time and place." 
This cost3 a heavy fee, and there is not more than an average of 


eleven marriages under it in a year. 2. The common ecclesiastical 
license granted by a surrogate for marriage in the parish church, or 
in some public chapel, within the jurisdiction of which one of the 
parties must have resided for at least fifteen days. The marriage 
may follow immediately on the granting of the license. Without 
any previous notice, the parties may apply and be married within' 
the hour. 3. For marriage after the publication of bans, they must 
be proclaimed on three Sundays in the parish church, and if they 
reside in different parishes, in the church of each. 

Among Dissenters, marriage may be solemnized either by "license 
or by certificate, both of which must be obtained from the Super- 
intendent Registrar. Notice, in prescribed form, must be given to 
that officer, who records it in a " notice book," which is open for 
inspection one whole day, after which the license is granted. 
Either of the parties may obtain it, but one of them must have re- 
sided fifteen days in the district. Notice in one district is sufficient, 
where they have different residences. ■ 

The marriage may be solemnized at the usual place of worship of 
one of the parties, outside of the district, but within two miles of it, 
and they may go into "another district, when there is no registered 
place of worship in their own. The same freedom is allowed with 
respect to marriages in Dissenting chapels by certificate, in which 
case the notice thereof must be affixed in the Registrar's office for 
twenty-one days after the record of the particulars in the " notice f 
marriage book; and then the certificate may issue. Only seven 
days' residence is necessary before giving notice of marriage with- 
out license. 

Marriages are performed in the Register's office on the produc- 
tion of the license or certificate. The presence of the Superintend- 
ent Registrar, as well as that of a Registrar of marriages, is requi- 
site, and both officers must sign the register. 

No marriage by certificate can be solemnized in a church or 
chapel without the consent of the officiating minister. 

Jews may marry with or without license, either in a synagogue 
or private dwelling, and at any hour, of the day ; the Quakers also 
without license, in one of their meeting-houses, between the hours 
of eight and twelve. 

The reason why Quakers (and the same, probably, with Jews) 
are exempted from the legal forms required for other sects, is that 
their own forms, which constitute a part of their religious system, 
and to the observance of which they are bound by -conscientious 
scruples, as well as by their internal discipline, fully supply all the 
guards and requirements of the law. 



On Saturday the eighth day of October, 1864, a rich man was taken to his grave 
from the city of New York, where, by a life of industry, temperance, economy, 
and the exercise of a sound judgment, he had acquired a large estate ; not suddenly, 
but in the progress of thirty years. From- some obscure cause, he became a great 
sufferer from general neuralgia. A physician was called, but in the progress of 
weeks, did not afford the invalid that speedy and decided relief, which he and his 
friends so much desired. He wanted more potential remedies, and was not wil- 
ling to submit to those restraints to system and rule in living, which the experi- 
ence of years had taught his medical attendant were of the highest value ulti- 
mately. Another physician was called in, who advised a different course of pro- 
cedure. He said the man needed strength and flesh and vigor ; that these could 
only be secured by a generous diet and a liberal allowance of stimulants at every 
meal. Roast beef and the best brandy were regularly provided : the neuralgia 
was steadily abating and a speedy restoration was looked for. Still, days passed 
on, and gentlemen calling at his counting house were informed that, The Head of 
the firm was "out of town." This answered very well for a while, but] a gen- 
tleman who had large business engagements with the invalid, found it absolutely ne- 
cessary to save a ruinous loss, to have a personal interview; after a variety of obstacles 
were overcome the rich man was found at his own home in the city, the victim of 
the most fearful form of Delirium Tremens. Brandy had given relief ; but it was 
soon found that unless it wa3 administered more frequently, and in larger quanti- 
ties the pains would return, hence there was an unbridled indulgence in the rem- 
edy, the result being, that at the end of a few weeks, it was found necessary to 
keep the patient alu ays under the influence of liquor, that is, always drunk ; at length 
however, the outraged stomach refused to retain the fiery stimulant a single moment, 
while for want of it a raving delirium sat in, ending in unconsciousness and death, 
before the business could be consummated by his intelligent signature. Here was 
a man who, temperate all his life, had died a drunkard's death as the result of an 
unwise medical prescription, the fashionable and almost universal prescription of a 
certain class of so called "Doctors," of "Bourbon "Whiskey;" and there are thou- 
sands of deluded persons of every age and sex, especially in New England, on the 
same road to ruin. A few years ago, cod liver oil was given for everything ; now 
it is Brandy. Shame on the medical colleges of the land, which send out annually 
so many incompetent and unprincipled graduates. 

The American Tract Society, 150 Nassau Street, New- York, has published a 
12 mo. of 300 pages^on " Christian Home Life," a book of examples and principles 
which is full of rich instruction for every parent and child in our country; also 
"Walter Martin, or the Factory, the School and the Camp;" " Madeline," by Rose 
Elmwood, is a sweet little book about farm life, a new home, a financial crisis, the 
drunkard's family, &c; " The Bloom of Youth ; or Worthy Examples," selected by 
the late Rev. Joseph Belcher; "Little Lucy of the West;" "A Little More;" 
''The Color Bearer;" " Rules for Holy Living, with questions for self examina- 
tion ; " Sixty Years in Sin," by Rev. Chas. J. Jones ; " Something for the Locker," 
by Rev. Dr. J. B. Waterbury ; " Remember," a word for soldiers, by Rev. A. W. 
Henderson, Chaplain of the 13th Illinois Cavalry, are all well worthy of being pur- 
chasedjas Christmas presents to children and our brave and self-denying soldiers' in 
the field. But the most enduring and pleasure giving book of them all is entitled 
" Songs of Zion," the words on one page, the music on the other. It contains 200 
pieces of music, for 75cts. The habitual singing of these hymns would bring 
blessings and happiness to any household. 

"Blind Annie Lorimer" is a touching narration, and will mellow every heart 
which reads it ; issued by the Presbyterian Board of Publication, 821 Chestnut St. 
Philadelphia, and by the Carter Brothers, 580 Broadway, New- York. 

The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible House, New 
York have published "A Soldier of the Cumberland," with his portrait, being a 
memoir of Mead Holmes, jr., Sergeant of Company K. 21st Wisconsin Vol-, by his 
Father, with an introduction by that eminent scholar and forcible writer, John S. 
Hart, L.L.D., a book full of facts and written in tears, deserving a wide circulation 
in the army ; as alsa " How to be a Hero," by E. L E. "John Ereeman and his 
Family" is full of fun, as premonished by the dancing individuals in the title page. 

"Diseases of the Throat and Lungs, their pathology, symptoms, &c," by H.J. 
Phillips, M.D., of the University of St. Andrews and Member of the Eoyal College 
of London, &c. &c, 70 pages 8vo, sent post-paid for fifty cents. The book contains 
much information of practical value to intelligent readers ; it very properly does 
not pretend to show invalides how to cure themselves, but rather informs them ot 
the nature, causes, symptoms and general principles of cure, of the various ail- 
ments peculiar to the respiratory organs. Those who have not read much on those 
subjects will find a great deal that is instructive in this well got up publication. 

"Together." Mr. Carlton will issue for the Holidays a new novel by the 
writer of " Olie " and "Nepenthe." Pure in its teachings, powerful in its delinea- 
tions, the intelligent and the good will everywhere give it a hearty greeting. The 
loving and beautiful tribute which it gives to Professor Mitchel, should commend 
it to the perusal of every one of the tens of thousands who has been thrilled with 
the eloquence of the great astronomer and the noblest hero of his time. 

The Next Year. The subjects which will be treated of in the Journal of 
Health for 1865 will be found on another page, under the heading of " 200 Health 
Tracts," of which there will be about twenty in each number during the year; be- 
sides other reading adapted to the times and seasons. Single Nos. Fifteen Cents, 
post-paid. Subscription price One Dollar and a half a year. Address, 

Hall's Journal of Health, No. 12 Union Square, New- York. 

Better than Turkeys ! A New Englander writes for a quantity of the Soldier's 
Number of Hall's Journal of Health (Nov. 1864) saying " I hope the self-sacrificing 
soldiers will all have an abundant Thanksgiving dinner of Turkey and I intended to 
contribute, but after reading the Journal which wife and I praise and give thanks for 
the manner and matter of every number, wife says " Why not send the Journal, while 
others send the Turkies." "I will:" it will do them a lasting good, and may be 
the means of saving many lives." 

Surgery. Attention is called to Professor Daniels' advertisement. 

Bound Vols of 1864 are sent post paid for S1.50 or will be exchanged for the loose 
numbei s of 1864 for forty cents, missing Nos. for lOcts. Subscribers who have failed 
to receive any No. will be supplied without charge. 

Great Accomodation. Persons at a distance who want anything purchased in the 
city and forwarded promptly at a small percentage on its cost can address Henry B. 
Price . 455 Broadway, New- York, whose business energy and integrity is well known. 

The January No. of Hall's Journal of Health will contain articles on Inconsiderate 
Things, Healtkfulness of Frui's, Poisonous Bites, How to cure a Cold, Causes of dis- 
ease, Burying alive. Care of the Eyes, Travelling hints, Music Healthful, Young old 
people, Dyspeptia, Drunkenness, Uses of Ice, Ptules for Winter, Walking Erectly, 
Manly carriage, Sleeping posture, Winter Shoes, Cure for Corns, To grow beautiful, 
MeasleR.Consnmption, Sab.Physiology, Best hair wash,Wearing flannel, health a duty. 

je^Oue of the Finest Country Seats on the east bank of the Hudson,of forty acres,for 
$30,000 00, in perfect order, including furniture. Apply to W.W.Hall,12 Union So... N.5T. 


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